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Understanding the patterns of treatment response is critical for the treatment of patients with schizophrenia; one way to achieve this is through using a longitudinal dynamic process study design.
This study aims to explore the response trajectory of antipsychotics and compare the treatment responses of seven different antipsychotics over 6 weeks in patients with schizoprenia (trial registration: Chinese Clinical Trials Registry Identifier: ChiCTR-TRC-10000934).
Data were collected from a multicentre, randomised open-label clinical trial. Patients were evaluated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) at baseline and follow-up at weeks 2, 4 and 6. Trajectory groups were classified by the method of k-means cluster modelling for longitudinal data. Trajectory analyses were also employed for the seven antipsychotic groups.
The early treatment response trajectories were classified into a high-trajectory group of better responders and a low-trajectory group of worse responders. The results of trajectory analysis showed differences compared with the classification method characterised by a 50% reduction in PANSS scores at week 6. A total of 349 patients were inconsistently grouped by the two methods, with a significant difference in the composition ratio of treatment response groups using these two methods (χ2 = 43.37, P < 0.001). There was no differential contribution of high- and low trajectories to different drugs (χ2 = 12.52, P = 0.051); olanzapine and risperidone, which had a larger proportion in the >50% reduction at week 6, performed better than aripiprazole, quetiapine, ziprasidone and perphenazine.
The trajectory analysis of treatment response to schizophrenia revealed two distinct trajectories. Comparing the treatment responses to different antipsychotics through longitudinal analysis may offer a new perspective for evaluating antipsychotics.
In this study, direct numerical simulation of the dispersion and motion of inertial particles in a spatially developing compressible turbulent boundary layer at a Mach number of 2 is performed with the Eulerian–Lagrangian point particle method. Two cases are simulated with different particle diameters (Stokes number) but identical inflow particle numbers. Statistical characteristics and preferential accumulation of particles in the very-near-wall and wake regions are systematically investigated through conditional sampling and mechanism analysis. The results reveal that particle streaks are formed in low-speed regions near the wall because of the influence of dominating ejection events. After normalization with the local minimum particle number density, the particle number density profile reveals a self-similar feature at different streamwise positions. Compared with small particles, large particles are more significantly influenced by turbophoresis and demonstrate stronger preferential accumulation; thus, more large particles are clustered in the near-wall regions and the deviation between the mean velocities of the particle and the fluid increases. With the wall effect, both large and small particles are selectively accumulated in high-vorticity regions in the buffer layer in contrast to turbulence without walls. In comparison with incompressible wall-bounded turbulence, a new mechanism for particle preferential accumulation based on local fluid density is discovered. Large particles are located in low-density regions in the inner zones and high-density regions in the outer zones. Nevertheless, small particles remain located in regions with low fluid density, as illustrated by the mechanism analysis of particle dilatation.
Bastian, Jetten, and Ferris (2014) reported that shared pain enhances people’s bonding and cooperative behavior, but that shared no-pain has no such effect. They concluded that shared pain is a type of social glue that can improve people’s cooperation. However, in real life, both painful and painless experiences are often nonshared. Logically, the most direct way to determine whether sharing is the important element or not is to compare shared conditions with nonshared conditions. We conducted two experiments to investigate the relative effects of pain and sharing on enhancing people’s bonding and cooperative behavior by adding conditions of unshared pain and unshared no-pain. In experiment 1, we replicated Bastian, Jetten, and Ferris’s (2014) findings, and found that the effect of pain on bonding was mediated by empathy. In experiment 2, we used a 2 (pain/no-pain) × 2 (shared/unshared) design and found that while shared pain still induced more cooperative behavior than shared no-pain, unshared pain did not induce more cooperative behavior than unshared no-pain. Moreover, we found that empathy significantly mediated the relationship between pain and bonding when participants shared the experience. These results suggest that sharing is a necessary component for pain to act as social glue.
To examine the relationship between the therapeutic effect of intratympanic methylprednisolone perfusion and histone acetylation in refractory sudden sensorineural hearing loss.
Thirty-four refractory sudden sensorineural hearing loss patients were enrolled and treated with intratympanic methylprednisolone perfusion. Pure tone average, acetylated histone H3, acetylated histone H4 and histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) were measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells before and after intratympanic methylprednisolone perfusion. Sixteen healthy volunteers were recruited to obtain normal reference values.
