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To estimate the total energy and micronutrient intakes of children 9–24 months of age and evaluate the probability of adequacy (PA) of the diet in seven MAL-ED sites.
Cohort study. Food intake was registered monthly using 24-h recalls beginning at 9 months. We estimated PA for thirteen nutrients and overall mean PA (MPA) by site and 3-month periods considering estimated breast milk intake.
Seven sites in Asia, Africa and Latin America.
1669 children followed from birth to 24 months of age.
Median estimated %energy from breast milk ranged from 4 to 70 % at 9–12 months, and declined to 0–39 % at 21–24 months. Iron bioavailability was low for all sites, but many diets were of moderate bioavailability for zinc. PA was optimal for most nutrients in Brazil and South Africa, except for iron and vitamin E (both), calcium and zinc (South Africa). PA for zinc increased only for children consuming a diet with moderate bioavailability. MPA increased 12–24 months as the quantity of complementary foods increased; however, PA for vitamin A remained low in Bangladesh and Tanzania. PA for vitamins D and E and iron was low for most sites and age groups.
MPA increased from 12 to 24 months as children consumed higher quantities of food, while nutrient density remained constant for most nutrients. Ways to increase the consumption of foods containing vitamins D, E and A, and calcium are needed, as are ways to increase the bioavailability of iron and zinc.
The spectral and energy characteristics of the tunable thin planar dielectric resonator with the movable metal mirror are researched. It is found that the high-Q HE-polarized whispering gallery modes (WGMs) are effectively excited in such a resonator by the dielectric waveguide. A mode set of the tunable thin planar dielectric resonator depends on the presence of an air gap in its design. Changing the height of the air gap affects the energy characteristics of the tunable thin planar dielectric resonators (DR). Shifting the resonant fields of WGMs from the dielectric disk to the air gap is the reason for this effect. It is shown that at certain heights of the air gap, increasing the unloaded Q-factor of the tunable thin planar DR and improving the excitation efficiency of WGMs in it is achieved.
People with severe mental illness neglect their physical health needs. They smoke a lot, they drink a lot and they don’t do exercise. They eat unhealthy food and put on weight. Unfortunately, the antipsychotic medication don’t help and some of the drugs are associated with side effects which make these problems worse.
Medical notes of patients who has been on risperidone long term injectable depot for a year, from the first of January till the 30th 2008 were reviewed and information were input on the form.
65 notes were reviewed. 70% males. 70% between 18-50 years. The following was done baseline:
50% had physical examination.
25% had pulse, blood pressure and ECG.
Body weight 10%.
Urea and electrolytes (U&E)15%.
40% had their liver function tests(LFT).
50% had comorbidity with other physical illness.
The following were done on six monthly maintenance measures:
Only 5% had maintenance ECG.
Only 50% of patients had physical examination. Only quarter of patients had their BP, pulse and ECG done as a baseline. There was no regular physical follow up and investigation and the investigation which were done sporadically. Physical co-morbidity was 50% of the sample while physical examination and investigations were done in less than half of the sample.
Proper physical assessment and regular follow up should be adopted.
Promotion of healthy living and eating, exercise and monitoring weight should be advised.
We describe a case of OCD and movement disorders associated with anti basal ganglia antibodies.
A 17 year old patient was referred to our unit in February 2010 because of movement disorder. He denied personal or family history of psychiatric disorders and substance abuse other that occasional cannabis use. His symptoms had began 6 months earlier when he started presenting intrusive thoughts associated with various compulsions such as complex arm and leg movements and bizarre postures: he was treated with Olanzapine and Sertraline which lead to partial improvement of symptoms but he self-discontinuated the medication in january 2010. Upon admittance in february 2010 the patient showed obsessive thoughts associated with bizarre postures and upper limb complex movements.
He was treated with 100 mg of Clomipramine which lead to partial regression of symptoms. Autoimmunity screening was performed revealing anti neuron specific enolase and anti pyruvate kynase antibodies. The patient was treated with Desametasone which did not lead to any improvement.
Anti neuron specific enolase and anti pyruvate kynase antibodies are directed against antigens specifically expressed in the basal ganglia. According to literature data these autoantibodies can be associated with movement disorders and OCD and we hypothesize that our patient's symtptoms were caused by autoimmunity. Although cortison was not successfull, recents reports in scientific literature have shown that other non psychopharmacological treatment, such as plasmapheresis, or IV immunoglobulins could be effective in similar patients: we are considering this as our next treatment option.
