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Toxigenic Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) carriers represent an important source in the transmission of C. difficile infection (CDI) during hospitalisation, but its prevalence and mode in patients with hepatic cirrhosis are not well established. We investigated longitudinal changes in carriage rates and strain types of toxigenic C. difficile from admission to discharge among hepatic cirrhosis patients. Toxigenic C. difficile was detected in 104 (19.8%) of 526 hepatic cirrhosis patients on admission, and the carriage status changed in a portion of patients during hospitalisation. Approximately 56% (58/104) of patients lost the colonisation during their hospital stay. Among the remaining 48 patients who remained positive for toxigenic C. difficile, the numbers of patients who were positive at one, two, three and four isolations were 10 (55.6%), three (16.7%), two (11.1%) and three (16.7%), respectively. Twenty-eight patients retained a particular monophyletic strain at multiple isolations. The genotype most frequently identified was the same as that frequently identified in symptomatic CDI patients. A total of 25% (26/104) of patients were diagnosed with CDI during their hospital stay. Conclusions: Colonisation with toxigenic C. difficile strains occurs frequently in cirrhosis patients and is a risk factor for CDI.
Kawasaki disease, which is characterised by systemic vasculitides accompanied by acute fever, is regularly treated by intravenous immunoglobulin to avoid lesion formation in the coronary artery; however, the mechanism of intravenous immunoglobulin therapy is unclear. Hence, we aimed to analyse the global expression profile of serum exosomal proteins before and after administering intravenous immunoglobulin.
Two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry analysis was used to identify the differentially expressed proteome of serum exosomes in patients with Kawasaki disease before and after intravenous immunoglobulin therapy.
Our analysis revealed 69 differential protein spots in the Kawasaki disease group with changes larger than 1.5-fold and 59 differential ones in patients after intravenous immunoglobulin therapy compared with the control group. Gene ontology analysis revealed that the acute-phase response disappeared, the functions of the complement system and innate immune response were enhanced, and the antibacterial humoral response pathway of corticosteroids and cardioprotection emerged after administration of intravenous immunoglobulin. Further, we showed that complement C3 and apolipoprotein A-IV levels increased before and decreased after intravenous immunoglobulin therapy and that the insulin-like growth factor-binding protein complex acid labile subunit displayed reverse alteration before and after intravenous immunoglobulin therapy. These observations might be potential indicators of intravenous immunoglobulin function.
Our results show the differential proteomic profile of serum exosomes of patients with Kawasaki disease before and after intravenous immunoglobulin therapy, such as complement C3, apolipoprotein A-IV, and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein complex acid labile subunit. These results may be useful in the identification of markers for monitoring intravenous immunoglobulin therapy in patients with Kawasaki disease.
The high-energy oscillating electric current pulse (ECP) technology was introduced to relieve the residual stresses in the small AISI 1045 steel specimens treated by the pulsed-laser surface irradiation. The high-energy oscillating ECP stress relief experiments were conducted to study the effectiveness of the high-energy oscillating ECP technology. In addition, the electroplasticity framework was developed based on the thermal activation theory to reveal the mechanism of the high-energy oscillating ECP stress relief. The results show that the high-energy oscillating ECP stress relief has good effects on eliminating the residual stress. Furthermore, the residual stress relieving mechanism of the high-energy oscillating ECP stress relief can be attributed to the electric softening effect and the dynamic stress effect. The findings confirm that the significant effects of high-energy oscillating ECP on metal plasticity and provide a basis to understand the underlying mechanism of the high-energy oscillating ECP stress relief.
The high-frequency vibration technology was introduced to relieve the quenched residual stress in the Cr12MoV steel based on the high-frequency vibration system that mainly consisted of an electromagnetic vibrator and an amplitude boost unit. The high-frequency vibratory stress relief (VSR) experiments were conducted to study the effectiveness of the high-frequency vibration technology. In addition, the high-frequency vibration plasticity model was developed based on the thermal activation theory to reveal the mechanism of the high-frequency VSR. The results show that the high-frequency VSR has good effects on eliminating residual stress, while the surface hardness for the Cr12MoV steel remains almost the same. Moreover, there are no changes in the grain size of the Cr12MoV steel during the high-frequency VSR, while the dislocation density for the Cr12MoV steel during the high-frequency VSR decreases by 27.21%. The decrease of dislocation density in the Cr12MoV steel is the essence of residual stress relaxation. The findings confirm the significant effects of high-frequency vibration on metal plasticity and provide a basis to understand the underlying mechanism of the high-frequency VSR.