Pure tone average in sudden sensorineural hearing loss patients improved from 84.14 ± 13.54 dB to 73.56 ± 18.45 dB after intratympanic methylprednisolone perfusion. Up-regulations in HDAC2 protein level, and down-regulations in histone H3 and H4 acetylation were observed in the intratympanic methylprednisolone perfusion sensitive group (pure tone average gain of 15 dB or more), while no significant changes were observed in the intratympanic methylprednisolone perfusion insensitive group (pure tone average gain of less than 15 dB).
Intratympanic methylprednisolone perfusion can improve hearing in a considerable number of refractory sudden sensorineural hearing loss patients. The therapeutic effect is closely related to reduced histone acetylation.
Obesity and insulin resistance play important roles in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Mg intake is linked to a reduced risk of metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance; people with NAFLD or alcoholic liver disease are at high risk of Mg deficiency. The present study aimed to investigate whether Mg and Ca intakes were associated with risk of fatty liver disease and prediabetes by alcohol drinking status.
We analysed the association between Ca or Mg intake and fatty liver disease, prediabetes or both prediabetes and fatty liver disease in cross-sectional analyses.
Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) follow-up cohort of US adults.
Nationally representative sample of US adults in NHANES (n 13 489).
After adjusting for potential confounders, Mg intake was associated with approximately 30 % reduced odds of fatty liver disease and prediabetes, comparing the highest intake quartile v. the lowest. Mg intake may only be related to reduced odds of fatty liver disease and prediabetes in those whose Ca intake is less than 1200 mg/d. Mg intake may also only be associated with reduced odds of fatty liver disease among alcohol drinkers.
The study suggests that high intake of Mg may be associated with reduced risks of fatty liver disease and prediabetes. Further large studies, particularly prospective cohort studies, are warranted to confirm the findings.
In this paper, a systematic investigation of turbulence modulation by particles and its underlying physical mechanisms in decaying compressible isotropic turbulence is performed by using direct numerical simulations with the Eulerian–Lagrangian point-source approach. Particles interact with turbulence through two-way coupling and the initial turbulent Mach number is 1.2. Five simulations with different particle diameters (or initial Stokes numbers,
) are conducted while fixing both their volume fraction and particle densities. The underlying physical mechanisms responsible for turbulence modulation are analysed through investigating the particle motion in the different cases and the transport equations of turbulent kinetic energy, vorticity and dilatation, especially the two-way coupling terms. Our results show that microparticles (
) augment turbulent kinetic energy and the rotational motion of fluid, critical particles (
) enhance the rotational motion of fluid, and large particles (
) attenuate turbulent kinetic energy and the rotational motion of fluid. The compressibility of the turbulence field is suppressed for all the cases, and the suppression is more significant if the Stokes number of particles is close to 1. The modifications of turbulent kinetic energy, the rotational motion and the compressibility are all related with the particle inertia and distributions, and the suppression of the compressibility is attributed to the preferential concentration and the inertia of particles.
Novel mixed micelle was successfully fabricated by the synergistic self-assembly of poly(methacrylate isobutyl polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS)-co-N-isopropylacrylamide-co-oligo(ethylene glycol)methyl ether methacrylate-co-acrylic acid) (P(methacrylate isobutyl (MAPOSS)-co-NIPAM-co-OEGMA-co-AA)) and poly(methacrylate isobutyl POSS-co-N-isopropylacrylamide-co-oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate-co-2-vinylpyridine) (P(MAPOSS-co-NIPAM-co-OEGMA-co-2VP)). Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy characterizations demonstrate that the formation of mixed micelles is driven by electrostatic interaction. The formation of the mixed micelles was further implied by a simple fluorescence resonance energy transfer based technique. The mixed micelle possesses the biggest size at pH = 7.0, which is attributed to the strongest electrostatic interaction between the two kinds of micelles. The zeta potential under different pH was detected to further investigate the surface charges corroborating the discussions. DLS and UV-vis indicate that the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) is pH dependent. The mixed micelles reach the highest LCST at pH 7.0. The LCST of the mixed micelle can be tuned by adjusting the volume ratio of the two kinds of micelles as well. Moreover, the thermo-responsive behavior of the mixed micelle is absolutely reversible.