A 34 year old man was referred to our unit for psychiatric evaluation. His psychomotor development was normal until the age of 12, when he started showing progressive loss of cognitive skills and finalized motor activity. Symptoms rapidly worsened and by the age of 20 his language and motor skills were severly compromised. Starting at age 17 he had been treated with both 1st and 2nd generation antipsychotics which did not lead to any changes in symptoms. Family history was negative for psychotic or neurological disorders. The mother had alcohol abuse disorder and the younger sister was diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder.
At the time of our evaluation patient was receiving 10 mg of Olanzapine. He was vigilant and passively cooperative to examination; he displayed physical immobility, waxy flexibilitas, stereotyped behaviour, camptocormia, echolalia, blunted affect and automatic and repetitive behaviour. Thought content was difficult to evaluate but he denied hallucinations or delusional thoughts.
BP was normal, as well as brain MRI and PET. Screening for Wilson's disease, metabolic diseases and fragile X Syndrome were negatve. DAT scan was also performed and showed no abnormalities. Medication withdrawal didn’t lead to any changes in his status.
The patient's symtoms fulfill the criteria for drug resistant Catatonic Schizophrenia. However the early onset of symptoms, the rapid deterioration of cognitive abilities, the early and extensive motor imparment and the complete resistance to drug treatment make this an interesting case for discussion about differential diagnosis.
We describe a rare case antithyroid drug induced hypothyroidism leading to an acute psychotic episode.
A 39 year old woman complaining of anxiety was referred to our day hospital unit in september 2010. Her symptoms began a month earlier and she denied any past personal or family history of psychiatric disorders except for an acute psychotic episode in august 2010. She diagnosed with hyperthyroidism in june 2010 and was started on medication with 30 mg of methilmazole. Two weeks later she started to feel confused, and she developed auditory and visual hallucinations as well as persecutory delusionsn and she was hospitalized in a psychiatric facility. Upon admittance lab work indicated severe hypothyroidism (TSH 87 uI/L)and high total cholesterol. Antythiroid medication was suspended and the patient was started on antipsychotic medication with 10 mg of haloperidol.
Four days later the patient dysplayed a complete remission of symtpoms. She self discontinuated the antipsychotic medication one week after discharge and showed no sign of psychotic symptoms. Thyroid function was later revaluated and indicated mild hypethyroidism, for which methilmazole 10 mg was prescribed. in october 2010 the patient was evaluated in our unit and showed no sign of psychotic symptoms or anxiety.
Although very few cases of methilmazole induced psychosis are reported, based on the patient's history, on the doses of medication that were prescribed, on the lab work and on the onset, evolution and remission of her symptoms we hypothesize that the psychotic episode was drug induced.
Multimorbidity may impose an overwhelming burden on patients with psychosis and is affected by gender and age. Our aim is to study the independent role of familial liability to psychosis as a risk factor for multimorbidity.
We performed the study within the framework of the Genetic Risk and Outcome of Psychosis (GROUP) project. Overall, we compared 1024 psychotic patients, 994 unaffected siblings and 566 controls on the prevalence of 125 lifetime diseases, and 19 self-reported somatic complaints. Multimorbidity was defined as the presence of two or more complaints/diseases in the same individual. Generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) were used to investigate the effects of gender, age (adolescent, young, older) and familial liability (patients, siblings, controls) and their interactions on multimorbidity.
Familial liability had a significant effect on multimorbidity of either complaints or diseases. Patients had a higher prevalence of multimorbidity of complaints compared to siblings (OR 2.20, 95% CI 1.79–2.69, P < 0.001) and to controls (3.05, 2.35–3.96, P < 0.001). In physical health multimorbidity, patients (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.05–1.75, P = 0.018), but not siblings, had significantly higher prevalence than controls. Similar finding were observed for multimorbidity of lifetime diseases, including psychiatric diseases. Significant results were observed for complaints and disease multimorbidity across gender and age groups.
Multimorbidity is a common burden, significantly more prevalent in patients and their unaffected siblings. Familial liability to psychosis showed an independent effect on multimorbidity; gender and age are also important factors determining multimorbidity.
This study aimed to examine the impact of trainee involvement in performing tympanoplasty or tympano-ossiculoplasty on outcomes.
A retrospective analysis was performed of a prospective database of all patients undergoing tympanoplasty and tympano-ossiculoplasty in a single centre during a three-year period. Patients were divided into three primary surgeon groups: consultants, fellows and residents. The outcomes of operative time, surgical complications, length of hospital stay, and air–bone gap improvement were compared among the groups.
The study included 398 tympanoplasty and tympano-ossiculoplasty surgical procedures, 71 per cent of which were performed by junior trainees (residents). The junior trainee group was associated with a significantly longer surgical time, without adverse impact on outcomes.