Two transmission curved crystal spectrometers are designed to measure the hard x-ray emission in the laser fusion experiment of Compton radiography of implosion target on ShenGuang-III laser facility in China. Cylindrically curved
-quartz (10–11) crystals with curvature radii of 150 and 300 mm are used to cover spectral ranges of 10–56 and 17–100 keV, respectively. The distance between the crystal and the x-ray source can be changed over a broad distance from 200 to 1500 mm. The optical design, including the integral reflectivity of the curved crystal, the sensitivity, and the spectral resolution of the spectrometers, is discussed. We also provide mechanic design details and experimental results using a Mo anode x-ray source. High-quality spectra were obtained. We confirmed that the spectral resolution can be improved by increasing the working distance, which is the distance between the recording medium and the Rowland circle.
Nanosecond pulse discharges can provide high reduced electric field for exciting high-energy electrons, and the ultrafast rising time of the applied pulse can effectively suppress the generation of spark streamer and produce homogeneous discharges preionized by runaway electrons in atmospheric-pressure air. In this paper, the electrostatic field in a tube-plate electrodes gap is calculated using a calculation software. Furthermore, a simple physical model of nanosecond pulse discharges is established to investigate the behavior of the runaway electrons during the nanosecond pulse discharges with a rise time of 1.6 ns and a full-width at half-maximum of 3–5 ns in air. The physical model is coded by a numerical software, and then the runaway electrons and electron avalanche are investigated under different conditions. The simulated results show that the applied voltage, voltage polarity, and gas pressure can significantly affect the formation of the avalanche and the behavior of the runaway electrons. The inception time of runaway breakdown decreases when the applied voltage increases. In addition, the threshold voltage of runaway breakdown has a minimum value (10 kPa) with the variation of gas pressure.
The prevalence and factors associated with delays in help seeking for people with dementia in China are unknown.
Within 1,010 consecutively registered participants in the Clinical Pathway for Alzheimer's Disease in China (CPAD) study (NCT01779310), 576 persons with dementia (PWDs) and their informants reported the estimated time from symptom onset to first medical visit seeking diagnosis. Univariate analysis of general linear model was used to examine the potential factors associated with the delayed diagnosis seeking.
The median duration from the first noticeable symptom to the first visit seeking diagnosis or treatment was 1.77 years. Individuals with a positive family history of dementia had longer duration (p = 0.05). Compared with other types of dementia, people with vascular dementia (VaD) were referred for diagnosis earliest, and the sequence for such delays was: VaD < Alzheimer's disease (AD) < frontotemporal dementia (FTD) (p < 0.001). Subtypes of dementia (p < 0.001), family history (p = 0.01), and education level (p = 0.03) were associated with the increased delay in help seeking.
In China, seeking diagnosis for PWDs is delayed for approximately 2 years, even in well-established memory clinics. Clinical features, family history, and less education may impede help seeking in dementia care.
An ion beam has the unique feature of being able to deposit its main energy inside a human body to kill cancer cells or inside material. However, conventional ion accelerators tend to be huge in size and cost. In this paper, a future intense-laser ion accelerator is discussed to make the laser-based ion accelerator compact and controllable. The issues in the laser ion accelerator include the energy efficiency from the laser to the ions, the ion beam collimation, the ion energy spectrum control, the ion beam bunching, and the ion particle energy control. In the study, each component is designed to control the ion beam quality by particle simulations. The energy efficiency from the laser to ions is improved by using a solid target with a fine sub-wavelength structure or a near-critical-density gas plasma. The ion beam collimation is performed by holes behind the solid target or a multi-layered solid target. The control of the ion energy spectrum and the ion particle energy, and the ion beam bunching are successfully realized by a multi-stage laser–target interaction.