Evidence suggests a role of Mg and the ratio of Ca:Mg intakes in the prevention of colonic carcinogenesis. The association between these nutrients and oesophageal adenocarcinoma – a tumour with increasing incidence in developed countries and poor survival rates – has yet to be explored. The aim of this investigation was to explore the association between Mg intake and related nutrients and risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma and its precursor conditions, Barrett’s oesophagus and reflux oesophagitis. This analysis included cases of oesophageal adenocarcinoma (n 218), Barrett’s oesophagus (n 212), reflux oesophagitis (n 208) and population-based controls (n 252) recruited between 2002 and 2005 throughout the island of Ireland. All the subjects completed a 101-item FFQ. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was applied to determine odds of disease according to dietary intakes of Mg, Ca and Ca:Mg ratio. After adjustment for potential confounders, individuals consuming the highest amounts of Mg from foods had significant reductions in the odds of reflux oesophagitis (OR 0·31; 95 % CI 0·11, 0·87) and Barrett’s oesophagus (OR 0·29; 95 % CI 0·12, 0·71) compared with individuals consuming the lowest amounts of Mg. The protective effect of Mg was more apparent in the context of a low Ca:Mg intake ratio. No significant associations were observed for Mg intake and oesophageal adenocarcinoma risk (OR 0·77; 95 % CI 0·30, 1·99 comparing the highest and the lowest tertiles of consumption). In conclusion, dietary Mg intakes were inversely associated with reflux oesophagitis and Barrett’s oesophagus risk in this Irish population.
This paper studies the buckling analysis for a ring-stiffened cylindrical shell consisted of functionally graded material (FGM) subjected to hydrostatic pressure and thermal loads. Material properties of the ring-stiffened FGM cylindrical shell are assumed to be temperature-dependent, and vary smoothly through the thickness direction of the structure according to a volume exponent. Based on the Donnell assumptions, buckling loads of the ring-stiffened FGM cylindrical shell are presented by utilizing the Galerkin method. Numerical results reveal that thermal loads, volume exponent and geometric parameters have significant effects on the buckling behavior of the ring-stiffened cylindrical shell.
In the preparation process for scanning electron microscopy (SEM), flexed silkworm embryos typically assume several curled shapes with irregular postures that obscure morphological details during SEM observation. We describe a preparation technique based on glycerol substitution for better SEM visualization of straight and flat silkworm embryos. Glycerol has high viscosity, low vapor pressure, and sufficient electrical conductivity. Silkworm embryos were infiltrated with glycerol and arranged in a straight posture or flattened using a cover slip. Samples were directly observed by SEM without additional dehydration, drying, or coating procedures. The complete ventral side could be easily viewed in one image. Recoating alleviated the charging phenomenon. This represents a simple method for preparation of straight and flat samples from curled biological specimens for SEM observation.
Legumes have been recommended as staple foods in the anticipation of disease prevention. However, the scientific evidence of their benefits, particularly on mental well-being, remains preliminary. We longitudinally assessed the association between legume consumption and the risk of severe depressed mood (SDM) among a national cohort.
The study included adults aged 25–74 years who were examined in 1971–1975 as a part of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Legume consumption at baseline was obtained from a 3-month FFQ and categorised as infrequent (<1 time/week), moderate (1–2 times/week) and frequent (≥3 times/week). SDM was defined as Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale score ≥22 or taking anti-depression medication after an average of 10·6 years of follow-up (from 8·0 to 12·5 years).
Among women, the proportion of individuals with SDM was 17·75 %. For premenopausal women (n 1778), a significant linear trend of deleterious effect from legume consumption was observed (P for trend = 0·0148). The relative risks (RR) for infrequent, moderate and frequent consumptions were 1 (reference), 1·24 (95 % CI = 0·91, 1·70) and 1·75 (1·12, 2·75), respectively. However, moderate consumption showed a significant protective effect (RR = 0·52 (0·27, 1·00)) among women undergoing the menopausal transition (n 454). No association was obtained from either postmenopausal women (n 601) or men (n 2036).
These findings suggest that gender and menopausal status were effect modifiers of the association between legume consumption and SDM. Detrimental effects of frequent consumption of legumes may exist among premenopausal women; moderate consumption, however, may protect perimenopausal women against SDM.
Fe supplementation has been used to prevent anaemia in China; however, high Fe intake and body Fe stores may increase diabetes risk. The present study aimed to prospectively examine the association between Fe intake/stores and hyperglycaemia, and to assess the joint effects on anaemia.
We followed 1056 healthy adults aged 20 years and older from 2002 to 2007. Body Fe stores were measured. Dietary data were collected using a 3 d food record and FFQ. Hyperglycaemia was defined as fasting plasma glucose >5·6 mmol/l.
