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Population ageing in China calls for evidence-based solutions, especially in terms of fulfilling long-term care needs among frail older adults. Respite services are identified as effective resources for alleviating care-giver burden and promoting the wellbeing of both older adults and their family care-givers. However, respite care is often under-used in China. This research aimed to examine factors associated with intention to use respite services among informal care-givers in Shanghai, mainland China. This study was part of the Longitudinal Study on Family Caregivers for Frail Older Adults in Shanghai. Pairs of older adults and their care-givers (N = 583) who successfully completed the 2013 and 2016 waves were included in the data analysis. Two logistic regression models were conducted, one with time-invariant and one with time-variant factors. The model with time-variant factors had greater explanatory power than the original Andersen model with time-invariant factors influencing intention to use respite services among care-givers. Care-givers had higher odds of intending to use respite services if they had higher care-giving burden, were caring elderly people who experienced care-giver transitions, or were caring for elderly people with increased function of ambulation or decreased function of feeding. The findings imply that change in functional health was a significant determinant of intention to use respite care. Relevant policy and service implications will be discussed.
The aim of this study was to analyze the profile of chest injuries, oxygen therapy for respiratory failure, and the outcomes of victims after the Jiangsu tornado, which occurred on June 23, 2016 in Yancheng City, Jiangsu Province, China.
The clinical records of 144 patients referred to Yancheng City No.1 People’s Hospital from June 23 through June 25 were retrospectively investigated. Of those patients, 68 (47.2%) sustained major chest injuries. The demographic details, trauma history, details of injuries and Abbreviated Injury Scores (AIS), therapy for respiratory failure, surgical procedures, length of intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital stay, and mortality were analyzed.
Of the 68 patients, 41 (60.3%) were female and 27 (39.7%) were male. The average age of the injured patients was 57.1 years. Forty-six patients (67.6%) suffered from polytrauma. The mean thoracic AIS of the victims was calculated as 2.85 (SD = 0.76). Rib fracture was the most common chest injury, noted in 56 patients (82.4%). Pulmonary contusion was the next most frequent injury, occurring in 12 patients (17.7%). Ten patients with severe chest trauma were admitted to ICU. The median ICU stay was 11.7 (SD = 8.5) days. Five patients required intubation and ventilation, one patient was treated with noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV), and four patients were treated with high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC). Three patients died during hospitalization. The hospital mortality was 4.41%.
Chest trauma was a common type of injury after tornado. The most frequent thoracic injuries were rib fractures and pulmonary contusion. Severe chest trauma is usually associated with a high incidence of respiratory support requirements and a long length of stay in the ICU. Early initiation of appropriate oxygen therapy was vital to restoring normal respiratory function and saving lives. Going forward, HFNC might be an effective and well-tolerated therapeutic addition to the management of acute respiratory failure in chest trauma.
Bastian, Jetten, and Ferris (2014) reported that shared pain enhances people’s bonding and cooperative behavior, but that shared no-pain has no such effect. They concluded that shared pain is a type of social glue that can improve people’s cooperation. However, in real life, both painful and painless experiences are often nonshared. Logically, the most direct way to determine whether sharing is the important element or not is to compare shared conditions with nonshared conditions. We conducted two experiments to investigate the relative effects of pain and sharing on enhancing people’s bonding and cooperative behavior by adding conditions of unshared pain and unshared no-pain. In experiment 1, we replicated Bastian, Jetten, and Ferris’s (2014) findings, and found that the effect of pain on bonding was mediated by empathy. In experiment 2, we used a 2 (pain/no-pain) × 2 (shared/unshared) design and found that while shared pain still induced more cooperative behavior than shared no-pain, unshared pain did not induce more cooperative behavior than unshared no-pain. Moreover, we found that empathy significantly mediated the relationship between pain and bonding when participants shared the experience. These results suggest that sharing is a necessary component for pain to act as social glue.
A magnetic dipole quasi-Yagi antenna based on a dielectric resonator (DR) is proposed in this letter. The dominate TE1δ1 mode of the rectangular DR is used as a magnetic dipole which can be differentially fed by the coplanar strip line (CPS). Thanks to the DR employment, the proposed antenna has several advantages such as compact size and flexible design which means the 3-D dimensions of the DR can be easily adjusted to cater for various applications. Meanwhile, the gain of the proposed DR quasi-Yagi antenna is higher than that of traditional electric dipole counterparts. Furthermore, since the DR driver is horizontally polarized, both the metal strip and DR can be used as a director for enhancing the end-fire gain. To verify the design concept, a prototype operating at the X-band is fabricated and measured. Good agreement between the simulated and measured results can be observed.
