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A method was described for determining the thickness of epitaxical thin films common to electronic materials. The equations were developed based on the kinematical theory of X-ray diffraction and effects of both primary and secondary extinctions were considered. As an example of the applications of this method, thickness measurement of AlGaAs thin films on GaAs was demonstrated. These films were grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The integrated reflected intensities from the film and the substrate were obtained by the X-ray double crystal diffractometer. An excellent agreement was obtained between the results from X-ray measurements and RHEED oscillation data.
Epitaxial AIN thin films grown on sapphire, silicon and silicon carbide substrates were studied using x-ray double crystal diffractometry and transmission electron microscopy to compare the structure, residual stress and defect concentration in these thin films. The AIN thin films was found to have a wurtzite type of structure with a small distortion in lattice parameters which results in a small residual stress of the order of 109 dynes/cm2 in the film. The strain due to lattice parameter mismatch between the substrate and film is too small to account for the residual stress present. The calculated stress from the difference in thermal expansion coefficients between the film and substrate agrees well with the experimental values. Both the x-ray and transmission electron microscopy measurements indicate a low defect density in the AIN thin film grown on 6H-SiC substrate which could be attributed to the small difference in lattice parameters between AIN and 6H-SiC. The defect density in the AIN thin film grown on other substrates were considerably higher. This is the first report of the successful growth of single crystal AIN thin films with such a low concentration of defect density.
The Acrididæ are characterised by a very uniform karyotype. With a few exceptions, the species so far studied contain 23 chromosomes in the male, which are very similar in size and structure. Attempts to deduce the probable mechanism of speciation within the Acrididæ were restricted only to metrical studies of chromosomes. Recently, however, Coleman (1943) has established in two species the subterminal position of the primary constriction or centromere and the variation in the length of the two arms in different chromosomes of the same karyotype. In the present paper additional evidence is presented which shows a linear differentiation of some chromosomes of the Acrididæ. Furthermore, in view of the fact that chromosome behaviour during meiosis is a more reliable criterion of ascertaining linear differentiation, the meiosis was studied in three genera.
Three species belonging to three different genera were studied. They are Spathosternum prasiniferum Walker, Oxya sp. and Phlœoba sp. The former two belong to the sub-family Catantopinæ and the latter one to Acrididæ. Adult male specimens have been captured from the field adjoining the Biological Departments, Calcutta University, mostly in the months of August and September 1943–44. The testes were dissected out in Ringer's solution (cold-blooded formula) and fixed in Medium Flemming, Belling's, and Kahle's fixatives. The two latter were very suitable for smear preparations. Sections were cut at 25 to 30 micra in thickness and stained in iodine-crystal violet and in Heidenhain's hæmatoxylin. A 2 per cent, solution of safranin also gave good results. Squash preparations were stained by Feulgen's method. Diplotene stages in Phlœoba were studied from temporary aceto-carmine preparations.
Total birth records for the Bengalee Muslim population (BMP) and the Bengalee Hindu caste population (BHCP) for the period 1980-1988 were 17,720 and 119,107 respectively. Of these, the number of twin pairs were 363 BMP and 1,229 BHCP. These data were obtained from the registers of the following hospitals: Islamia Hospital, NRS Medical College and Hospitals and RG Kar Medical College and Hospitals, Calcutta and Medinipore Sadar Hospital, West Bengal, India. The twinning rates found were 20.48 and 10.57 per thousand deliveries in the BMP and BHCP respectively. The proportion of twins, 0.02048, in the BMP was significantly higher (Z = 12.38, p ≤ 0.01) than that in the BHCP, 0.01057. This finding of a higher twinning rate in the BMP is corroborated by the fact that available data on the Muslim population of Srinagar in Kammu and Kashmir, and Lucknow and Kanpur in Uttar Pradesh show higher twinning rates than the other populations of India. This increased twinning rate may be due to the greater amount of inbreeding in the BMP.
Nitridation of GeO2 interfacial layer (IL) was done using continuous wave (CW) and pulsed wave (PW) decoupled plasma nitridation (DPN) processes. Langmuir probe analysis of the N2 plasma demonstrates that at the same effective power and pressure, PW plasma has similar electron density (Ne) with lower electron temperature (kTe) and plasma potential (Vp) as compared to CW plasma. This results in softer plasma conditions using a PW process leading to lower plasma-related damage in the IL, but without reducing the overall nitrogen concentration. The plasma parameters were further correlated to mobility (μ) and interface trap density (Dit) extracted from fabricated Ge n-MOSFETs. As expected from the plasma analysis, at the same effective power and pressure, the PW DPN process shows 1.2X higher electron mobility as compared to a CW process. This improvement can enable GeON as an IL for future Ge CMOS gate stack technology.
