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This article analyses monodic reperformance of epinicians in the fifth century BC and argues that the musical and ethical dimensions of such performances were mutually reinforcing. Reperformances by solo singers would have strongly foregrounded the agency of the individual performer, while also enacting his understanding of musical conventions. This relationship forms a structural parallel with the function of ethical statements in epinicians, which are usually conventional in terms of their conceptual content and yet also emphasize the agency of individuals in responding to them. I argue that the parallelism between ethics and monodic reperformance is an important thematic strand in Nemean 4 and Isthmian 2, and prefigures the responses that the poems elicit from audiences.
An unidentified emission feature at 21 μm has been detected in the IRAS Low Resolution Spectra (LRS) of 5 IRAS sources (Kwok, Volk, and Hrivnak 1989, Hrivnak and Kwok 1991). The sources are generally found to be F and G supergiants with cool, detached dust shells. We have searched for additional 21 μm sources in the LRS database and have obtained ground-based UKIRT spectra at 10 and 20 μm in an attempt to confirm the LRS feature.
There were two major kinds of Pennsylvanian-age tropical swamps: coal swamps, represented by most coal seams, and clastic swamps, commonly associated with coal as roof shale or sandstone floras. Such environments were part of depositionally-complex lowlands that also included non-swamp habitats. In general, the Pennsylvanian-age coal and clastic swamps were dominated by non-seed (lower vascular, spore-producing) plants, and the mesic, non-swamp vegetation was characterized by seed-plant (pollen-producing) dominance. On occasion, some drier-site kinds of vegetation are preserved, providing a glimpse of other kinds of plants in the lowland regions of the tropical belt; among these are the earliest known conifers (Scott and Chaloner, 1983) in the Middle Pennsylvanian.
I love the word ‘library’ and feel sorry for the French who wasted their equivalent on a mere stationery shop and cornered themselves into using the nobly historical yet somewhat dry term ‘bibliothéque’. I feel that my own books make up a library but would scarcely constitute a bibliothéque.
I am temporarily separated from the bulk of my books and thus more keenly aware than ever of their importance to me. It is not only the contents that I miss but the visible presence of them. I can picture the shelves and the configurations of buckrams and dust-jackets: in my mind’s eye particular books can be located. I see Bergson’s Creative Evolution there next to Wittgenstein’s Tractatus. Shall I ever read it again? I doubt it; yet the sight of it, austere on its appropriate shelf reminds me that in some sense what lies within its covers is also to be found within my head, although I cannot quote a word of it. Books do furnish a mind. The visual array of them is a house of memory in the form of a mnemonic of evocative spines.
This study compares age estimates of recent peat deposits in 10 European ombrotrophic (precipitation-fed) bogs produced using the 14C bomb peak, 210Pb, 137Cs, spheroidal carbonaceous particles (SCPs), and pollen. At 3 sites, the results of the different dating methods agree well. In 5 cores, there is a clear discrepancy between the 14C bomb peak and 210Pb age estimates. In the upper layers of the profiles, the age estimates of 14C and 210Pb are in agreement. However, with increasing depth, the difference between the age estimates appears to become progressively greater. The evidence from the sites featured in the study suggests that, provided aboveground plant material (seeds, leaves) is selected for dating, the 14C bomb peak is a reliable dating method, and is not significantly affected by the incorporation of old carbon with low 14C content originating from sources including air pollution deposition or methane produced by peat decomposition. 210Pb age estimates that are too old may be explained by the enrichment of 210Pb activity in the surface layers of peat resulting from a hypothesized mechanism where rapidly infilling hollows, rich in binding sites, may scavenge 210Pb associated with dissolved organic matter passing through the hollow, as part of the surface drainage network. Until further research identifies and resolves the cause of the inaccuracy in 210Pb dating, age estimates of peat samples based only on 210Pb should be used with caution.
At Iliad 13.751-3, Hector heeds Polydamas' advice to rally the Trojans by gathering their best fighters together and debating their next move (13.736-47). The speech is followed by a simile that has puzzled some commentators, in which Hector is compared to a snowy mountain as he moves through the Trojan ranks. The passage runs as follows:
‘Πουλυδάμα σὺ μὲν αὐτοῦ ἐρύκακε πάντας ἀρίστους,
αὐτὰρ ἐγὼ κεῖσ’ εἶμι καὶ ἀντιόω πολέμοιο·
αἶψα δ’ ἐλεύσομαι αὖτις ἐπὴν εὖ τοῖς ἐπιτείλω.’
