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Free surface oscillations in a narrow gap between elongated parallel bodies are studied numerically. As this represents both a highly resonant system and an arrangement of relevance to offshore operations, the nature of the damping is of primary interest, and has a critical role in determining the response. Previous experimental work has suggested that the damping could be attributed to laminar boundary layers; here our numerical wave tank successfully resolves both wave and boundary layer scales to provide strong numerical evidence in support of this conclusion. The simulations follow the experiments in using wave groups so that the computation is tractable, and both linear and second harmonic excitation of the gap are demonstrated.
Deep CCD imaging of the Serpens bipolar nebula shows it to be surrounded by molecular cloud material having spiral density structure. Polarization mapping indicates that the magnetic field in this material also exhibits spiral structure and we interpret this as the remains of the magnetically-braked collapse of a protostellar cloud. A binary star system has formed in the cloud core.
This paper explores the design of biometric authentication in the context of a single user that has enrolled in multiple (distinct) authentication systems. The compromise of some subset of these systems will generally impact both the privacy of the user's biometric information and the security of the balance of the systems. In this work we consider how to design the systems jointly to minimize losses in privacy and security in the case of such compromise. It turns out that there is a tension between the two objectives, resulting in a privacy/security tradeoff.We introduce worst-case privacy and security measures, and consider the tradeoff between them, in the context of the “secure sketch” architecture. Secure sketch systems are based on error correction codes, and the considerations of joint design that we pose result in a novel code design problem. We first study the design problem algebraically and identify an equivalence with a type of subspace packing problem. While the packing problem fully characterizes the design space, it does not yield an explicit characterization. We then turn to a “fixed-basis” subspace of the general design space. We map a relaxed version of the fixed-basis design problem to a linear program which, after exploiting much symmetry, leads to an explicit tradeoff between security and privacy. While we show that fixed-basis designs are restrictive in terms of the achievable privacy/security tradeoffs, they have the advantage of being easily mapped to existing codes (e.g., low-density parity check codes), and thence to immediate deployment. Finally, we conjecture that the achievable privacy/security tradeoff of fixed-basis designs is characterized by an extremely simple analytic expression, one that matches our numerical results.
The goal of an authentication system is to ensure that only legitimate individuals gain access to a secured resource or area. Increasingly popular are methods of authentication that use biometric data – unique information present in a person's physical attributes. An example of such a biometric system is a laptop-mounted fingerprint scanner, or an iris scanner at an airport.
Toxoplasmosis affects a third of the global population and is of particular concern for immunologically compromised individuals. Toxoplasmosis induces host physiological events ranging from immunological to metabolic responses across multiple biological compartments. To understand the sequence of host responses during acute and chronic Toxoplasma gondii infection, eight male BALB/c mice were infected with 2000 T. gondii ME49 tachyzoites with a further eight uninfected mice used as controls. Plasma cytokines status, urinary metabolic profiling and fecal microbial profiles were characterized to monitor temporal variation related to T. gondii infection. The results showed elevated serum interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-12p40 and necrosis factor-α during acute phase of infection with concomitant perturbation in host energy metabolism and host-gut microbiome co-metabolism of phenolics and a shift in microbial composition. However, the differences were less pronounced during the putative chronic phase of infection with elevated IFN-γ, differences in urinary N-acetyls and O-acetyls of glycoproteins with no shift in gut microbial composition. Structural equation modelling on the current data showed host immune responses as the main driver for changes observed in urinary metabolites and gut microbial composition. Such an approach can be applied to other models of infectious diseases to aid understanding of host–pathogen interactions and potential biomarker discovery.