Trainee participation in tympanoplasty and tympano-ossiculoplasty surgery was associated with longer surgical time, but did not negatively affect the peri-operative course or hearing outcome. Therefore, resident involvement in these types of surgery is safe.
The diurnal feeding patterns of dairy cows affects the 24 h robot utilisation of pasture-based automatic milking systems (AMS). A decline in robot utilisation between 2400 and 0600 h currently occurs in pasture-based AMS, as cow feeding activity is greatly reduced during this time. Here, we investigate the effect of a temporal variation in feed quality and quantity on cow feeding behaviour between 2400 and 0600 h as a potential tool to increase voluntary cow trafficking in an AMS at night. The day was allocated into four equal feeding periods (0600 to 1200, 1200 to 1800, 1800 to 2400 and 2400 to 0600 h). Lucerne hay cubes (CP = 19.1%, water soluble carbohydrate = 3.8%) and oat, ryegrass and clover hay cubes with 20% molasses (CP = 11.8%, water soluble carbohydrate = 10.7%) were offered as the ‘standard’ and ‘preferred’ (preference determined previously) feed types, respectively. The four treatments were (1) standard feed offered ad libitum (AL) throughout 24 h; (2) as per AL, with preferred feed replacing standard feed between 2400 and 0600 h (AL + P); (3) standard feed offered at a restricted rate, with quantity varying between each feeding period (20:10:30:60%, respectively) as a proportion of the (previously) measured daily ad libitum intake (VA); (4) as per VA, with preferred feed replacing standard feed between 2400 and 0600 h (VA + P). Eight non-lactating dairy cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. During each experimental period, treatment cows were fed for 7 days, including 3 days habituation and 4 days data collection. Total daily intake was approximately 8% greater (P < 0.001) for the AL and AL + P treatments (23.1 and 22.9 kg DM/cow) as compared with the VA and VA + P treatments (21.6 and 20.9 kg DM/cow). The AL + P and VA treatments had 21% and 90% greater (P < 0.001) dry matter intake (DMI) between 2400 and 0600 h, respectively, compared with the AL treatment. In contrast, the VA + P treatment had similar DMI to the VA treatment. Our experiment shows ability to increase cow feeding activity at night by varying feed type and quantity, though it is possible that a penalty to total DMI may occur using VA. Further research is required to determine if the implementation of variable feed allocation on pasture-based AMS farms is likely to improve milking robot utilisation by increasing cow feeding activity at night.
Despite the magnitude and protracted nature of the Rohingya refugee situation, there is limited information on the culture, mental health and psychosocial wellbeing of this group. This paper, drawing on a report commissioned by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), aims to provide a comprehensive synthesis of the literature on mental health and psychosocial wellbeing of Rohingya refugees, including an examination of associated cultural factors. The ultimate objective is to assist humanitarian actors and agencies in providing culturally relevant Mental Health and Psychosocial Support (MHPSS) for Rohingya refugees displaced to Bangladesh and other neighbouring countries.
We conducted a systematic search across multiple sources of information with reference to the contextual, social, economic, cultural, mental health and health-related factors amongst Rohingya refugees living in the Asia-Pacific and other regions. The search covered online databases of diverse disciplines (e.g. medicine, psychology, anthropology), grey literature, as well as unpublished reports from non-profit organisations and United Nations agencies published until 2018.
The legacy of prolonged exposure to conflict and persecution compounded by protracted conditions of deprivations and displacement is likely to increase the refugees' vulnerability to wide array of mental health problems including posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, depression and suicidal ideation. High rates of sexual and gender-based violence, lack of privacy and safe spaces and limited access to integrated psychosocial and mental health support remain issues of concern within the emergency operation in Bangladesh. Another challenge is the limited understanding amongst the MHPSS personnel in Bangladesh and elsewhere of the language, culture and help-seeking behaviour of Rohingya refugees. While the Rohingya language has a considerable vocabulary for emotional and behavioural problems, there is limited correspondence between these Rohingya terms and western concepts of mental disorders. This hampers the provision of culturally sensitive and contextually relevant MHPSS services to these refugees.
The knowledge about the culture, context, migration history, idioms of distress, help-seeking behaviour and traditional healing methods, obtained from diverse sources can be applied in the design and delivery of culturally appropriate interventions. Attention to past exposure to traumatic events and losses need to be paired with attention for ongoing stressors and issues related to worries about the future. It is important to design MHPSS interventions in ways that mobilise the individual and collective strengths of Rohingya refugees and build on their resilience.
