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In this paper, field effect transistors (FET) based on different kinds of non-graphene materials are introduced, which are MoS2, WSe2 and black phosphorus (BP). Those devices have their unique features in fabrication process compared with conventional FETs. Among them, MoS2 FET shows better electrical characteristics by applying a SiO2 protective layer; WSe2 FET is fabricated based on a new low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) method; BP FET acquires high on/off ratio and high hole mobility by using a simple dry transfer method. Those novel non-graphene materials inspire new design and fabrication process of basic logic device.
Oedaleus asiaticus Bey. Bienko is a significant grasshopper pest species occurring in north Asian grasslands. Outbreaks often result in significant loss in grasses and economic losses. Interestingly, we found this grasshopper was mainly restricted to Stipa-dominated grassland. We suspected this may be related to the dominant grasses species, Stipa krylovii Roshev, and hypothesized that S. krylovii contributes to optimal growth performance and population distribution of O. asiaticus. A 4 year investigation showed that O. asiaticus density was positively correlated to the above-ground biomass of S. krylovii and O. asiaticus growth performance variables (survival rate, size, growth rate) were significantly higher in Stipa-dominated grassland. A feeding trial also showed that O. asiaticus had a higher growth performance when feeding exclusively on S. krylovii. In addition, the choice, consumption and the efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI) by O. asiaticus was highest for S. krylovii compared with other plant species found in the Asian grasslands. These ecological and biological traits revealed why O. asiaticus is strongly associated with Stipa-dominated grasslands. We concluded that the existence of S. krylovii benefited the growth performance and explained the distribution of O. asiaticus. These results are useful for improved pest management strategies and developing guidelines for the monitoring of grasshopper population dynamics against the background of vegetation succession and changing plant communities in response to activities such as grazing, fire and climate change.
The purpose of the present study was to examine the influence of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain (GWG) on initiation and duration of infant breast-feeding in a prospective birth cohort study.
Breast-feeding information was collected at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months postpartum. The association of pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG with delayed lactogenesis II and termination of exclusive breast-feeding was assessed with logistic regression analysis. The risk of early termination of any breast-feeding during the first year postpartum was assessed with Cox proportional hazards models.
Urban city in China.
Women with infants from the Ma’anshan Birth Cohort Study (n 3196).
The median duration of any breast-feeding in this cohort was 7·0 months. Pre-pregnancy obese women had higher risks of delayed lactogenesis II (risk ratio=1·89; 95 % CI 1·04, 3·43) and early termination of any breast-feeding (hazard ratio=1·38; 95 % CI 1·09, 1·75) adjusted for potential maternal and infant confounders, when compared with normal-weight women. No differences in breast-feeding initiation or duration of exclusive breast-feeding according to pre-pregnancy BMI were found. Moreover, GWG was not associated with any poor breast-feeding outcomes.
The present study indicated that pre-pregnancy obesity increases the risks of delayed lactogenesis II and early termination of any breast-feeding in Chinese women.
Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease that was caused by a novel bunyavirus, SFTSV. The study aimed to disclose the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of SFTSV infection in China so far. An integrated clinical database comprising 1920 SFTS patients was constructed by combining first-hand clinical information collected from SFTS sentinel hospitals (n = 1159) and extracted data (n = 761) from published literature. The considered variables comprised clinical manifestations, routine laboratory tests of acute infection, hospitalization duration and disease outcome. SFTSV-IgG data from 19 119 healthy subjects were extracted from the published papers. The key clinical variables, case-fatality rate (CFR) and seroprevalence were estimated by meta-analysis. The most commonly seen clinical manifestations of SFTSV infection were fever, anorexia, myalgia, chill and lymphadenopathy. The major laboratory findings were elevated lactate dehydrogenase, aminotransferase, followed by thrombocytopenia, lymphocytopenia, elevated alanine transaminase and creatine kinase. A CFR of 12·2% was estimated, significantly higher than that obtained from national reporting data, but showing no geographical difference. In our paper, the mortality rate was about 1·9 parts per million. Older age and longer delay to hospitalization were significantly associated with fatal outcome. A pooled seroprevalence of 3·0% was obtained, which increased with age, while comparable for gender. This study represents a clinical characterization on the largest group of SFTS patients up to now. A higher than expected CFR was obtained. A wider spectrum of clinical index was suggested to be used to identify SFTSV infection, while the useful predictor for fatal outcome was found to be restricted.
Most long QT syndrome patients are associated with genetic mutations. We aimed to investigate the clinical and biochemical characteristics and look for genotype-based preventive implications in Chinese long QT syndrome patients.