Although wind and tidal turbines operate in turbulent shear flow, most theoretical results concerning turbine performance, such as the well-known Betz limit, assume the upstream velocity profile is uniform. To improve on these existing results we extend the classical actuator disc model in this paper to investigate the performance of an ideal turbine in steady, inviscid shear flow. The model is developed on the assumption that there is negligible lateral interaction in the flow passing through the disc and that the actuator applies a uniform resistance across its area. With these assumptions, solution of the model leads to two key results. First, for laterally unbounded shear flow, it is shown that the normalised power extracted is the same as that for an ideal turbine in uniform flow, if the average of the cube of the upstream velocity of the fluid passing through the turbine is used in the normalisation. Second, for a laterally bounded shear flow, it is shown that the same normalisation can be applied, but allowance must also be made for the fact that non-uniform flow bypassing the turbine alters the background pressure gradient and, in turn, the turbines ‘effective blockage’ (so that it may be greater or less than the geometric blockage, defined as the ratio of turbine disc area to cross-sectional area of the flow). Predictions based on the extended model agree well with numerical simulations approximating the incompressible Euler equations. The model may be used to improve interpretation of model-scale results for wind and tidal turbines in tunnels/flumes, to investigate the variation in force across a turbine and to update existing theoretical models of arrays of tidal turbines.
The presence or absence of dwarf galaxies with Mr' > -14 in low-density volumes correlates with dark matter halos and how they affect galaxy formation. We are conducting a redshifted Hα imaging survey for dwarf galaxies with Mr' > -13 in the heart of the well-defined voids FN2 and FN8 using the KPNO 4m Mayall telescope and Mosaic Imager. These data have furnished over 600 strong candidates in a four square degree area. Follow-up spectra finding none of these candidates to be within the void volumes will constrain the dwarf population there to be 2 to 8% of the cosmic mean. Conversely, finding even one Hα dwarf in the void heart will challenge several otherwise successful theories of large-scale structure formation.
We use a WISE-2MASS-Pan-STARRS1 galaxy catalog to search for a supervoid in the direction of the Cosmic Microwave Background Cold Spot. We obtain photometric redshifts using our multicolor data set to create a tomographic map of the galaxy distribution. The radial density profile centred on the Cold Spot shows a large low density region, extending over 10's of degrees. Motivated by previous Cosmic Microwave Background results, we test for underdensities within two angular radii, 5°, and 15°. Our data, combined with an earlier measurement by Granett et al. 2010, are consistent with a large Rvoid=(192 ± 15)h−1 Mpc (2σ) supervoid with δ ≃ −0.13 ± 0.03 centered at z=0.22 ± 0.01. Such a supervoid, constituting a ∼3.5 σ fluctuation in the ΛCDM model, is a plausible cause for the Cold Spot.
In this paper we extend linear momentum actuator disc theory to consider two rows of tidal turbines placed in a centred or staggered arrangement. The extensions assume a streamwise spacing between rows that is sufficient for pressure equalization, but is not too large for significant mixing of the upstream turbine wake before the second row. We first consider a given number of turbines in a tidal channel; in this case the average power for a staggered arrangement over two rows is found to be higher than that for a centred arrangement, but lower than can be obtained by placing all turbines side-by-side in one row (if all turbines have the same local resistance). Furthermore, staggered arrangements extract power more efficiently than centred arrangements, but less efficiently than a single row with the same number of turbines, and this has implications for ranking different arrangements of tidal turbines. We also use the extended actuator disc models (together with an argument of scale separation) to consider some example arrangements of tidal turbines in laterally unconfined flow. Specifically, it is shown that locally staggering a fixed number of turbines in an array to form a tidal farm generates less power than placing the same number of turbines side-by-side. However, if more than one row of turbines is adopted (perhaps to keep the farm spatially compact) then the optimum turbine spacing within a row increases significantly with addition of a second row. This trend suggests that multi-row tidal turbine farms would require wide turbine spacing within each row to maximize the power per turbine, similarly to existing offshore wind farms.
Criteria for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) consider impairment in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) as exclusionary, but cross-sectional studies suggest that some high-level functional deficits are present in MCI. This longitudinal study examines informant-rated IADL in MCI, compared with cognitively normal (CN) older individuals, and explores whether functional abilities, particularly those with high cognitive demand, are predictors of MCI and dementia over a 2-year period in individuals who were CN at baseline.
A sample of 602 non-demented community dwelling individuals (375 CN and 227 with MCI) aged 70–90 years underwent baseline and 24-month assessments that included cognitive and medical assessments and an interview with a knowledgeable informant on functional abilities with the Bayer Activities of Daily Living Scale.
