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Written by a team of international lawyers with extensive academic and practical experience of international criminal law, the fourth edition of this leading textbook offers readers comprehensive coverage and a high level of academic rigour while maintaining its signature accessible and engaging style. Introducing the readers to the fundamental concepts of international criminal law, as well as the domestic and international institutions that enforce that law, this book engages with critical questions, political and moral challenges, and alternatives to international justice. Suitable for undergraduate and postgraduate students, academics and practitioners in the field, and cited by the International Criminal Tribunal for Yugoslavia, the International Criminal Court, the Special Court for Sierra Leone, the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia, and the highest courts in domestic systems, this book is a must-read for anyone interested in learning more about international criminal law.
Apolipoprotein E (APOE) E4 is the main genetic risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Due to the consistent association, there is interest as to whether E4 influences the risk of other neurodegenerative diseases. Further, there is a constant search for other genetic biomarkers contributing to these phenotypes, such as microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) haplotypes. Here, participants from the Ontario Neurodegenerative Disease Research Initiative were genotyped to investigate whether the APOE E4 allele or MAPT H1 haplotype are associated with five neurodegenerative diseases: (1) AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), (2) amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, (3) frontotemporal dementia (FTD), (4) Parkinson’s disease, and (5) vascular cognitive impairment.
Genotypes were defined for their respective APOE allele and MAPT haplotype calls for each participant, and logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the associations with the presentations of neurodegenerative diseases.
Our work confirmed the association of the E4 allele with a dose-dependent increased presentation of AD, and an association between the E4 allele alone and MCI; however, the other four diseases were not associated with E4. Further, the APOE E2 allele was associated with decreased presentation of both AD and MCI. No associations were identified between MAPT haplotype and the neurodegenerative disease cohorts; but following subtyping of the FTD cohort, the H1 haplotype was significantly associated with progressive supranuclear palsy.
This is the first study to concurrently analyze the association of APOE isoforms and MAPT haplotypes with five neurodegenerative diseases using consistent enrollment criteria and broad phenotypic analysis.
The objective of this WSSA Weed Loss Committee report is to provide quantitative data on the potential yield loss in sugar beet due to weed interference from the major sugar beet growing areas of the United States and Canada. Researchers and extension specialists who conducted research on weed control in sugar beet in the United States and Canada provided quantitative data on sugar beet yield loss due to weed interference in their regions. Specifically, data were requested from weed control studies in sugar beet from up to 10 individual studies per calendar year over a 15-yr period between 2002 and 2017. Data collected indicated that if weeds are left uncontrolled under optimal agronomic practices, growers in Idaho, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ontario, Oregon, and Wyoming would potentially lose an average of 79%, 61%, 66%, 68%, 63%, 75%, 83%, 78%, and 77% of the sugar beet yield. The corresponding monetary loss would be approximately US$234, US$122, US$369, US$43, US$40, US$211, US$12, US$14, and US$32 million, respectively. The average yield loss due to weed interference for the primary sugar beet growing areas of North America was estimated to be 70%. Thus, if weeds are not controlled, growers in the United States would lose approximately 22.4 million tonnes of sugar beet yield valued at approximately US$1.25 billion, and growers in Canada would lose approximately 0.5 million tonnes of sugar beet yield valued at approximately US$25 million. The high return on investment in weed management highlights the importance of continued weed science research for sustaining high crop yield and profitability of sugar beet production in North America.
Over the last decade, archaeologists have turned to large radiocarbon (14C) data sets to infer prehistoric population size and change. An outstanding question concerns just how direct of an estimate 14C dates are for human populations. In this paper we propose that 14C dates are a better estimate of energy consumption, rather than an unmediated, proportional estimate of population size. We use a parametric model to describe the relationship between population size, economic complexity and energy consumption in human societies, and then parametrize the model using data from modern contexts. Our results suggest that energy consumption scales sub-linearly with population size, which means that the analysis of a large 14C time-series has the potential to misestimate rates of population change and absolute population size. Energy consumption is also an exponential function of economic complexity. Thus, the 14C record could change semi-independent of population as complexity grows or declines. Scaling models are an important tool for stimulating future research to tease apart the different effects of population and social complexity on energy consumption, and explain variation in the forms of 14C date time-series in different regions.
