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Direct numerical simulation is conducted to uncover the response of a supersonic turbulent boundary layer to streamwise concave curvature and the related physical mechanisms at a Mach number of 2.95. Streamwise variations of mean flow properties, turbulence statistics and turbulent structures are analysed. A method to define the boundary layer thickness based on the principal strain rate is proposed, which is applicable for boundary layers subjected to wall-normal pressure and velocity gradients. While the wall friction grows with the wall turning, the friction velocity decreases. A logarithmic region with constant slope exists in the concave boundary layer. However, with smaller slope, it is located lower than that of the flat boundary layer. Streamwise varying trends of the velocity and the principal strain rate within different wall-normal regions are different. The turbulence level is promoted by the concave curvature. Due to the increased turbulence generation in the outer layer, secondary bumps are noted in the profiles of streamwise and spanwise turbulence intensity. Peak positions in profiles of wall-normal turbulence intensity and Reynolds shear stress are pushed outward because of the same reason. Attributed to the Görtler instability, the streamwise extended vortices within the hairpin packets are intensified and more vortices are generated. Through accumulations of these vortices with a similar sense of rotation, large-scale streamwise roll cells are formed. Originated from the very large-scale motions and by promoting the ejection, sweep and spanwise events, the formation of large-scale streamwise roll cells is the physical cause of the alterations of the mean properties and turbulence statistics. The roll cells further give rise to the vortex generation. The large number of hairpin vortices formed in the near-wall region lead to the improved wall-normal correlation of turbulence in the concave boundary layer.
Compared with traditional stainless steels, high nitrogen stainless steels (HNSS), have been widely used due to their high strength, toughness along with excellent corrosion resistance and low cost, formed by partial replacement of Ni (austenite-forming element) by N. The evolution of the microstructure of a Cr19Mn19Mo2N0.7 stainless steel is investigated after solution treatment at 1010, 1060, 1200 or 1250°C for 30min. A complex multilayer structure has been found under a negative pressure vacuum. A white ferritic layer at the surface is formed, and a subsurface layer with full austenitic structure and a bulk microstructure comprising of austenite and ferrite are detected. With increasing solution temperature, the surface layer thickness increases. The formation of the multilayer structure is attributed to an outward diffusion, a diffusive retardation and an abnormal accumulation of nitrogen during solution treatment.
Excessive worry is a defining feature of generalized anxiety disorder and is present in a wide range of other psychiatric conditions. Therefore, individualized predictions of worry propensity could be highly relevant in clinical practice, with respect to the assessment of worry symptom severity at the individual level.
We applied a multivariate machine learning approach to predict dispositional worry based on microstructural integrity of white matter (WM) tracts.
We demonstrated that the machine learning model was able to decode individual dispositional worry scores from microstructural properties in widely distributed WM tracts (mean absolute error = 10.46, p < 0.001; root mean squared error = 12.82, p < 0.001; prediction R2 = 0.17, p < 0.001). WM tracts that contributed to worry prediction included the posterior limb of internal capsule, anterior corona radiate, and cerebral peduncle, as well as the corticolimbic pathways (e.g. uncinate fasciculus, cingulum, and fornix) already known to be critical for emotion processing and regulation.
The current work thus elucidates potential neuromarkers for clinical assessment of worry symptoms across a wide range of psychiatric disorders. In addition, the identification of widely distributed pathways underlying worry propensity serves to better improve the understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms associated with worry.
The internal buckling is a common phenomenon in the as-grown carbon nanotube arrays. It makes the physical properties of carbon nanotube array in experiment lower than that in theory. In this work, we analyzed the formation and evolution mechanism of the internal buckling based on quasi-static compression model, which is different from collective effect of the van der Waals interactions. The self-restriction effect and the different growth rate of carbon nanotubes verify the possibility of the quasi-static compression model to explain the morphology evolution of vertical carbon nanotube arrays, especially the phenomenon of the quasi-straight and bent carbon nanotubes coexisted in the array. We generalized the Euler beam to wave-like beam and explained the mechanism of high-mode buckling combined with the van der Waals interaction. The calculated result about the link between compressive stress and strain confirms with the stage of collective buckling in the quasi-static compression test of carbon nanotube array. Preparation of well-organized carbon nanotube arrays was strong evidence verified the effect of self-restriction in experiment.