Methods and results
We identified two missense mutations of the KCNQ1 gene in two independent Chinese families, including a previously reported mutation R380S in the C-terminus and a novel mutation W305L in the P-loop domain of the Kv7.1 channel, respectively. The proband with R380S was an 11-year-old girl who suffered a prolonged corrected QT interval of 660 ms, recurrent syncope, and sudden cardiac death, whose father was an asymptomatic carrier. The mutation W305L was detected in a 36-year-old woman with long QT syndrome and her immediate family members including the proband’s younger sister with an unexplained syncope, her son, and her elder daughter without symptoms. Metoprolol appeared to be effective in preventing arrhythmias and syncope in long QT syndrome patients with mutation W305L. Both R380S and W305L mutations led to “loss-of-function” of the Kv7.1 channel accounting for the clinical phenotypes.
We first show two missense KCNQ1 mutations – R380S and W305L – in Chinese long QT syndrome patients, resulting in the loss of protein function. Mutation W305L in the P-loop domain of the Kv7.1 may derive a pronounced benefit from β-blocker therapy in symptomatic long QT syndrome patients, whereas mutation R380S located in the C-terminus may be associated with a high risk of sudden cardiac death.
In this paper, a new algorithm is developed based on the homogenization method integrating with the newly developed Hybrid Treffe FEM (HT-FEM) and Hybrid Fundamental Solution based FEM (HFS-FEM). The algorithm can be used to evaluate effective elastic properties of heterogeneous composites. The representative volume element (RVE) of fiber reinforced composites with periodic boundary conditions is introduced and used in our numerical analysis. The proposed algorithm is assessed through two numerical examples with different mesh density and element geometry and used to investigate the effect of fiber volume fraction, fiber shape and configuration on the effective properties of composites. It is found that the proposed algorithm is insensitive to element geometry and mesh density compared with the traditional FEM (e.g. ABAQUS). The numerical results indicate that the HT-FEM and HFS-FEM are promising in micromechanical modeling of heterogeneous materials containing inclusions of various shapes and distributions. They are potential to be used for future application in multiscale simulation.
Human genomic structural variation (SV) is significant factor in genome complexity, and thus has substantial implications to the cause, development and progression of genetic diseases. These SVs, ranging in size of 1kbp-1Mbp, are challenging to assess with current technologies. As such, we have developed a commercial system (nanoAnalyzer® 1000) for the rapid linear analysis of genomes at single-molecule level.
The core of our system is a nanofluidic chip consisting of an array of channels with a diameter less than 100 nm, nanofabricated on the surface of a silicon substrate. Thousands of unamplified genomic DNA molecules of 100’s kbps to several Mbps can be isolated and linearly streamed into the array for analysis in a parallel fashion. Fluorescently labeled sequence-specific signatures can then be identified and aligned to reference patterns at high resolution with custom software. This automated, multi-color imaging platform will enable a wide range of applications, such as accurate sequencing assembly, discovering genome structural variations, and uncovering epigenomic content. Nanochannel arrays promise to substantially lower the barriers of entry for single-molecule DNA analysis for scientists and clinicians, greatly impacting the advancement of molecular diagnostics, personalized medicine, and biomedical research.
The findings of previous studies remain controversial on the optimal management required for effective seizure control after surgical excision of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). We evaluated the efficacy of additional bipolar electrocoagulation on the electrically positive cortex guided by intraoperative electrocorticography (ECoG) for controlling cerebral AVMs-related epilepsy.
Clinical Material and Methods:
Sixty consecutive patients with seizure due to cerebral AVMs, who underwent surgical excision of cerebral AVMs and intraoperative ECoG, were assessed. The AVMs and surrounding hemosiderin stained tissue were completely removed, and bipolar electrocoagulation was applied on the surrounding cerebral cortex where epileptic discharges were monitored via intraoperative ECoG. Patients were followed up at three to six months after the surgery and then annually. We evaluated seizure outcome by using Engel's classification and postoperative complications.
Forty-nine patients (81.6%) were detected of epileptic discharges before and after AVMs excision. These patients underwent the removal of AVMs plus bipolar electrocoagulation on spike-positive site cortex. After electrocoagulation, 45 patients' epileptic discharges disappeared, while four obviously diminished. Fifty-five of 60 patients (91.7%) had follow-up lasting at least 22 months (mean 51.1 months; range 22-93 months). Determined by the Engel Seizure Outcome Scale, 39 patients (70.9%) were Class I, seven (12.7%) Class II, five (9.0%) Class III, and four (7.2%) Class IV.
Even alter the complete removal of AVM and sunwinding gliolic and hemosiderin stained tissue, a high-frequency residual spike remained on the surrounding cerebral cortex. Effective surgical seizure control can be achieved by carrying on I additional bipolar electrocoagulation on the cortex guided by the intraoperative ECoG.
Prophylaxis and treatment with oseltamivir effectively controlled a community outbreak of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) in China. The genetic makeup of strains of different generations seemed to be stable. Travel in confined settings might accelerate the transmission of pandemic influenza in a community outbreak.