Dromedary camels have been shown to be the main reservoir for human Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) infections. This systematic review aims to compile and analyse all published data on MERS-coronavirus (CoV) in the global camel population to provide an overview of current knowledge on the distribution, spread and risk factors of infections in dromedary camels. We included original research articles containing laboratory evidence of MERS-CoV infections in dromedary camels in the field from 2013 to April 2018. In general, camels only show minor clinical signs of disease after being infected with MERS-CoV. Serological evidence of MERS-CoV in camels has been found in 20 countries, with molecular evidence for virus circulation in 13 countries. The seroprevalence of MERS-CoV antibodies increases with age in camels, while the prevalence of viral shedding as determined by MERS-CoV RNA detection in nasal swabs decreases. In several studies, camels that were sampled at animal markets or quarantine facilities were seropositive more often than camels at farms as well as imported camels vs. locally bred camels. Some studies show a relatively higher seroprevalence and viral detection during the cooler winter months. Knowledge of the animal reservoir of MERS-CoV is essential to develop intervention and control measures to prevent human infections.
What impact do local candidates have on elections in single member district plurality electoral systems? We provide new evidence using data from a large election study carried out during the 2015 Canadian federal election. We improve on the measurement of local candidate effects by asking over 20,000 survey respondents to rate the candidates in their constituency directly. We present three estimates. We find that when all voters are considered together, local candidate evaluations are decisive for approximately 4 per cent of voters. Second, these evaluations are decisive for the outcome of 10 per cent of constituency contests. Third, when models are estimated for each constituency, we find significant evaluation effects for 14 per cent of candidates.
GX 301–2, a bright high-mass X-ray binary with an orbital period of 41.5 days, exhibits stable periodic orbital intensity modulations with a strong pre-periastron X-ray flare. Several models have been proposed to explain the accretion at different orbital phases. In Islam & Paul (2014), we presented results from an orbital resolved spectroscopic study of GX 301–2 using data from MAXI Gas Slit Camera. We have found a strong orbital dependence of the absorption column density and equivalent width of the iron emission line. A very large equivalent width of the iron line along with a small value of the column density in the orbital phase range 0.1–0.3 after the periastron passage indicates the presence of high density accretion stream. We aim to further investigate the characteristics of the accretion stream with an AstroSat observation of the system.
Analysis of the total surface energy γT and its three components as established by the van Oss-Chaudhury-Good Theory (vOCG) is conducted via Three Liquid Contact Angle Analysis (3LCAA). γT is correlated with the composition of the top monolayers (ML) obtained from High-Resolution Ion Beam Analysis (HR-IBA). Control of γT enables surface engineering for wafer bonding (Nano-BondingTM) and/or epitaxial growth. Native oxides on boron-doped p-Si(100) are found to average γT of 53 ± 1.4 mJ/m2) and are always hydrophilic. An HF in methanol or aqueous HF etch for 60 s always renders Si(100) hydrophobic. Its γT decreases by 20% to 44 ± 3 mJ/m2 in HF in methanol etch and by 10% to 48 ± 3 mJ/m2 in aqueous HF. On the contrary, GaAs(100) native oxides are found to always be hydrophobic. Tellurium n+-doped GaAs(100) yields an average of γT of 37 ± 2 mJ/m2, 96% of which is due to the Lifshitz-Van der Waals molecular interactions (γLW = 36 ± 1 mJ/m2). However, hydrophobic GaAs(100) can be made highly hydrophilic. After etching, γT increases by almost 50% to 66 ± 1.4 mJ/m2. 3LCAA shows that the γT increase is due to electron acceptor and donor interactions, while the Lifshitz-van der Waals energy γLW remains constant. IBA combining the 3.039 ± 0.01 MeV oxygen nuclear resonance with <111> channeling, shows that oxygen on Si(100) decreases by 10% after aqueous HF etching, from 13.3 ± 0.3 monolayers (ML) to 11.8 ± 0.4 ML 1 hour after etch.Te-doped GaAs(100) exhibits consistent oxygen coverage of 7.2 ± 1.4 ML, decreasing by 50% after etching to a highly hydrophilic surface with 3.6 ± 0.2 oxygen ML. IBA shows that etching does not modify the GaAs surface stoichiometry to within 1% . Combining 3LCAA with HR-IBA provides a quantitative metrology to measure how GaAs and Si surfaces can be altered to a different hydroaffinity and surface termination.