Several studies have suggested that higher carotenoid levels may be beneficial for atherosclerosis patients, but few studies have examined this relationship in the Chinese population. This cross-sectional study examined the association between the levels of carotenoids in diet and serum and carotid intima–media thickness (IMT) in Chinese adults aged 50–75 years in Guangzhou, China. Dietary intake was assessed using a FFQ. HPLC was used to assay the serum concentrations of α-carotene, β-carotene, lutein+zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin and lycopene. The IMT at the common carotid artery (CCA) and bifurcation of the carotid artery was measured by B-mode ultrasound. A total of 3707 and 2947 participants were included in the analyses of dietary and serum carotenoids. After adjustment for demographic, socio-economic and lifestyle factors, all the serum carotenoids levels except lycopene were found to be inversely associated with the IMT at the CCA and bifurcation (Ptrend<0·001 to 0·013) in both men and women. The absolute mean differences in the IMT between the subjects in the extreme quartiles of serum carotenoid levels were 0·034 mm (α-carotene), 0·037 mm (β-carotene), 0·032 mm (lutein+zeaxanthin), 0·030 mm (β-cryptoxanthin), 0·015 mm (lycopene) and 0·035 mm (total carotenoids) at the CCA; the corresponding values were 0·025, 0·053 0·043, 0·050, 0·011 and 0·042 mm at the bifurcation. The favourable associations were also observed between dietary carotenoids (except lycopene) and the CCA IMT. In conclusion, elevated carotenoid levels in diet and serum are associated with lower carotid IMT values (particular at the CCA) in Chinese adults.
We report a novel tip-type field emission (FE) emitter by synthesizing the few-layer graphene (FLG) flakes on tip of nichrome (8020) wire (ϕ≈80 μm) by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition(PECVD). These resultant random arrays of free-standing FLG flakes are aligned vertically to the substrate surface in a high-density and stacked to each other to form several larger “flower-like” agglomerates in spherical shapes. The FE performance of the tip-type FLG flakes emitter shows a low threshold field of 0.55 V/μm, a large field enhancement factor of 9455 ± 46, a large field emission current density of 22.18 A/cm2 at 2.70 V/μm, and an excellent field emission stability at high emission current densities (6.93 A/cm2). It can be used in variety of applications that include cathode-ray tube monitors, X-ray sources, electron microscopes, and other vacuum electronic applications.
A coaxial-output rolled strip pulse-forming line (RSPFL) with a dry structure is researched for the purpose of miniaturization and all-solid state of pulse-forming lines (PFL). The coaxial-output RSPFL consists of a coaxial-output electrode (COE) and a rolled strip line (RSL). The COE is characterized by quasi-coaxial structure, making the output pulse propagate along the axial direction with a small output inductance. The RSL is rolled on the COE, whose transmission characteristics are analyzed theoretically. It shows that the RSL can be regarded as a planar strip line when the rolling radius of the strip line is larger than 60 times of the thickness of the insulation dielectric layer of RSL. CST modeling was carried out to simulate the discharging characteristic of the coaxial-output RSPFL. It shows that the coaxial-output RSPFL can deliver a discharging pulse with a rise time <6 ns when the impedance of the RSL matches that of the COE, which confirms the theoretical analysis. A prototype of the coaxial-output RSPFL was developed. A 49-kV discharging pulse on a matched load was achieved when it was charged to 100 kV. The discharging waveform has a pulse width of 32 ns, with a rise time of 6 ns, which is consistent with the simulation waveform. An energy-storage density of 1.9 J/L was realized in the coaxial-output RSPFL. By the method of multi-stage connection in series, a much higher output voltage is convenient to be obtained.
A new band-reject frequency-selective surface (FSS) based on dual-band near-zero refractive index metamaterial (ZIM) design is presented in this paper. Consisting of a planar array of complementary dual-layer symmetry resonant ring, the proposed FSS exhibits a high-selective band-reject filtering response. From the viewpoint of effective medium, the subwavelength FSS is characterized by near-zero effective magnetic permeability and near-zero effective electric permittivity in two different operational bands, respectively. The corresponding resonant behavior and E-field distributions are analyzed in detail. A prototype of the proposed FSS working in X-band is fabricated and measured. The simulation and experiment results verify the effectiveness and correctness of the ZIM-based design method.