The volatile compounds of crofton weed infested by cotton aphids and sprayed
with MeJA were collected and analyzed by the TCT-GC/MS technique. The
healthy weeds were controls. Seventeen volatiles identified from crofton
weed included green leaf odors, monoterpenes and sequiterpenes, and
oxo-compounds. Camphene, 2-carene, α-phellandrene, ρ-cymene, and
caryophyllene were the major volatiles and constituted about 77% of the
total volatile emissions from the control. In the aphid-infested weeds, no
new induced component was found. Among the terpenes, ρ-cymene increased
markedly in the infested weeds compared with the control, whereas all
sesquiterpenes decreased markedly. Levels of endogenous JA in leaves and
young stems of the aphid-infested weeds were markedly higher than in the
control, whereas both endogenous SA level and ABA level were not
significantly different. MeJA sprayed on crofton weed with the aphid
infestation had a similar effect on volatile emissions. It is suggested that
JA was one of the most important signals in crofton weed and could regulate
the emission of volatile compounds.
We report on an approach for laser surface nitriding of Ti6Al4V alloy coupled with an applied stress field. A surprising finding was that, with increasing the applied stress levels, the decreased residual stress, the nitrogen concentration near the surface, and the surface microhardness of the nitrided layer were associated with the increased friction coefficient. Across the depth of the nitrided layer, the hardness, the elastic modulus, and the wear resistance (H/E) measured by nanoindentation decreased gradually and were ascribed to the gradient of nitrogen concentration in the melt zone.
Accumulated evidence suggests that social support is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. However, there are little data that examine this issue from Asian samples. We reported results from a preliminary study that examined familial effects on social support in a Chinese adult twin sample. We administered a 10-item social support instrument that measures three dimensions of social support (i.e., objective support, subjective support, and utilization of support) developed for the Chinese population. Two hundred forty-two same-sex twin pairs, where both members of the pair completed the personal interview, were included in the final analysis. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate additive genetic (A), shared environmental (C), and nonshared environmental (E) effects on each dimension of social support. Familial factors (A+C) explained 56.63% [95% CI = 45.48–65.72%] and 42.42% [95% CI = 29.93–53.25%] of the total phenotypic variances of subjective support and utilization of support, respectively. For the objective support, genetic effects did not exist, but common environmental effect explained 37.56% [95% CI = 26.17–48.28%] of the total phenotypic variances. Neither gender nor age effects were seen on any dimension of social support. Except for objective support, genetic factors probably influence variation in subjective support and utilization of support. Shared environmental factors may influence all dimensions of social support.
The genetic diversity of 43 male sterile and low fertility Citrus accessions, as well as 13 fertile ones, were assessed using simple sequence repeat markers (SSRs). Thirty-five polymorphic alleles were generated from eight primers (on average 4.4 alleles per primer). Cluster analysis was performed via unweighted pair group method analysis (UPGMA) using the NTSYS-pc version 2.10. The results showed that the accessions could be classified into three groups: cultivars of mandarin were classified into group 1; those of sweet orange, grapefruit, ponkan or tangor into group 2; and Microcitrus with male sterile cytoplasm into group 3. Cluster analysis also revealed that Satsuma mandarin was more closely related to Bendiguangju mandarin than to Zaoju, Mankieh or Huangyan Bendizao tangerine. The present study on genetic diversity of male sterile and low fertility Citrus will provide useful information for further collection, preservation and utilization of this plant.
This study reports on the determination of zygosity in Chinese adult twins by simple questionnaire and physical features comparison. The subjects were 511 twin pairs from two cities and their town areas, consisting of 371 monozygotic (MZ) and 140 same-sex dizygotic (DZ) pairs, identified by ABO blood group and multiplex polymerase chain reaction of several polymorphic short tandem repeat markers. The twins themselves responded to 8 questionnaire items, 4 items on twin similarity, and 4 items on the frequency of mistaking one twin for another by parents, relatives, teachers and strangers when they were 6 to 13 years old. Research assistants responded to 20 items regarding twins' physical features at the moment of interview. A parsimonious model established using stepwise logistic regression analysis of the 28 items showed that the total accuracy of zygosity diagnosis was 90.1%. The accuracy was 89.2% when using only the items dealing with the confusion of twins and 85.4% using only similarity. In the questionnaire, ‘facial appearance’, ‘mistaken by teachers’ and ‘mistaken by strangers’ had stronger discriminating power between MZ and DZ twins. Two physical features — ‘eyelid’ and ‘middigital hair’ — were informative to some extent. There was no statistically significant sex and area difference in the validity of such questionnaire and physical features comparison-based classification. In conclusion, questionnaire-based zygosity assessment in this Chinese adult twin sample could still be regarded as a valid and valuable classification method. Physical features comparison, however, could only provide limited information for zygosity determination.
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