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With the aim of performing perimeter surveillance of high-speed railway networks, this paper presents the design of a passive multistatic radar system based on the use of Long-Term Evolution (LTE) downlink signals as the illumination of opportunity. Taking into account the specifications and standard of the LTE system, the ambiguity function of measured downlink signals is analyzed in terms of range and Doppler resolution, ambiguities, and sidelobe level. The deployment of the proposed passive radar is flexible and scalable, and it is based on multichannel software defined radio receivers that obtain the reference and surveillance signals by means of digital beamforming. The signal processing and data fusion are based, respectively, on the delay-Doppler cross-correlation with the reconstructed reference signals and a two-stage tracking at sensor and central level. Finally, the performance of the proposed system is estimated in terms of its maximum detection range and simulation results of the detection of moving targets are presented, demonstrating its technical feasibility for the short-range detection of pedestrians, vehicles, and small drones.
Stereo-electroencephalography (SEEG) has been shown to be a valuable tool for the anatomo-electroclinic definition of the epileptogenic zone (EZ) in some patients with medically refractory epilepsy considered for surgery. In Spain, many of those patients are not offered this diagnostic procedure. The objective of our health technology assessment (HTA) report was to evaluate the effectiveness, safety and cost-effectiveness of SEEG to define the EZ in patients with refractory epilepsy considered for surgery compared to no SEEG intervention (i.e. remaining with further antiepileptic drugs).
We undertook a systematic review with meta-analyses on the effectiveness and safety of SEEG. A cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted using a Markov model which simulates the costs and health outcomes of individuals for a lifetime horizon from the perspective of the Spanish National Health Service (NHS). The effectiveness measure was quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). We ran extensive sensitivity analyses, including a probabilistic sensitivity analysis.
The EZ was found in 92 percent of patients who underwent SEEG, 72 percent were eligible for epilepsy surgery and 33 percent were free of seizures after surgery (47 percent of those who received surgery). Any complications related to insertion and monitoring of SEEG and the subsequent intervention occurred in 1.3 percent of patients. In the base case analysis, SEEG led to higher QALYs and healthcare costs with an estimated incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of EUR 10,368 (USD 12,217) per QALY. The sensitivity analyses showed that the results of the study were robust.
SEEG is a cost-effective technology in patients with refractory epilepsy considered for surgery when compared to no SEEG intervention.
, along with their rotations, play an important role among those functions that are harmonic and orientation-preserving and map the unit disc onto a convex domain. The main theorem in this paper generalises results in recent literature by showing that convex combinations of functions in
The biological and genetic diversity of Neospora caninum is very limited because of availability of only a few viable isolates worldwide. This study describes the isolation and biological and molecular characterization of a new viable isolate of N. caninum (NC-SP1), from a cattle in Brazil. Approximately 400 g of brain from a naturally infected adult male cattle from an abattoir was fed to a 2-month-old dog. Neospora-like oocysts were observed on day 7 post-inoculation (PI) and the duration of oocyst shedding was 14 days. The DNA obtained from oocysts was characterized molecularly and the final sequence was 99% identical to homologous sequences of N. caninum available in GenBank®. For bioassay, gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) were orally inoculated with 10 100 and 1000 oocysts; all gerbils remained clinically normal but developed N. caninum antibodies 14 days PI. Cell culture isolation was successful using the brain homogenate from one of the gerbils and tachyzoites were observed 24 days PI. Microsatellite genotyping revealed a unique genetic profile for this new reference isolate.
Bycatch in longline fisheries is a major contributor to the global decline of albatrosses. Sexual segregation at sea often leads to unequal overlap with different fisheries, resulting in sex-biased bycatch, exacerbating the impact on a population level. In great albatrosses (Diomedea spp.), males (the larger sex) tend to spend more time at higher latitudes than females, attributed to competitive exclusion or differences in flight performance mediated by the pronounced sexual size dimorphism (SSD). Consequently, larger numbers of females are bycaught in pelagic longline fisheries in subtropical and temperate areas. Although this has been shown for Diomedea exulans, it has not been confirmed for all great albatross species. Here we examined the degree of SSD and developed discriminant functions to determine species and sex in D. epomophora and D. sanfordi; species that are often killed in several fisheries in the Southern Hemisphere. Based on a large sample of albatrosses bycaught off Uruguay, both species showed substantial SSD. Discriminant functions assigned species and sex to otherwise indeterminate individuals with 90–100% accuracy. Based on all birds identified (n=128), bycatch in the pelagic longline fishery was female-biased, indicating sexual segregation at sea. The discriminant functions presented enable species and sex to be identified, providing critical data for future bycatch assessments.