Objectives: Mental arithmetic is essential to daily life. Researchers have explored the mechanisms that underlie mental arithmetic. Whether mental arithmetic fact retrieval is dependent on surface modality or knowledge format is still highly debated. Chinese individuals typically use a procedure strategy for addition; and they typically use a rote verbal strategy for multiplication. This provides a way to examine the effect of surface modality on different arithmetic operations. Methods: We used a series of neuropsychological tests (i.e., general cognitive, language processing, numerical processing, addition, and multiplication in visual and auditory conditions) for a patient who had experienced a left frontotemporal stroke. Results: The patient had language production impairment; but preserved verbal processing concerning basic numerical abilities. Moreover, the patient had preserved multiplication in the auditory presentation rather than in the visual presentation. The patient suffered from impairments in an addition task, regardless of visual or auditory presentation. Conclusions: The findings suggest that mental multiplication could be characterized as a form of modality-dependent processing, which was accessed through auditory input. The learning strategy of multiplication table recitation could shape the verbal memory of multiplication leading to persistence of the auditory module. (JINS, 2017, 23, 692–699)
Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) are used widely in the provision of Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) services. Today, there is an increasing demand on GNSS to support applications at lane level. These applications required at lane level include lane control, collision avoidance and intelligent speed assistance. In lane control, detecting irregular driving behaviour within the lane is a basic requirement for safety related lane level applications. There are two major issues involved in lane level irregular driving identification: access to high accuracy positioning and vehicle dynamic parameters, and extraction of erratic driving behaviour from this and other related information. This paper proposes an integrated algorithm for lane level irregular driving identification. Access to high accuracy positioning is enabled by GNSS and its integration with an Inertial Navigation System (INS) using filtering with precise vehicle motion models and lane information. The identification of irregular driving behaviour is achieved by algorithms developed for different types of events based on the application of a Fuzzy Inference System (FIS). The results show that decimetre level accuracy can be achieved and that different types of lane level irregular driving behaviour can be identified.
Recent research activities relevant to high energy density physics (HEDP) driven by the heavy ion beam at the Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences are presented. Radiography of static objects with the fast extracted high energy carbon ion beam from the Cooling Storage Ring is discussed. Investigation of the low energy heavy ion beam and plasma interaction is reported. With HEDP research as one of the main goals, the project HIAF (High Intensity heavy-ion Accelerator Facility), proposed by the Institute of Modern Physics as the 12th five-year-plan of China, is introduced.
The effect of the intercritical temperature on the microstructure and mechanical properties of a newly developed quenching and partitioning steel using martensitic microstructure prior to the heat treatment process was studied. Such a quenching and partitioning process possessed a unique microstructure evolution, especially during intercritical annealing after prequenching. Excellent mechanical properties were obtained due to this unique multiphase microstructure. Significant amount of interlath-retained austenite was acquired and the relationship between the microstructure and work-hardening behaviors was proposed. The martensite/austenite islands increased at elevated annealing temperature, which deteriorated the total elongation and increased the tensile strength as hard constituents when it was excessive. The result indicated that the present full martensitic microstructure before the intercritical annealing is probably more suitable to an industrial application and is a better way to produce high strength steels with suitable ductility.
In order to identify the density and material type, high energy protons, electrons, and heavy ions are used to radiograph dense objects. The particles pass through the object, undergo multiple coulomb scattering, and are focused onto an image plane by a magnetic lens system. A modified beam line at the Institute of Modern Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences has been developed for heavy-ion radiography. It can radiograph a static object with a spatial resolution of about 65 µm (1 σ). This paper presents the heavy-ion radiography facility at the Institute of Modern Physics, including the beam optics, the simulation of radiography by Monte Carlo code and the experimental result with 600 MeV/u carbon ions. In addition, dedicated beam lines for proton radiography which are planned are also introduced.
A method to design the composite insulation structures in pulsed power systems is proposed in this paper. The theoretical bases for this method include the Weibull statistical distribution and the empirical insulation formula. A uniform formula to describe the reliability (R) for different insulation media such as solid, liquid, gas, vacuum, and vacuum surface is derived. The dependence curves of the normalized applied field on R are also obtained. These curves show that the normalized applied field decreases rapidly as R increases but the declining rates corresponding to different insulation media are different. In addition, if R is required to be higher than a given level, the normalized applied field should be smaller than a certain value. In practical design, the common range of the applied fields for different insulation media should be chosen to meet a global reliability requirement. In the end, the proposed method is demonstrated with a specific coaxial high-voltage vacuum insulator.