The effects of crystal orientation and doping on the surface energy, γT, of native oxides of Si(100) and Si(111) are measured via Three Liquid Contact Angle Analysis (3LCAA) to extract γT, while Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) is used to detect Oxygen. During 3LCAA, contact angles for three liquids are measured with photographs via the “Drop and Reflection Operative Program (DROP™). DROP™ removes subjectivity in image analysis, and yields reproducible contact angles within < ±1°. Unlike to the Sessile Drop Method, DROP can yield relative errors < 3% on sets of 20-30 drops. Native oxides on 5 x 1013 B/cm3 p- doped Si(100) wafers, as received in sealed, 25 wafer teflon boats continuously stored in Class 100/ISO 5 conditions at 24.5°C in 25% controlled humidity, are found to be hydrophilic. Their γT, 52.5 ± 1.5 mJ/m2, is reproducible between four boats from three sources, and 9% greater than γT of native oxides on n- doped Si(111), which averages 48.1 ± 1.6 mJ/m2 on four 4” Si(111) wafers. IBA combining 16O nuclear resonance with channeling detects 30% more oxygen on native oxides of Si(111) than Si(100). While γT should increase on thinner, more defective oxides, Lifshitz-Van der Waals interactions γLW on native oxides of Si(100) remain at 36 ± 0.4 mJ/m2, equal to γLW on Si(111), 36 ± 0.6 mJ/m2, since γLW arises from the same SiO2 molecules. Native oxides on 4.5 x 1018 B/cm3 p+ doped Si(100) yield a γT of 39 ± 1 mJ/m2, as they are thicker per IBA. In summary, 3LCAA and IBA can detect reproducibly and accurately, within a few %, changes in the surface energy of native oxides due to thickness and surface composition arising from doping or crystal structure, if conducted in well controlled clean room conditions for measurements and storage.
Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are utilized to resolve low coupling coefficient issue by dispersing MWCNTs in poly(vinylidene fluoride) matrix to create stress reinforcing network, dispersant, and electron conducting functions for barium titanate (BT) nanoparticles. Various BT and MWCNT percentages of nanocomposite film are fabricated by FDM three-dimensional (3D) printing which can simplify the fabrication process as well as lower cost and design flexibility. Increasing MWCNTs and BT particles gradually increase piezoelectric coefficient (d31) by 0.13 pC/N with 0.4 wt%-MWCNTs/18 wt%-BT. These results provide not only a technique to print piezoelectric nanocomposites but also unique materials combination for sensor application.
Shortages of hired labour are leading to greater interest in mechanisation for crop establishment in smallholder agriculture. Due to small field sizes, mechanised planters mounted on four-wheel tractors are not a suitable technology. The Versatile Multi-crop Planter (VMP) was developed for zero tillage (ZT), strip planting (SP) or single pass shallow tillage (SPST) on flat land and for forming and planting on tops of beds, each in a single pass operation, when mounted on a two-wheel tractor (2WT). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the field performance of the VMP in comparison to conventional broadcast seeding and full rotary tillage (2 to 4 passes; called CT) for establishing chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), jute (Corchorus olitorius L.), lentil (Lens culinaris Medikus), maize (Zea mays L.), mung bean (Vigna radiata L. R. Wilczek), rice (Oryza sativa L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in 15 locations of Bangladesh. Plant populations emerging from all single pass operations viz. SP, ZT, and bed planting (BP) were generally satisfactory and in 12 out of 15 experiments plant populations after SP were similar to or greater than after CT. In addition, SP gave comparable or greater plant populations than SPST and BP planting methods. Overall, the SP planting achieved comparable yields and lower costs of establishment than CT. We conclude that effective and reliable planters are now available for sowing a range of crop species on small fields with minimum soil disturbance. This opens up realistic options for the development of mechanised conservation agriculture suited to small field sizes.
Hydrogenated diamond like Carbon (H-DLC) is a promising lubricious coating that attracted a great deal of interest in recent years mainly because of its outstanding tribological properties. In this study, the nano-mechanical and -tribological properties of a range of H-DLC films were investigated. Specifically, four kinds of H-DLC coatings were produced on Si substrates in pure acetylene, pure methane, 25% methane + 75% hydrogen, 50% methane + 50% hydrogen discharge plasmas using a plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) system. Nano indentation was performed to measure the mechanical properties such as hardness and young's modulus and nanoscartching was performed to investigate the frictional behavior and wear mechanism of the H-DLC samples in open air. Moreover, Vickers indentation method was utilized to assess the fracture toughness of the samples. The results revealed that there is a strong correlation between the mechanical properties (hardness, young's modulus, fracture toughness) and the friction coefficient of DLC coatings and the source gas chemistry. Lower hydrogen to carbon ratio in source gas leads to higher hardness, young's modulus, fracture toughness and lower friction coefficient. Furthermore, lower wear volume of the coated materials was observed when the friction coefficient was lower. It was also confirmed that lower hydrogen content of the DLC coating leads to higher wear resistance under nanoscratch conditions.