This study aimed to determine whether increased carotenoids intake was associated with reduced risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We performed a cross-sectional analysis using data from Tongji Maternal and Child Health Cohort study. The dietary carotenoids intake of 1978 pregnant women was assessed using a researcher-administered FFQ before undertaking an oral glucose tolerance test at 24–28 weeks. Multivariate logistic and linear regression analyses were used to obtain the effect estimates. Participants in the highest quartile of lycopene intake showed a lower risk of GDM (OR 0·50; 95 % CI 0·29, 0·86; Pfor trend = 0·007) compared with those in the lowest quartile; each 1 mg increase in lycopene consumption was associated with a 5 % (95 % CI 0·91, 0·99; Pfor trend = 0·020) decrease in GDM risk. No significant association was found between α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein/zeaxanthin intake and GDM risk. Multiple linear regression analysis suggested an inverse association between lycopene intake and fasting blood glucose (FBG) (Pfor trend < 0·001); each 1 mg increase in lycopene intake was associated with 0·005 (95 % CI 0·002, 0·007; Pfor trend < 0·001) mmol/l decrease in FBG. Interaction analysis indicated consistent effect on each age or pre-BMI subgroup; however, a stronger protective effect of lycopene intake against GDM was observed among primigravid women (OR 0·20; 95 % CI 0·07, 0·55 in the highest v. the lowest quartile of intake; Pfor interaction = 0·036). In conclusion, dietary lycopene intake was mainly assumed via reducing FBG to decrease GDM risk, and the protection was relatively increased among primigravid women.
Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) observations contain various errors, the separation and measurement of which is a popular research topic. Multipath effect on code measurements is investigated through the multipath combination, but carrier multipath error is small, and it is difficult to distinguish from other errors, such as hardware delay, carrier noise and satellite inherent biases. However, as the number of frequency points increases during the rapid development of GNSSs, it is possible to analyse the abovementioned errors in detail. Triple-frequency combination can be used to eliminate the first order ionospheric error, and a quad-frequency combination has one degree of freedom, which may be used to minimise carrier error effects. For this reason, an optimum method has been developed for multi-frequency GNSS code-multipath combination measurements, which has been verified by exploiting BeiDou System (BDS), three frequency data from an International GNSS Service (IGS) station and a city canyon as well as actual sampled quad-frequency data. By comparative analysis, we found that the fluctuations of an optimum triple-frequency combination are smaller than that of the non-optimum combination, which decreases the influence of inherent errors and biases on carrier phase. At the same time, second-order ionospheric error can be effectively eliminated as well. This provides a new code-multipath combination measurement optimisation methodology for future multi-frequency BDS and other GNSSs.
Direct numerical simulation is conducted to uncover the response of a supersonic turbulent boundary layer to streamwise concave curvature and the related physical mechanisms at a Mach number of 2.95. Streamwise variations of mean flow properties, turbulence statistics and turbulent structures are analysed. A method to define the boundary layer thickness based on the principal strain rate is proposed, which is applicable for boundary layers subjected to wall-normal pressure and velocity gradients. While the wall friction grows with the wall turning, the friction velocity decreases. A logarithmic region with constant slope exists in the concave boundary layer. However, with smaller slope, it is located lower than that of the flat boundary layer. Streamwise varying trends of the velocity and the principal strain rate within different wall-normal regions are different. The turbulence level is promoted by the concave curvature. Due to the increased turbulence generation in the outer layer, secondary bumps are noted in the profiles of streamwise and spanwise turbulence intensity. Peak positions in profiles of wall-normal turbulence intensity and Reynolds shear stress are pushed outward because of the same reason. Attributed to the Görtler instability, the streamwise extended vortices within the hairpin packets are intensified and more vortices are generated. Through accumulations of these vortices with a similar sense of rotation, large-scale streamwise roll cells are formed. Originated from the very large-scale motions and by promoting the ejection, sweep and spanwise events, the formation of large-scale streamwise roll cells is the physical cause of the alterations of the mean properties and turbulence statistics. The roll cells further give rise to the vortex generation. The large number of hairpin vortices formed in the near-wall region lead to the improved wall-normal correlation of turbulence in the concave boundary layer.