Of the participants, 28·8 % were anaemic at baseline. During the 5 years of follow-up, we documented 125 incident cases of hyperglycaemia, among them twenty-three were diabetic. Haem Fe intake was positively associated with the risk of hyperglycaemia in men and women: the OR (95 % CI) across increasing quartiles of haem Fe intake was 1·00 (referent), 1·49 (0·74, 3·01), 2·16 (1·06, 4·42) and 3·48 (1·71, 7·11), respectively (P for trend <0·001). Comparing the fourth quartile of serum ferritin with the others, the age- and gender-adjusted OR (95 % CI) was 1·54 (1·01, 2·34), P for trend = 0·043. The association between total Fe intake and the risk of hyperglycaemia was significant in men (P for trend = 0·002). Anaemia added additional risk of hyperglycaemia on haem Fe intake. Comparing extreme quartiles of haem Fe intake, the OR (95 % CI) was 5·67 (1·43, 22·49) and 3·44 (1·51, 7·85) for hyperglycaemia among anaemic and non-anaemic participants (P for trend = 0·008 and 0·010, respectively).
The present cohort study suggests that high haem Fe intake, anaemia and high ferritin are associated with an increased risk of hyperglycaemia in Chinese men and women. There was a joint effect between anaemia and haem Fe intake on the risk of hyperglycaemia.
A number of former forest farms in southern Sichuan province, south-west China have been designated as protected areas following the 1998 logging ban in the upper Yangtze basin. These are within the range of the endemic Sichuan Partridge Arborophila rufipectus which has a fragmented distribution in the remnant broadleaf forests of this region, and is currently listed as ‘Endangered’ by IUCN. The design of a robust conservation plan for this species has been hampered by a lack of knowledge about its habitat preferences in a heavily modified environment. To remedy this, ranging behaviour and habitat utilization by this species was studied through a combination of a call count method and radio tracking of individual birds. The results indicate that A. rufipectus significantly prefers primary and older planted secondary broadleaf forest compared to forest degraded by human activity or scrub. Individual birds were found on the upper parts of slopes and made particular use of areas with a dense canopy and open understorey, whilst avoiding the lower slopes and areas close to trails where human disturbance is likely to be greater. The ongoing conservation programme for this partridge species is based on these findings and includes further protected area designations and management plans, the establishment of new forest corridors, and better control of hunting and other forms of forest exploitation.
This study aimed to explore high-throughput cDNA array monitoring technology and to apply it to the gene expression spectrum analysis of salinity-challenged tobacco plants. A Nicotiana tabacum cDNA library was sequenced and found to consist of 5927 high-quality sequences (GenBank accession nos CV015900-CV021826). By analysing the expressed sequence tags (ESTs), the proportion of N. tabacum genes was identified at the EST level. A cDNA array was constructed based on the tentative unique transcripts (TUTs) derived from EST assembling results. A total of 42 differentially expressed genes were identified, including plasma membrane intrinsic protein 2a, ethylene-responsive proteinase and pre-mRNA splicing factor prp31 gene, suggesting that there was a complicated biological response in N. tabacum under saline stress.
Novel cross-linkable, highly fluorinated poly(arylene ether ketone/sulfone)s have been prepared by copolycondensation reactions of a perfluorinated aromatic ketone or sulfone with 4,4'-(hexafluoroisopropylidene)diphenol (6F-BPA)/4,4'-isopropylidene bis(2,6-dibromophenol) (4Br-BPA) and a tetrafluorostyrol-containing bisphenol, at low temperature in the presence of calcium hydride and cesium fluoride. Property investigations have shown that these polymers can be easily processed into thin films, have good thermal stability, and exhibit low optical loss at 1550 nm (0.4 – 0.5 dB/cm). The refractive index can be tailored over a range of 1.50 to 1.57, allowing the polymers to be used as both core and cladding materials in optical waveguiding applications.
Vanadium oxide nanotube dispersions were investigated in water suspensions and characterized by TEM, absorption spectroscopy and optical limiting testing. The results show that the nanotubes are unrolled and oxidized after 6-day aging, resulting in some change of optical limiting property at the two wavelengths (532 and 1064 nm). The 1.27-eV absorption band is assigned as a superposition of both V d→d and V4+→V5+ charge-transfer excitations, and the features at 2.9 eV are attributed to O 2p→V 3d charge-transfer excitations.
Results in the literature indicate that C12 etches GaAs at room temperature but HCl etches GaAs at a measurable rate only at temperatures above ∼670 K. In this work, molecular beam scattering and surface analysis techniques have been applied to address the fundamental kinetic differences between these two systems. The results indicate that the onset of GaAs etching by C12 is determined by the kinetics of Ga-removal as GaC13 while etching by HCl is limited by As evaporation as As2. The results also suggest that HCl selectively etches gallium from GaAs at temperatures between 600 and 650 K.
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