The Bunsen-Roscoe law states that the effect of radiation is always the same regardless of the variation in the intensity or in the time of radiation as long as the product of the two is kept constant. This law holds true for many ordinary physico-chemical reactions over a wide range of intensities. The present investigation was undertaken to test the validity of the Bunsen-Roscoe law by studying the frequency of (1) sex-linked lethal mutations and (2) translocations in Drosophila melanogaster at much lower intensities of radiation than those previously tried.
Four series of samples, prepared at 250° C by decomposition of a mixture of silane and argon in a radio frequency powered deposition systems (rf-PECVD), have been studied. The dilution rates were 1 %, 1.5 %, 5 % and 10 % of silane in argon and the total pressure was 0.5 Torr for the first series and 0.2 Torr for the others. Structural and transport properties of the materials have been studied as function of power density. Structural studies show the transition from purely amorphous material towards microcrystalline material with increasing rf power density. The transport parameters were measured in the as-deposited, light-soaked and annealed states and compared to those obtained on state of the art material. The best material obtained is clearly device grade material. This study shows that argon dilution allows to tailor the material for a given application.
The strain distribution within individual layers in Au/Ni multilayer systems was obtained by an iterative fitting of the experimental x-ray diffraction pattern with a kinematic model. The depth profile of strain in the modulation direction was obtained for these metallic multilayers with repeat periodicities ranging from 1.19 nm to 4.26 nm. It was found that the role of interfacial coherency and strengthening is of great importance in understanding the origin of the supermodulus effect in metallic multilayers.
Planar strain in CaF2 and Ge/CaF2 films grown on (111) Si substrate has been measured by an x-ray double crystal diffraction technique using rocking curves. The films grown by a solid phase epitaxial approach using in situ rapid isothermal processing are found to have small tensile planar strain.
Heterostructures of SiC and AlN in either sequence, AlN on SiC or SiC on AlN, were grown on Si, Al2O3, and 6H-SiC substrates by (metalorganic) chemical vapor deposition (CVD). On Si substrates, a SiC layer was first grown by a two-step technique and an AlN layer was deposited subsequently. On other substrates, an AlN layer was first grown, followed by SiC deposition. Multi-layered structures (SiC/AlN/SiC) were also produced to demonstrate the ability of heteroepitaxy of SiC and AlN on each other.
AlN grown on 3C-SiC were highly oriented polycrystalline films. AlN films on 6H-SiC, SiC films on A1N/Al2O3, and SiC films on AlN/6H-SiC were single crystal. In the latter two cases, the SiC films were in hexagonal structure. These SiC films were smooth and specular in appearance and showed n-type conductivity.
Soft X-ray photoelectron spectromicroscopy has been employed to examine the microstructural chemistry of corrosion on thin films of AL-i%Cu-1%Si alloy. Cu-rich precipitates are formed after the film is annealed at around 320ºC Localized corrosion takes place around these precipitates, and circular microstructures have been observed. Energy distribution curves (EDCs) taken at specific points are analyzed and photoelectron images were obtained from different kinetic energies corresponding to the peaks in EDC. It was found that after corrosion the Al2Cu particles are revealed and distributed at the center of the corrosion structure with oxide as matrix, while the oxides form a ring-like band outside.
Thin films of crystalline titania with different grain sizes and porosities
were prepared by dip-coating on Si (100) substrates starting from a sol-gel
process. Three synthesis procedures were developed and compared, using
acetylacetone (acac, with HCI) and acetic acid (HOAc) as modifying agents or
directly using hydrochloric acid as catalyst. The structural evolution of
the films was characterized by Glazing Angle X-ray Diffraction (XRD),
Spectroscopic Ellipsometry and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Anatase phase
was observed on all of the films calcined at 440° C. The grain sizes and
crystallinity generally increased with calcination temperature. Thin films
obtained from acac- and HOAc-modified titanium sols had fine grains (50–80
nm) and less porosity (<10%) after calcination at 1000° C. Thin films
derived from the sol catalyzed directly with acid had the largest grains
(90–130 nm), higher crystallinity and greater porosity (17%).