Samples taken from the Dome C ice core, Antarctica, and the GRIP ice core, Greenland, are examined using the scanning electron microscope to determine their microstructure. In both cores, samples are taken from two differing climatic periods: the Holocene and the last glacial period. Many of the usual features observed in similar samples under the light microscope are observed, including: bubbles, grain boundaries and clathrate hydrates. Features not resolvable using the light microscope are also found. Dust particles are found in situ. Eighty-five per cent of those observed contained silicon, which was generally associated with aluminium and magnesium. An estimation is made of the relative proportions of dust particles located at grain boundaries and in the bulk of the ice grain. At Dome C a higher proportion than expected from a random distribution of particles was found located at grain boundaries, although in Greenland this was not found to be the case for most samples. Direct evidence is also presented indicating the role of dust particles and microscopical inclusions in impeding or ``pinning’’ grain-boundary migration. Soluble impurities are also detected at some triple junctions and grain boundaries.
Control of glyphosate-resistant (GR) horseweed in soybean with glyphosate (900 g ai ha−1) plus saflufenacil (25 gaiha−1) has been variable. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of GR horseweed height, density, and time of day (TOD) at application on saflufenacil plus glyphosate efficacy in soybean. All experiments were completed six times during a 2 yr period (2014, 2015) in fields previously confirmed with GR horseweed. Applications from 0900 to 2100 hours provided optimal control of GR horseweed 8 WAA. Soybean yield paralleled GR horseweed control with the highest yield of 3000kgha−1 at 1500 hours, and the lowest yield of 2400kgha−1 at 0600 hours. The height and density of GR horseweed at application had minimal effect on saflufenacil efficacy. Saflufenacil provided>99% control of GR horseweed when applied to small plants and low densities; however, control decreased to 95% when>25 cm tall, and to 96% in densities>800 plants m−2 at 6 WAA due to some plant regrowth. TOD of application had a greater influence on GR horseweed control with saflufenacil than height or density. To optimize control of GR horseweed, saflufenacil should be applied during daytime hours to small plants at low densities. Optimizing GR horseweed control minimizes weed seed return and weed interference.
Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images were used prior to the 1991–92 field season to infer the position of the grounding line at the mouths of Ice Streams D and E, West Antarctica. Our field plan for mass-balance studies was based on this determination, and thus the imagery played a central role in both the scientific and logistics planning. A radar profile along the flow direction was made across the inferred grounding line at one location, and ice-thickness measurements together with surface surveying enable us to compare the hydrostatic surface and the actual topography to determine the point at which the ice becomes grounded. The profile transits from floating to grounded ice at the same location as the grounding line inferred from the imagery. Changes in the radar-echo strength also occur at this location, giving further support to this interpretation. Tilt studies of the ice flexure caused by tidal variations at locations on either side of this grounding point give additional evidence that grounding is occurring close by. The combination of these three measurements therefore confirms the grounding-line location derived from the satellite imagery and supports the use of this technique to determine grounding.
The control of glyphosate-resistant (GR) horseweed (Conyza canadensis) in soybean has been variable with glyphosate plus saflufenacil. The objective of this research was to determine the biologically effective rate (BER) of saflufenacil, saflufenacil mixed with glyphosate, and metribuzin mixed with saflufenacil and glyphosate applied preplant (PP) for the control of GR horseweed in no-till soybean; a study was conducted to determine each of the three treatments. For each study, seven field sites infested with GR horseweed were used over a 2-yr period (2014, 2015). Saflufenacil alone at 25 and 36 g ai ha–1 provided 90 and 95% control of GR Horseweed 8 wk after application, while the BER to achieve 98% control was outside of the treatment range tested. The saflufenacil plus glyphosate (900 g ai ha–1) BER experiment found less saflufenacil was required as 25, 34, and 47 g ha–1 provided 90, 95, and 98% control of GR horseweed respectively. The metribuzin BER experiment found 61, 261, and 572 g ha–1 was required to provide 90, 95 and 98% control of GR horseweed, respectively, mixed with saflufenacil (25 g ha–1) and glyphosate (900 g ha–1). The addition of metribuzin with the recommended rate of saflufenacil (25 g ha–1) plus glyphosate improved control and a second effective herbicide mode of action for the control of GR horseweed. The use of a threeway herbicide mixture can be an effective weed management strategy to control GR horseweed in soybean.
The linear polarization of the Crab pulsar as a function of pulse phase was observed by the High Speed Photometer on the Hubble Space Telescope in March, 1993. Observations were obtained in a bandpass centered on 2770 A using a 0.25 ms sample time, corresponding to a time resolution of 0.0075 in pulse phase. The UV polarization of the pulsar [Fig. 1] is strikingly similar to that observed in the visible (cf. Smith et al. 1988). The same values of polarization and the same swing of position angle occur through the main and secondary pulses. The polarization pulse profile must be essentially wavelength independent at frequencies above the infrared.