The 0.6(Bi0.85La0.15)FeO3-0.4PbTiO3 (BLF-PT) ceramics were prepared by tape casting method. Effects of binder (polyvinylbutyl dibutyl PVB), plasticizer (phthalate-polyethylene glycol DBP-PEG) and dispersant (triethylolamine, TEA) concentration on the rheological properties of BLF-PT slurry were investigated. The optimized component ratio for ceramics powders, binder, plasticizer, dispersant and solvent (ethanol, EtOH) in the slurry was 50 wt.%, 4 wt.%, 6 wt.%, 1 wt.% and 39 wt.%. The dielectric constant εr, loss tanδ, and remnant polarization Pr of BLF-PT ceramics laminated from the tapes were 525 (1 kHz), 1.7% (1 kHz) and 30 μC/cm2 (45 kV/cm), respectively, which were comparable to those of BLF-PT ceramics prepared by traditional solid state reaction method.
Two sets of reciprocal introgression lines (ILs) and a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from the cross between japonica cultivar Xiushui09 and indica breeding line IR2061-520-6-9 (abbreviated as IR2061) were used to identify QTL for heading date (HD). Phenotyping was conducted in Hainan Island for two winter seasons (2007 and 2009). Nine QTLs were detected in the ILs with Xiushui09 background (XS-ILs), and four of which were repeatedly mapped across 2 years. Five QTLs were identified in the ILs with IR2061 background (IR-ILs), and three of which were commonly detected in 2 years. All commonly detected QTL had the same direction of gene effect. Seven QTL for HD were identified in the RILs in 2009. Only three (25%) QTLs were commonly detected using all the three populations (XS-ILs, IR-ILs and RILs). The number of commonly identified QTLs among populations was related to degree of similarity of their genetic backgrounds, suggesting that the genetic background effect is important for detecting HD QTL. QHd7 and QHd10b stably expressed in different populations and across years thus would be exploited in rice breeding programme. Moreover, lines with both of QHd7 and QHd10b resulted in at least 3 days earlier than lines with only one of them QTL, showing evident pyramiding effect.
Background: Although knowledge of established risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD) can logically contribute to the search for predictors of the progression of cognitive impairment, it has not yet been firmly established where in the cognitive impairment process these risk factors exert their effects and how to predict quantitatively for the progression of mild cognitive impairments (MCI) to AD. This study aimed to determine whether known risk factors increased the risk of progression from MCI to AD and to make prediction based on transition probabilities.
Methods: Based on ten examinations of 600 community-dwelling MCI residents and cognitive assessments to classify individuals into MCI, global impairment, and AD, a multi-state Markov Cox's regression model was used and the hazard ratios with their confidence intervals and transition probabilities were estimated.
Results: Multivariate analysis showed that gender, age, and hypertension were statistically significant predictors of transition from MCI to global impairment; age, education, and reading statistically influenced transition from global impairment to MCI; gender, age, hypertension, diabetes, and apolipoprotein E geneε4 status were statistically associated with transition from global impairment to AD. Subjects at MCI were more likely (67%) to remain in that cognitive state at the next cognitive assessment than to transition to cognitive deterioration. For global impairment, probability of remaining in the same state was only 18% and that of forward transition was three times more likely than that of backward transition.
Conclusions: Known risk factors influenced differently for different transitions. Transition from global impairment was more likely to worsen to severe cognitive deterioration than transition from MCI.
In this work, we review current trends in China to investigate beam plasma interaction phenomena. Recent progresses in China on low energy heavy ions and plasma interaction, ion beam-plasma interactions under the influences of magnetic fields, high energy heavy ion radiography through marginal range method, energy deposition of highly charged ions on surfaces and Raman spectroscopy of surfaces after irradiation of highly charged ions are presented.
The electron emission yield γ induced by Ne2+ and O2+ impacting on a clean tungsten surface has been measured. The range of projectile energy is from 3 keV/u to 14 keV/u. The total electron yield gradually increases with the projectile velocity. It is found simultaneously that the total electron yield for O2+ is larger than the total electron yield for Ne2+, which is opposite to the results for higher projectile velocity. After considering the contribution from recoiling atoms to the energy distribution and electron emission yield, we find that recoiling atoms are of crucial importance in electron emission in our energy range. Thus, the unexpected results in our experiment can be explained successfully.