An x-ray diffraction method is described for determining thicknesses of thin films grown on single crystal substrates. The equations, based on the kinematical theory of x-ray diffraction and the mosaic crystal model, were developed. The thickness of the thin film was computed from the absorption of the integrated diffracted x-ray intensity from the single crystal substrate by the film. Since the diffracted intensity from the film is not required, the film does not have to be single crystal in nature. Thus, thicknesses of less ordered, polycrystalline or even amorphous films can be measured with high precision by this technique.
We have utilized scanning soft X-ray photoelectron spectromicroscopy-MAXIMUM to investigate the microstructural evolution induced by localized corrosion in the Al-Cu-Si alloy thin films. We present energy-specific photoelectron micrographs showing the distribution of Cu-rich precipitates and corrosion products for the thin films after corrosion. Microspectroscopy performed across a corrosion site reveals that the O 2p valence band shifts in energy with location and the amount of shift can be related to the degree of corrosion. The photoelectron micrographs also show that the Cu-rich phase precipitates near the surface region and grows with annealing temperature.
The mechanical and microstructural properties of two-step acid-base
catalyzed silica gels were examined as functions of aging time, catalyst
concentration, and hydrolysis time. Cylindrical gels were prepared using
C2H5OH, and H2O, with HCl followed by
NH3 as catalysts. Mechanical properties were obtained from
three-point bend tests, and the microstructures of dried gels were analyzed
using nitrogen adsorption/desorption techniques. Gel strength initially
increased with aging time at 70 °C, then leveled off after about one week.
When the sol was hydrolyzed for less than two hours, there were significant
differences in the properties of gels catalyzed with relative molar amounts
of 0.0001 and 0.0002 HCl. However, as the hydrolysis time was increased, the
gels all had similar properties, independent of the amount of HC1. The
amount of NH3 influenced gelation time and to a lesser extent, the strength,
but had no observable effect on pore size. The two-step catalysis procedure
produced gels with strength and pore size combinations intermediate to those
of either single acid or base-catalyzed gels.
The effect of rapid thermal annealing on strain reduction in 1.15 MeV S-implanted GaAs wafers irradiated to a dose of 5 × 1014/cm2 has been studied by double-crystal x-ray diffraction technique. X-ray rocking curves exhibit characteristic thin film fringes between the peak of unstrained GaAs and the major peak of the strained region. The maximum strain, i.e., the separation between the two peaks, as well as the number of minor fringes decreases with increasing RTA temperature, while the relative spacing between the fringes remains constant. At temperatures above 900°C, the main peaks begin to overlap; however, a residual positive strain can be measured for temperatures as high as 1100°C.
X-ray diffraction is a useful method to measure the microscopic strain profile in multilayered materials. Depth profiles of strain in the modulation direction are obtained by an iterative fitting of the experimental diffraction pattern with a kinematic model. This approach was used to characterize the coherency strain profile in Au/Ni superlattices.
The accommodation of coherency strain through the superlattice is dependent upon the atomic misfit between the component materials and the thickness of each layer. The depth profile of strain was determined for multilayers with repeat periodicities of 2.92 nm and 4.26 nm. A significant volume fraction of interfaces is present in these nanometric dimensioned laminates.
We have utilized a scanning photoemission spectromicroscope with sub-micron spatial resolution to observe microscopic Fermi level pinning on the cleaved GaAs(110) surface. We present micrographs which identify pinning that is highly localized to the vicinity of a single linear cleavage step. This extends previous work utilizing scanning Kelvin probe and imaging photoelectron microscopy conducted at lower spatial resolution. A sub-monolayer coverage of In uniformly pins the surface, thus allowing us to observe only the image contrast mechanism resulting from topography. From this one can determine the spatial extent of defects near a cleavage step. Initial observations indicate that Fermi level pinning can extend from a cleavage step over the range of 2 μm. This indicates the additional presence of defects at the adjacent surfaces of the step.
The molecular orientation within a surface liquid crystalline layer made up of semifluorinated side-groups [-CO-(CH2)x−x-(CF2)yF] (SF groups) attached to the isoprene block of a styrene-isoprene diblock copolymer was determined by analyzing the partial electron yield Cedge NEXAFS signal. The results show that in contrast to the bulk, where the SF groups lie parallel to the diblock copolymer lamellae and thus parallel to the surface, the surface SF groups make an average angle with the surface normal of between 29 and 46° depending on x and y.