This study aimed to verify the effect of aerobic exercise performed in the fasted v. fed states on fat and carbohydrate metabolism in adults. Searches were conducted in March 2015, and updated in July 2016, using PubMed®, Scopus and Cochrane databases (terms: ‘fasting’, ‘exercise’, ‘aerobic exercise’, ‘substrate’, ‘energy metabolism’, ‘fat’, ‘glucose’, ‘insulin’ and ‘adult’) and references from selected studies. Trials that compared the metabolic effects of aerobic exercise (duration ≤120 min) performed in the fasted v. fed states in adults were accepted. The outcomes evaluated were fat oxidation during exercise and the plasma concentrations of insulin, glucose and NEFA before and immediately after exercise; two independent reviewers extracted the data (A. F. V. and L. C.). The results were presented as weighted mean differences between treatments, with 95 % CI. Of 10 405 articles identified, twenty-seven studies – with a total of 273 participants – were included. There was a significant increase in fat oxidation during exercise performed in the fasted, compared with fed, state (−3·08 g; 95 % CI −5·38, −0·79; I2 39·1 %). The weighted mean difference of NEFA concentrations was not significantly different between states (0·00 mmol/l; 95 % CI −0·07, 0·08; I2 72·7 %). However, the weighted mean differences of glucose (0·78 mmol/l; 95 % CI 0·43, 1·14; I2 90·8 %) and insulin concentrations (104·5 pmol/l; 95 % CI 70·8, 138·2; I2 94·5 %) were significantly higher for exercise performed in the fed state. We conclude that aerobic exercise performed in the fasted state induces higher fat oxidation than exercise performed in the fed state.
As part of the Z-PAndAS Keck II DEIMOS survey of resolved stars in our neighboring galaxy, Andromeda (M31), we have built up a unique data set of measured velocities and chemistries for thousands of stars in the Andromeda stellar halo, particularly probing its rich and complex substructure. In this contribution, we will discuss the structural, dynamical and chemical properties of Andromeda's dwarf spheroidal galaxies, and how there is no observational evidence for a difference in the evolutionary histories of those found on and off M31's vast plane of satellites. We will also discuss a possible extension to the most significant merger event in M31 - the Giant Southern Stream - and how we can use this feature to refine our understanding of M31's mass profile, and its complex evolution.
Kawasaki disease is a small-to-medium-vessel vasculitis of unknown origin that predominantly affects children, although the disease can occur in adults. We report the case of a 26-year-old paediatric resident with fever, exanthema, ocular changes, arthralgia, and desquamation of palms and soles. Diagnosis was established after the fever resolved, and no treatment with intravenous gammaglobulin was administered. His echocardiogram showed normal coronary arteries. Acute Kawasaki disease in adults is a rare and under-recognised condition. It is important to consider the disease in patients with prolonged fever associated with unusual clinical features.
A serologic survey was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of Mycobacterium leprae infection among healthcare workers and associated factors. Of 280 workers, 26 (9.3%) were positive using immunoglobulin M serology for PGL-I M. leprae antigen. Exposure to leprosy patients in the workplace was significantly associated with seropositivity (P=.044).
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2015;36(12):1464–1466
The present work reports a simple and easy wet chemistry synthesis of cuprous oxide (Cu2O) nanospheres at room temperature without surfactants and using different precursors. Structural characterization was carried out by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy coupled with focused ion beam and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The optical band gaps were determined from diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The photoluminescence behavior of the as-synthesized nanospheres showed significant differences depending on the precursors used. The Cu2O nanospheres were constituted by aggregates of nanocrystals, in which an on/off emission behavior of each individual nanocrystal was identified during transmission electron microscopy observations. The thermal behavior of the Cu2O nanospheres was investigated with in situ X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry experiments. Remarkable structural differences were observed for the nanospheres annealed in air, which turned into hollow spherical structures surrounded by outsized nanocrystals.