We examine whether sizable initial public offerings (IPOs) affect the whole market. Using a Chinese IPO sample, we find robust evidence that sizable IPOs depress the market price on not only the listing day but also the offering (subscription) day. The impact on the market is negatively correlated with IPO size on the listing day. However, this impact is largely transitory. The China Securities Regulatory Commission (CSRC) often places a moratorium on IPOs to support the market, which seems ineffective as the negative IPO effect is transitory and moratoriums are not perceived as good news.
Previous studies have supported the theory that there is a positive association between ferritin and carotid atherosclerosis in Western people. Diet plays an important role in determining serum ferritin concentration. Asian dietary patterns are different from Western dietary patterns, implying that there may be a difference in the association of ferritin with carotid atherosclerosis between Asian and Western people. However, few studies focus on the association between ferritin and carotid atherosclerosis among Asians. The aim of this study was to investigate how serum ferritin levels are associated with carotid atherosclerosis in an Asian adult population. A cross-sectional assessment was performed in 8302 adults in Tianjin, China. Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaques were assessed using ultrasonography, and serum ferritin was measured using the protein chip-chemiluminescence method. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between quartiles of serum ferritin concentration and carotid atherosclerosis. In the present study, the overall prevalence of IMT and carotid plaques in participants is 29·2 and 22·7 %, respectively. In women, after adjustments for potentially confounding factors, the OR of IMT and carotid plaques by increasing serum ferritin quartiles were 1·00, 1·39 (95 % CI 0·98–1·99), 1·39 (95 % CI 0·99–1·97), 1·81 (95 % CI 1·30–2·55) (Pfor trend<0·001) and 1·00, 1·24 (95 % CI 0·89–1·73), 1·18 (95 % CI 0·85–1·65), 1·59 (95 % CI 1·15–2·20) (Pfor trend<0·01), respectively. However, no association was found between serum ferritin and carotid atherosclerosis in men. The study demonstrated that increased serum ferritin levels are independently associated with IMT and carotid plaques in Asian women but not in Asian men.
The E2F transcription factor family is distributed widely in eukaryotes and has been well studied among mammals. In the present study, the E2F transcription factor 4 (E2F4) gene was isolated from fat bodies of Antheraea pernyi and sequenced. E2F4 comprised a 795 bp open reading frame encoding a deduced amino acid sequence of 264 amino acid residues. The recombinant protein was expressed in Escherichia coli (Transetta DE3), and anti-E2F4 antibodies were prepared. The deduced amino acid sequence displayed significant homology to an E2F4-like protein from Bombyx mori L. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that E2F4 expression was highest in the integument, followed by the fat body, silk glands, and haemocytes. The expression of E2F4 was upregulated in larvae challenged by bacterial (Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus), viral (nuclear polyhedrosis virus), and fungal (Beauveria bassiana) pathogens. These observations indicated that E2F4 is an inducible protein in the immune response of A. pernyi and probably in other insects.
Elder self-neglect (ESN) has become a public health issue globally. Limited studies have focused on ESN, as well as the relationship between ESN and quality of life (QoL) in developing countries. The study's objective is to explore the association between ESN and QoL among rural elderly in China.
A cross-sectional study was conducted among 3,182 elder adults aged 60 years or older, using a cluster-sampling technique in one township in Dangtu, a county in Anhui province. All participants completed face-to-face interview in their household. QoL was assessed using a brief form of the World Health Organization's quality of life questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF), and ESN was assessed using the Scale of the Elderly Self-neglect (SESN). Hierarchical linear regression models were used to analyze the associations between the ESN scores and QoL scores after adjusting for sociodemographic, social support, and physical and psychological variables.
The scores of overall ESN and five domains were significantly correlated with the scores of four QoL domains (p < 0.001). After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, social support, and physical and psychological health characteristics, elders who reported higher overall self-neglect scores had significantly lower scores in the four QoL domains (p < 0.001). Education, economic level, physical health, ADL, depression, and cognitive function are consistent predictors across all QoL domains.
ESN is an independent risk factor for poor QoL in elderly people in rural China. Understanding the role of ESN and its influence on QoL is important for the management of and intervention in ESN.
