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In the literature, there are conflicting data regarding the recovery of mental disorders, in particular, pathologies of the emotional, personality, behavioral and cognitive spheres, in patients after surgical treatment of tumors of the diencephalic region.
To evaluate the dynamics of psychopathological disorders after removal of a craniopharyngioma.
45 patients (18–68 y.o.), operated through transcranial access. The follow-up period ranged from 3 months to 9 years (on average 2.8 + 0.4). The main method is psychopathological, supplemented by rating scales and questionnaires.
In the late postoperative period, mental disorders were detected in 75% of patients (Table 1). Table 1. Dynamics of the main psychopathological symptom complexes (n = 45).
Disorders (may be a combination)
Before surgery (n,%)
2 weeks after (n,%)
18 months after (n,%)
Emotional and volitional
Cognitive - Korsakov syndrome
18 (40%) 4 (9%)
27 (59%) 8 (18%)
18 (40%) 7 (15%)
The table shows that emotional-volitional disorders have a clear positive dynamics by 18 months after surgery compared with the preoperative level. Korsakov’s syndrome and personality disorders are less favorable. 23 patients (52%) returned to their previous profession; 22 (48%) stopped working due to a severe degree of disability, of which 7 (15%) need constant supervision.
The positive dynamics of psychopathological symptoms is observed only within 1.5 years after the removal of the craniopharyngioma, in the future they remain without a tendency to improve. 22 patients (48%) stopped working. The most severe degree of disability is 15% patients.
An emerging family of materials—metal halide perovskites (MHPs)—have made incredible achievements in optoelectronics in the past decade. Owing to its potential role in optoelectronic properties, the ferroic state of MHPs has been investigated by lots of researchers. Here, we review the literature regarding investigations into possible ferroic behaviors in MHPs. We summarize the recent discoveries of ferroic twin domains in MHPs. We examine the ferroelasticity and the ferroelectricity of these twin domains. Several properties relevant to the twin domains are critically analyzed, including crystallographic structure, mechanical variation, chemical variation, etc. Finally, we discussed the effects of these domains on materials’ optoelectronic properties and their potential roles in photovoltaic action.