This paper describes and evaluates the use of a head-mounted display (HMD) for the teleoperation of a field robot. The HMD presents a pair of video streams to the operator (one to each eye) originating from a pair of stereo cameras located on the front of the robot, thus providing him/her with a sense of depth (stereopsis). A tracker on the HMD captures 3-DOF head orientation data which is then used for adjusting the camera orientation by moving the robot and/or the camera position accordingly, and rotating the displayed images to compensate for the operator's head rotation. This approach was implemented in a search and rescue robot (RAPOSA), and it was empirically validated in a series of short user studies. This evaluation involved four experiments covering two-dimensional perception, depth perception, scene perception, and performing a search and rescue task in a controlled scenario. The stereoscopic display and head tracking are shown to afford a number of performance benefits. However, one experiment also revealed that controlling robot orientation with yaw input from the head tracker negatively influenced task completion time. A possible explanation is a mismatch between the abilities of the robot and the human operator. This aside, the studies indicated that the use of an HMD to create a stereoscopic visualization of the camera feeds from a mobile robot enhanced the perception of cues in a static three-dimensional environment and also that such benefits transferred to simulated field scenarios in the form of enhanced task completion times.
Aquaporin (SmAQP) is the most abundant transmembrane protein in the tegument of Schistosoma mansoni. This protein is expressed in all developmental stages and seems to be essential in parasite survival since it plays a crucial role in osmoregulation, nutrient transport and drug uptake. In this study, we utilized the murine model to evaluate whether this protein was able to induce protection against challenge infection with S. mansoni cercariae. A chimeric (c) SmAQP was formulated with Freund's adjuvant for vaccination trial and evaluation of the host's immune response was performed. Our results demonstrated that immunization with cSmAQP induced the production of high levels of specific anti-cSmAQP IgG antibodies and a Th1/Th17 type of immune response characterized by IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-17 cytokines. However, vaccination of mice with cSmAQP failed to reduce S. mansoni worm burden and liver pathology. Finally, we were unable to detect humoral immune response anti-cSmAQP in the sera of S. mansoni-infected human patients. Our results lead us to believe that SmAQP, as formulated in this study, may not be a good target in the search for an anti-schistosomiasis vaccine.
Given any sense preserving harmonic mapping f=h+ḡ in the unit disk, we prove that for all |λ|=1 the functions fλ=h+λḡ are univalent (resp. close-to-convex, starlike, or convex) if and only if the analytic functions Fλ=h+λg are univalent (resp. close-to-convex, starlike, or convex) for all such λ. We also obtain certain necessary geometric conditions on h in order that the functions fλ belong to the families mentioned above. In particular, we see that if fλ are univalent for all λ on the unit circle, then h is univalent.
The effect of lead and copper on apical segments of Gracilaria domingensis was examined. Over a period of 7 days, the segments were cultivated with concentrations of 5 and 10 ppm under laboratory conditions. The samples were processed for light, confocal, and electron microscopy, as well as histochemistry, to evaluate growth rates, mitochondrial activity, protein levels, chlorophyll a, phycobiliproteins, and carotenoids. After 7 days of exposure to lead and copper, growth rates were slower than control, and biomass loss was observed on copper-treated plants. Ultrastructural damage was primarily observed in the internal organization of chloroplasts and cell wall thickness. X-ray microanalysis detected lead in the cell wall, while copper was detected in both the cytoplasm and cell wall. Moreover, lead and copper exposure led to photodamage of photosynthetic pigments and, consequently, changes in photosynthesis. However, protein content and glutathione reductase activity decreased only in the copper treatments. In both treatments, decreased mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase activity was observed. Taken together, the present study demonstrates that (1) heavy metals such as lead and copper negatively affect various morphological, physiological, and biochemical processes in G. domingensis and (2) copper is more toxic than lead in G. domingensis.