Significantly more deficits in informant-reported IADL with high cognitive demand were present in MCI compared with CN individuals at baseline and 2-year follow-up. Functional ability in CN individuals at baseline, particularly in activities with high cognitive demand, predicted MCI and dementia at follow-up. Difficulties with highly cognitively demanding activities specifically predicted amnestic MCI but not non-amnestic MCI whereas those with low cognitive demand did not predict MCI or dementia. Age, depressive symptoms, cardiovascular risk factors and the sex of the informant did not contribute to the prediction.
IADL are affected in individuals with MCI, and IADL with a high cognitive demand show impairment predating the diagnosis of MCI. Subtle cognitive impairment is therefore likely to be a major hidden burden in society.
Following nanosecond-duration laser surface-melting, lattice locations of illIn probe atoms in Ni and Pt samples were studied using the technique of perturbed gamma-gamma angular correlations (PAC). After melting and annealing, no probe atoms were observed to become associated with unique vacancy clusters observed after other methods of damaging, while many probe atoms were found on non-unique sites. 111In probe atoms were observed to move to the surface and to be expelled at anomalously low temperatures. These observations are partially reconciled by the hypothesis that probe atoms diffusing in the molten surface layer become trapped on dislocations during resolidification, and during later annealing return to the surface via pipe diffusion.
Films of Ta metal on uranium and of Ir metal on tantalum have been
irradiated and melted by pulses from Q-switched Ruby and frequency-doubled
Nd:YAG lasers to investigate the nature of the resulting mixtures in light
of the very different binary-phase diagrams of the two systems. In addition,
a two-phase Ir-Ta alloy has been surface-processed with CW CO2
-laser radiation and with an electron beam in order to study microstructure
refinement and test the advantage of using alloys as opposed to
film-on-substrate combinations for the developement of claddings.
Fourier series solutions have been obtained for the temperature distributions in melt spinning cooling belts and drums. These solutions have been used to determine drum and belt designs for producing 0.050 inch steel sheet. This paper discusses thermal design parameters for cooling drums used in melt spinning rapid solidification.
Energetics and structure of germania doped silica prepared from high temperature melts and by flame hydrolysis were investigated using transposed temperature drop and solution calorimetry. Heat contents (H973-H298) are similar for first and second drops for the flame hydrolysis preforms reflecting the effect of temperature of deposition (1073 K) in creating a relaxed structure which is not easily rearranged. Heats of solution, at 973 K in molten lead borate, of fused glasses along the SiO2-GeO2 binary show ideal heats of mixing between the endmembers. This'indicates that fused glasses behave in a simple manner, with ideal substitution of Ge for Si in the tetrahedral framework. Flame hydrolysis samples (preform and annealed glasses) also show ideal heats of mixing. This suggests that the flame hydrolysis materials are energetically very similar to their bulk-melted counterparts. This insensitivity of energetics to preparation conditions is consistent with our previous studies on silica prepared at various temperatures .
This paper presents the results of a systematic TEM investigation to understand the chemical, morphological and microstructural makeup of photoresist residues following oxygen plasma ashing. The investigation was carried out on generic non-product control wafers and product wafers with a view to help aid in the identification of a suitable post-ashing cleaning process. Specimens in planview were prepared by mechanical grinding and Argon ion milling from the substrate end of the sample. Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (EDS) was used to obtain the composition and selected area electron diffraction (SAD) was used to obtain information on crystallinity. The residues were essentially amorphous and were found to be arsenic-rich in composition and exhibited a dropletlike morphology decorating areas where the photoresist was used as an implantation mask. In addition, hexagonally shaped crystals and spherical particulates of varying dimensions were seen in several regions and were found to be carbon rich.
Surface layers of Ni crystals have been melted with Q-switched Nd-YAG laser radiation. The epitaxially regrown surface layers show significant differences between 〈100〉 and 〈111〉 crystals cut from the same boule. The 〈100〉 crystals exhibit a dislocation cell structure with a dislocation density of l011 - 1012 cm-2. The 〈111〉 crystals contain a laterally uniform dislocation network resulting in a much higher dislocation density for the 〈111〉 surface. The elements Ag, Au, Pd, Sn and Ta have been implanted into Ni single crystals at surface concentrations of up to 20 at %. All the as- implanted systems demonstrate solid solubility. We have used these implanted systems to study the alloys formed by laser melting of Ni. In all systems, with the exception of Ag, 100% of the atoms are trapped on lattice sites.