Serpins are a broadly distributed family of proteases found in various organisms that play an important role in regulating the immune response. Here, we identified a serpin-1 gene from Antheraea pernyi that encodes a 279 amino acid protein with a molecular weight of 30.8 kDa. We expressed the recombinant Ap-serpin-1 protein in Escherichia coli and used the purified protein to prepare rabbit anti-Ap-serpin-1 polyclonal antibodies. We calculated the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay titer of the antibody as 1:128000. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that Ap-serpin-1 was expressed in all examined tissues, including hemolymph, malpighian tubules, midgut, silk gland, integument and the fat body; the highest Ap-serpin-1 expression levels was detected in the fat body. We next investigated the expression patterns of Ap-serpin-1 in both fat body and hemolymph samples, following treatment with E. coli, Beauveria bassiana, Micrococcus luteus and nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV). We reported that NPV and M. luteus significantly enhanced Ap-serpin-1 expression in the fat body. While, in the hemolymph samples, treatment with B. bassiana and M. luteus was shown to upregulate Ap-serpin-1 expression at 24 h induction. Altogether, our results suggest that Ap-serpin-1 is involved in the innate immunity of A. pernyi.
Picoeukaryotes (<2–3 μm) perform key roles for the functioning of marine ecosystems, but little is known regarding the composition and diversity of picoeukaryotes in aquaculture areas. In this study, the Illumina MiSeq platform was used for sequencing the V4 variable region within the 18S rDNA gene to analyse genetic diversity and relative abundance of picoeukaryotic communities in the Qinhuangdao scallop cultivation area of the Bohai Sea. The community was dominated by three super groups, the alveolates (54%), stramenopiles (41%) and chlorophytes (3%), and three groups, dinoflagellates (54%), pelagomonadales (40%) and prasinophytes (3%). Furthermore, a contrasting station with open water away from the eutrophic aquaculture area was chosen. The communities collected from the two stations exhibited significant differences, with higher diversity in the aquaculture area. These results provide the first snapshot of the picoeukaryotic diversity in surface waters of the Qinhuangdao scallop cultivation area, and basic data for future studies on picoeukaryote community in an aquaculture region.
Deploying resistant cultivars is an economical and essential management method in controlling viral diseases, and there are several mutational resources for tobacco. In the present study, the inoculation of tobacco plants with tobacco viruses was performed in a greenhouse from 2011 to 2014 to identify mutants resistant to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). The high-throughput screening included seeding uniformly, transplanting in seedbeds, inoculating by cloth brushes and reporting symptoms based on disease indices. A total of 4000 second generation segregating (M2) mutants of tobacco cultivar Zhongyan100 were screened. Seeds from highly resistant mutant M2 plants were selected and planted separately. The M3 were grown and mutational stability was measured. For TMV, ten highly resistant plants were selected in the M2 generation and the mutation rate was 0·012%. In the M3 generation, there were seven mutants with hereditary high resistance and, according to the results of real-time polymerase chain reaction, the N gene was detected in all seven M3. Two hereditary immune M4 mutants, one of which was a male sterile line, were identified and evaluated in the glasshouse and in the field. For CMV, seven highly resistant plants were selected from the M2 generation and the mutation rate was 0·009%. In the M3 generation, there was one mutant with hereditary high resistance. The results indicate that hereditary mutants may be identified in the M4 generation and back-crossed to wild-type Zhongyan100 to identify anti-viral genes.
In this paper, we introduce a diffuse interface model for describing the dynamics of mixtures involving multiple (two or more) phases. The coupled hydrodynamical system is derived through an energetic variational approach. The total energy of the system includes the kinetic energy and the mixing (interfacial) energies. The least action principle (or the principle of virtual work) is applied to derive the conservative part of the dynamics, with a focus on the reversible part of the stress tensor arising from the mixing energies. The dissipative part of the dynamics is then introduced through a dissipation function in the energy law, in line with Onsager's principle of maximum dissipation. The final system, formed by a set of coupled time-dependent partial differential equations, reflects a balance among various conservative and dissipative forces and governs the evolution of velocity and phase fields. To demonstrate the applicability of the proposed model, a few two-dimensional simulations have been carried out, including (1) the force balance at the three-phase contact line in equilibrium, (2) a rising bubble penetrating a fluid-fluid interface, and (3) a solid particle falling in a binary fluid. The effects of slip at solid surface have been examined in connection with contact line motion and a pinch-off phenomenon.