We carried out laser ablation of three organic molecules, rubrene (Rb), Oralith Brilliant Pink R (BP) and quinacridonequinone (QQ) in a poor solvent, water. As a result, nanoparticles of BP and QQ were formed, but those of Rb were not formed because of photodissociation. For a rigid molecule, QQ, optical properties of colloidal solutions were investigated in relation to the size of the included nanoparticles. A linear correlation between the blue shift of the absorption peak energy and the decrease in the diameter of the nanoparticles was found, indicating that the nanoparticle diameter can be easily estimated from the absorption spectrum of a colloidal solution. From the solution, a nanoparticle film was fabricated on an electrode by the electrophoretic deposition method.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effects of osteopontin neutralization treatment on schistosome-induced liver injury in BALB/C mice. We randomly divided 100 BALB/C mice into groups A, B, C, D and group E. Mice in all groups except group A were abdominally infected with schistosomal cercariae to induce a schistosomal hepatopathological model. Mice in group C, D and group E were respectively administered with praziquantel, praziquantel plus colchicine and praziquantel plus neutralizing osteopontin antibody. We extracted mouse liver tissues at 3 and 9 weeks after the ‘stool-eggs-positive’ day, observed liver histopathological changes by haematoxylin-eosin and Masson trichrome staining and detected the expression of osteopontin, alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β1) by immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR and Western blot. We found that praziquantel plus neutralizing osteopontin antibody treatment significantly decreased the granuloma dimension, the percentage of collagen and the expression of osteopontin, α-SMA and TGF-β1 compared to praziquantel plus colchicine treatment in both the acute and chronic stage of schistosomal liver damage (P<0·05). So we believe that the combined regimen of osteopontin immunoneutralization and anti-helminthic treatment can reduce the granulomatous response and liver fibrosis during the schistosomal hepatopathologic course.
Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) has been modified by Cr ion implantation with a dose range from 1×1016to 2×1017ions /cm2 using a metal vapor vacuum arc MEVVA source. The surface morphology was observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The Cr atom precipitation was found. The changes of the structure and composition have been observed with transmission electron microscope (TEM). The TEM photos revealed the presence of Cr nano-meter particles on the implanted PET. It is believed that the change would cause the improvement of the conductive properties and wear resistance. The electrical properties of PET have been improved after metal ion implantation. The resistivity of Cr ion implanted PET decreased obviously with an increase of ion dose. When the metal ion dose with 2×1017cm−2 was implanted into PET, the resistivity of PET could be less than 0.1 Ωm. But when Si or C ions with same dose are implanted PET, the resistivity of PET would be up to several Ωm. The result show that the resistivity of Cr ion implanted sample is obviously lower than that of Si- and C-implanted one. After Cr implantation, the surface hardness and modulus could be increased. The property of the implanted PET has modified greatly. The hardness and modulus of Cr implanted PET with dose of 2×1017/cm2 is 9.5 and 3.1 times greater than that of pristine PET. So we can see that wear resistance improved greatly. The Cr ion beam modification mechanism of PET will be discussed.
A rapid radiant heating, very low pressure CVD (RRH/VLP—CVD) has been successfully applied to GexSi1−x strained layer epitaxy on Si using SiH4' GeH4' B2H6 and PH3 as reaction gases at low temperature ranging from 550 to 650ĉ for operation pressure around mTorr. High quality GexSi1−x/Si strained layer heterostructure and superlattice were fabricated and high electrically active in—situ boron doping in GexSi1−x epilayer was also successfully achieved.
A new method of epitaxial growth of CoSi2 film on Si substrate by ternary solid state interaction is investigated. XRD, RBS and TEM show that single-crystalline CoSi2 can be formed on both Si (111) and (100) substrates by using Co/Ti/Si or TiN/Co/Ti/Si multilayer. The evolution of multilayer structure and its resistivity is studied and epitaxy mechanism is discussed. Experimental results indicate strong affinity between Co and Si. During the ternary interaction the epitaxial CoSi2 can be grown directly on Si and its growth may behave as a diffusion controlled process. The thickness of Ti layer and the annealing procedure have important effect on CoSi2 epitaxial growth.