This paper reports the results of part of a three stage examination of services to students with mild intellectual disability in two educational regions of New South Wales. The purpose of the study was to obtain a comprehensive picture of the educational services being provided to these students. The stages in the study included a questionnaire completed by 68 teachers, an interview administered to a sub-sample of 27 teachers, and observations in seven classrooms. The results of the study reported in this paper relate to characteristics of the teachers and school and classroom variables, the nature of integration occurring in these settings, and the resources accessed and needed by these teachers. The study found that the average class size was 13.3 children; boys out-numbered girls by 1.66:1; fewer than half of the children also participated in an integration program; about half of the teachers had been trained in special education; and most teachers would have preferred more support services than they were receiving.
This paper is the second of two which report the results of a three stage study of educational services to students with mild intellectual disability in two NSW Department of School Education regions. The three phases of the study involved a teacher questionnaire, a teacher interview and classroom observations. This paper reports results in the areas of curriculum and programming, teaching strategies and materials, and classroom management techniques within the special class setting. The study found that 85% of teachers would like a specific curriculum for students with mild intellectual disability and a similar percentage saw a need for greater inservicing and feedback on their programming. While teachers reported the use of a variety of teaching techniques including small group instruction, classroom observations showed that individual or whole class instruction was commonly used with no evidence of data-based instruction, cognitive, metacognitive or problem solving strategies. Some teachers found that classroom management took a considerable amount of their time while others, including those observed, had strong classroom control. Recommendations based on the findings in each of the three areas are also reported and discussed.
Bella Robinson, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation,
Robert Power, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation,
Mark Cameron, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation
Twitter is a new data channel for emergency managers to source public information for situational awareness and as a means of engaging with the community during disaster response and recovery activities. Twitter has been used successfully to identify emergency events, obtain crowd sourced information as the event unfolds, provide up-to-date information to the affected community from authoritative agencies, and conduct resource planning.
Natural disasters have increased in severity and frequency in recent years. According to Guha-Sapir et al. (2011), in 2010, 385 natural disasters killed over 297,000 people worldwide, impacted 217 million human lives, and cost the global economy an estimated US$123.9 billion. There are numerous examples from around the world: the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami; the more recent 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami, which damaged the Fukushima nuclear power station; hurricanes Katrina and Sandy in 2005 and 2012 respectively; the 2010 China floods, which caused widespread devastation; and Victoria's 2009 “Black Saturday” bushfires in Australia, killing 173 people and having an estimated A$2.9 billion in total losses (Stephenson, Handmer, & Haywood, 2012).
With urban development occurring on coastlines and spreading into rural areas, houses and supporting infrastructure are expanding into high-risk regions. The growing world population is moving into areas progressively more prone to natural disasters and unpredictable weather events. These events have been increasing in frequency and severity in recent years (Hawkins et al., 2012).
It has been recognized that information published by the general public on social media is relevant to emergency managers and that social media is a useful means of providing information to communities that may be impacted by emergency events (Lindsay, 2011; Anderson, 2012). To prepare and respond to such emergency situations effectively, it is critical that emergency managers have relevant and reliable information. For example, bushfire management is typically a regional government responsibility, and each jurisdiction has its own agency that takes the lead in coordinating community preparedness and responding to bushfires when they occur.
Africa poses the development challenge of our time. Once devastated by famine and mired in poverty, India and much of Asia are now growing economically. While Africa’s economies too are now growing, in many African countries, people are just now returning to the levels of per capita income they enjoyed more than a half century ago. The current poverty and the widespread economic decline following independence in Africa have led to a great deal of research by development economists and political scientists (Bates 1981; Easterly and Levine 1997; Ndulu et al. 2007; Sachs and Warner 1997). Yet this work is often very policy focused and does not place Africa within the larger processes that created the Great Divergence in the early modern and modern worlds (Pomeranz 2000).
This is somewhat odd, because the adoption of a much more historical approach has revolutionized research on comparative economic development in the past fifteen years. For example, the economic divergence that took place in the Americas during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries is now seen as deeply rooted in the different institutional structures created during the colonial period (Bruhn and Gallego 2012; Dell 2010; Engerman and Sokoloff 1997, 2011). It is commonplace, though not uncontroversial, to blame Africa’s economic problems on its economic, political, and perhaps social institutions. It is less common to find studies that situate these issues in a historical context and consider why they diverged from the rest of the world in the first place (see Austin 2008; Nunn 2008a; and Acemoglu, Johnson, and Robinson 2001, 2002; Acemoglu and Robinson, 2010, for exceptions).