The unique properties of silicon oxide materials, no matter intrinsic or doped, utilized in thin film solar cells (TFSCs) in the area of photovoltaic (PV) are making TFSCs one of the most attractive photovoltaic technologies for the development of high-performing electricity production units to be integrated in everyday life. In comparison to other silicon materials, the particular diphasic structure of silicon oxide materials, in which hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon (μc-Si:H) crystallites are surrounded by an oxygen-rich hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) phase, causes them present excellent photoelectrical material properties, such as a low-parasitic absorption in the broadband spectral range, independent controllability of longitudinal and lateral conductivity, refractive indices (3.5-2.0), band gap (2.0-2.6 eV) and conductivity tenability (with orders of 1-10-9 S/cm) with oxygen doping, and so on. Various types of silicon oxide materials, including intrinsic, p- or n- type, further applied in TFSCs have also played significant roles in improving the efficiency of various types of single-, dual-, and triple-junction thin-film solar cells from both the optical and electrical points of view. In this paper, we present our latest progress in studying the performance improvement role of intrinsic or doped silicon oxide materials in pin-type a-Si:H, a-SiGe:H, and μc-Si:H single-junction solar cells. By effectively tuning the band gap values of intrinsic a-SiOx:H materials with oxygen doping and adopting the layers with a suitable band gap (1.86 eV) as the P/I buffer layers of a-Si:H solar cells fabricated on metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) boron-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:B) substrates, a significant Voc increases up to 909 mV and an excellent external quantum efficiency (EQE) response of 75% at the 400 nm typical wavelength can be achieved by matching the band gap discontinuity between the p-type nc-SiOx:H window and a-Si:H intrinsic layers. The serious leakage current characteristics of pin-type narrow-gap (Eg<1.5 eV) a-SiGe:H single-junction solar cells can also be finely tuned by integrating an n-type μc-SiOx:H layer with a small oxygen content in addition to improving the long-wavelength response, an effective approach gives rise to the highest FF of 70.62% for pin-type a-SiGe:H single-junction solar cells with an average band gap of 1.48 eV. In addition, our studies proved that the application of p-type μc-SiOx:H window layers in μc-Si:H single-junction solar cells can effectively improve the short-wavelength light coupling by suppressing the parasitic absorption and promoting the anti-reflectivity with a graded refractive index profile. On the basis of the optimum single-junction solar cells with omnipotent silicon oxide materials, an initial efficiency of 16.07% has been achieved for pin-type a-Si:H/a-SiGe:H/μc-Si:H triple-junction solar cells with an active area of 0.25 cm2. The omnipotent properties of silicon oxide layers in TFSCs, including effective optical coupling and trapping, suitability in compensating for the band gap discontinuity, the shunt-quenching capacity, and so on, make them likely to be extended to other types of solar cells such as polycrystalline chalcopyrite Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) and perovskite-sensitized solar cells, opening up new opportunities for acquiring solar cells with higher performance.
We present a new composite quadrature rule which is exact for polynomials of degree 2N + K – 1 with N abscissas at each subinterval and K boundary conditions. The corresponding orthogonal polynomials are introduced and the analytic formulae for abscissas and weight functions are presented. Numerical results show that the new quadrature rule is more efficient, compared with classical ones.
To ascertain whether the Kunming (KM) mouse is an available model for age-related decline in female fertility in human or not, oocytes from young (6–8 weeks), middle-aged (9 months) and aged (12 months) female mice were compared with respect to number of oocytes, frequency of in-vitro maturation (IVM) and in-vitro fertilization (IVF), and meiotic chromosome segregation and alignment. The mean number of pups born per mouse decreased significantly from the young to the middle-aged and the aged mice. The mean number of ovarian follicles, ovarian germinal vesicle oocytes and ovulated MII oocytes decreased significantly with maternal age. The rate of IVM in oocytes from young mice (73.9%) was less significantly than that in oocytes from middle-aged and aged mice (86.1% and 84.4%, respectively). Immunocytochemical analysis showed that ageing caused a significantly higher rate (49.3%) of chromosome misalignment than that (15.7%) of the young mice. The presence of premature chromatids was also significantly higher in MII oocytes of aged mice as compared with young mice (37.8 versus 8.3%). Pronuclear formation was delayed in oocytes of middle-aged and aged females (35.5 and 42.3% respectively in 5 h of IVF) as compared with young mice (88.1%). The study suggests that KM mouse exhibits an age-related decline in female fertility. Significant reduction of germinal vesicle (GV) and MII oocytes and significant increase of metaphase chromosome misalignment and premature chromatid segregation after meiotic maturation of oocytes, similar to human, presumably contribute to the decline in aged KM mice.