The small-pulse DLTS had been developed to measure distribution of deep levels in CVD grown SiGe/Si heterostructure before and after thermal processing at 800°C. Changes of defect states was found and after processing the original single deep level 0.62eV under the condition band split into two separated traps. A new weak deeper trap signal was found only in the just relaxed region. It could be Ge-related defect complex with misfit dislocations.
SiH4 and GeH4 Deposition and In-Situ Doping of SiGe/Si Strained Heterostructures by Rapid Thermal Process Very Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition method have been studied in this paper. Ge incorporation rate increases to a maximum value and then decreases as temperature increases, the growth rate of SiGe alloy reaches its maximum value and then decreases as Ge composition increases. Ge incorporation also enhances Si deposition rate in SiGe alloy. The Boron and Phosphorus doping would change thegrowth rate of SiGe layers and the sharp doping interfaces in SiGe/Si heterostructures have been obtained.
Sendust is limited in its application due to its brittleness. This paper shows the brittleness of sendust ribbon made by rapid quenching can be improved by microalloying of boron with negligible influence on its magnetic properties. The mechanims of boron effect on its properties is discussed.
The ion-beam-sputtered polycrystalline SiGe film and its doping properties have been studied. Boron and phosphorus have been doped into the sputtered poly-SiGe film by ion implantation and diffusion. To activate the implanted impurities, both rapid thermal annealing and fiirnace annealing have been used. The electrical measurements show that boron and plhosphorus can be doped into sputtered SiGe films and effectively activated by both ion implantation with post-annealing and diffiision. Hall mobilities as high as 31 cm2/V-s and 20 cm2/V.s have been obtained in B-difflhsed and P-diffused SiGe films, respectively. The x-ray diffraction spectra of the sputtered Sifie filhn show its typical polycrystalline structure with (111), (220) and (311) as the preferential orientations.
The thermal stability of thin CoSi2 films formed from four layered structures: Co/Si, TiN/Co/Si, Co/Ti/Si and TiN/Co/Ti/Si has been studied using four-point-probe (FPP), TEM and RBS/channeling. It is found that thermal instability can be influenced by the polycrystalline structure in CoSi2. Growing epitaxial CoSi2 film on Si (100) using TiN capping and Ti interfacial layers can improve the thermal stability of thin CoSi2 film.
Benthic polychaetes in the largest intertidal mudflat of Hong Kong were analysed for potentially stressed environmental conditions from pollution. Over a two-year period, a total of 14 species were recorded with the species diversity (H′(log2)) ranged from 0.54 to 2.4. The community was dominated by two large polychaetes (Neanthes glandicincta and Potamilla acuminata) and a number of small pollution tolerant species (Tharyx, Capitella capitata and Prionospio cirrifera). It was also characterized by both temporal and spatial variations in terms of abundance and species composition with the lowest species number observed at onshore Station B in August and the highest at offshore Station D in February. Two distinct polychaete communities were formed along the intertidal towards subtidal mudflat, particularly the assemblage at onshore Station B showing a significant difference from those at the other three stations (P < 0.05, N = 32). Results of the abundance–biomass comparison (ABC) indicated a typical impacted community at the whole study area, especially at Station B which was close to the Shenzhen River mouth and mangrove forest. The total organic carbon had a significant positive effect on the abundance of Capitella capitata (P = 0.037, N = 8) while sedimentary compositions were statistically related to the abundance of Potamilla acuminata, Tharyx and total abundance of polychaetes (P < 0.05, N = 8). In conclusion, both the polluted Shenzhen River and nearby mangrove may be responsible for the decline in species richness and diversity as well as changes in community structure. Polychaetes can be used as the appropriate indicators in habitat ecological condition assessment instead of the whole benthic community.
In this paper, the ion jet generation from the interaction of an ultraintense laser pulse and a rear-side concave target is investigated analytically using a simple fluid model. We find that the ion expanding surface at the rear-side is distorted due to a strong charge-separation field, and that this distortion becomes dramatic with a singular cusp shown on the central axis at a critical time. The variation of the transverse ion velocity and the relative ion density diverge on the cusp, signaling the emergence of an on-axis ion jet. We have obtained analytical expressions for the critical time and the maximum velocity of the ion jet, and suggested an optimum shape for generating a collimated energetic ion jet. The above theoretical analysis has been verified by particle-in-cell (PIC) numerical simulations.