We investigate the role of asymmetries in the line spread function of the 2-degree field (2dF) spectrograph and the variations in these asymmetries with the CCD, the plate, the time of observation, and the fibre. A data-reduction pipeline is developed that takes these deformations into account for the calibration and cross-correlation of the spectra. We show that, using the emission lines of calibration lamp observations, we can fit the line spread function with the sum of two Gaussian functions representing the theoretical signal and a perturbation of the system. This model is then used to calibrate the spectra and generate templates by downgrading high-resolution spectra. Thus, we can cross-correlate the observed spectra with templates degraded in the same way. Our reduction pipeline is tested on real observations and provides a significant improvement in the accuracy of the radial velocities obtained. In particular, the systematic errors that were as high as ∼20 km s−1 when applying the AAO reduction package 2DFDR are now reduced to ∼5 km s−1. Even though the 2dF spectrograph is to be decommissioned at the end of 2005, the analysis of archival data and previous studies could be improved by the reduction procedure we propose here.
Recent observational evidence suggests that the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy represents the only major ongoing accretion event in the Galactic halo, accounting for the majority of stellar debris identified there. This paper summarises the recent discovery of another potential Milky Way accretion event, the Canis Major dwarf galaxy. This dwarf satellite galaxy is found to lie just below the Galactic plane and appears to be on an equatorial orbit. Unlike Sagittarius, which is contributing to the Galactic halo, the location and eventual demise of Canis Major suggests that it represents a building block of the thick disk.
We undertook a study of Porphyra acanthophora var. brasiliensis to determine its responses under ambient conditions, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), and PAR+UVBR (ultraviolet radiation-B) treatment, focusing on changes in ultrastructure, and cytochemistry. Accordingly, control ambient samples were collected in the field, and two different treatments were performed in the laboratory. Plants were exposed to PAR at 60 μmol photons m−2 s−1 and PAR + UVBR at 0.35 W m−2 for 3 h per day during 21 days of in vitro cultivation. Confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis of the vegetative cells showed single stellate chloroplast in ambient and PAR samples, but in PAR+UVBR-exposed plants, the chloroplast showed alterations in the number and form of arms. Under PAR+UVBR treatment, the thylakoids of the chloroplasts were disrupted, and an increase in the number of plastoglobuli was observed, in addition to mitochondria, which appeared with irregular, disrupted morphology compared to ambient and PAR samples. After UVBR exposure, the formation of carpospores was also observed. Plants under ambient conditions, as well as those treated with PAR and PAR+UVBR, all showed different concentrations of enzymatic response, including glutathione peroxidase and reductase activity. In summary, the present study demonstrates that P. acanthophora var. brasiliensis shows the activation of distinct mechanisms against natural radiation, PAR and PAR+UVBR.
Energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence was employed to test the hypothesis that beverage consumption or mouthwash utilization will change the chemical properties of dental materials and enamel mineral content. Bovine enamel samples (n = 45) each received two cavity preparations (n = 90), each pair filled with one of three dental materials (R: nanofilled composite resin; GIC: glass-ionomer cement; RMGIC: resin-modified GIC). Furthermore, they were treated with three different solutions (S: saliva; E: erosion/Pepsi Twist®; or EM: erosion+mouthwash/Colgate Plax®). It was found that mineral loss in enamel was greater in GICE samples than in RE > RMGICE > RMGICEM > REM > GICEM. An increased percentage of Zr was found in REM indicating organic matrix degradation. Dental materials tested (R, GIC, and RMGIC) were not able to protect adjacent enamel from acid erosion by the soft drink tested. The use of mouthwash promoted protection of enamel after erosion by the soft drink. To avoid chemical dissolution by mouthwashes, protection by resin composites with surface sealants is recommended.
This study's focus is to evaluate a sexual coercion prevention program in adolescents. Using a beforeand- after design with both a treatment group (n = 93) and a control group (n = 76), an intervention of seven sessions was completed. Said sessions included such content as conceptualizing sexual freedom, sexual coercion and voluntary consent, analyzing different sexual coercion tactics and the contexts in which they occur, empathy toward the victim, and developing abilities to avoid risky situations. Other risk factors for coercive behavior and sexual victimization are explored as well, such as alcohol use, sexist attitudes and inadequate communication, among others. The intervention's results include a decrease in stereotypical beliefs about the opposite sex and increased empathy toward victims of sexual coercion. These changes were maintained with the passage of time. Also, in the treatment group, a more acute decline was observed in the proportion of young people engaging in sexually coercive behaviors. This article emphasizes the importance, necessity and efficacy of such interventions, and discusses and analyzes possible improvements to the program for its future implementation.