ἦ ῥα, καὶ ὁρμήθη ὄρεϊ νιφόεντι ἐοικὼς
κεκλήγων, διὰ δὲ Τρώων πέτετ’ ἠδ’ ἐπικούρων. 755
οἳ δ’ ἐς Πανθοΐδην ἀγαπήνορα Πουλυδάμαντα
πάντες ἐπεσσεύοντ’, ἐπεὶ Ἕκτορος ἔκλυον αὐδήν.
‘Polydamas, hold all the best men here, while I go there and face the battle. I shall swiftly come back again, when I have given my orders to the men.’ He spoke and rushed off appearing like a snowy mountain, crying out, and flew through the ranks of the Trojans and their allies, and they all rushed to the kindly-minded Polydamas, Panthoos’ son, when they heard Hector's voice.
This paper argues that the final couplet of Horace, Epode 13 alludes both to the description of Achilles playing the lyre in Iliad 9 and to ancient scholarly debate about the Homeric passage. Horace's reworking of the Iliad underlines his transfer of epic material to a sympotic setting, and the scholarly allusion reinforces Horace's presentation of himself as a symposiastic speaker by drawing on the tradition of symposia as sites of learned conversation. This dual engagement with Homer encourages readers to see their own responses to Horace's poem as part of a continuum of literary debate.
The importance of music for epinician, as for all other types of choral performance in Archaic and Classical Greece, has long been recognized, but the exiguousness of the evidence for the compositional principles behind such music, and for what these poems actually sounded like in performance, has limited scholarly enquiries. Examination of Pindar's texts themselves for evidence of his musical practices was for a long time dominated by extensive and often inconclusive debate about the relations between metres and modes. More recently scholars have begun to explore Pindar's relations to contemporary developments in musical performance, and in doing so have opened up new questions about how music affected audiences as aesthetically and culturally significant in its own right, and how it interacted with the language of the text. This article will investigate the performance scenarios of two of Pindar's epinicians, arguing that in each case the poems contain indications of specific musical accompaniments, and use these scenarios as a starting point for engaging with wider interpretative questions. The self-referential dimension of these compositions will be of particular importance; I shall argue that Pindar deployed a type of musical intertextuality, in which his compositions draw on pre-existing melodic structures, utilizing their cultural associations for the purposes of his own pieces, a process crucial to the dynamics of performance of the poems concerned. By doing so I shall attempt to reach a better understanding of the roles played by music in epinician performance and of Pindar's place in relation to the musical culture in which he worked.
Changes in the geological interpretation of the history of the ancient Solent river basin have focused attention on the handaxes discovered in the Corfe Mullen area during quarrying before the Second World War. Recent geological research suggests that the fluvial terrace the handaxes are associated with may pre-date the Anglian glaciation. This is important because it contributes to the question of just when the Solent basin was first occupied by hominins, and how this relates to other areas of possible contemporary pre-Anglian occupation such as the Boxgrove Marine embayment. However, the artefacts were believed to come from the bluff of the river terrace and were thus not in situ. This paper explores that question and re-examines the context from which the handaxes at Corfe Mullen were discovered.
Renewed in-depth multi-disciplinary investigation of a large coastal mound settlement in Peru has extended the occupation back more than 7000 years to a first human exploitation ~13720 BP. Research by the authors has chronicled the prehistoric sequence from the activities of the first maritime foragers to the construction of the black mound and the introduction of horticulture and monumentality. The community of Huaca Prieta emerges as innovative, complex and ritualised, as yet with no antecedents.
A total of sixty surgically castrated male pigs (Large White × Landrace) weighing 31·2 (sd 4·3) kg were used in a randomised block experiment to examine the effect of added dietary inulin (0, 20, 40 and 80 g/kg) on the occurrence of swine dysentery (SD) and on fermentation characteristics in the large intestine after experimental challenge with the causative spirochaete Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. The pigs were allowed to adapt to the diets for 2 weeks before each pig was challenged orally four times with a broth culture containing B. hyodysenteriae on consecutive days. Increasing dietary levels of inulin linearly (P = 0·001) reduced the risk of pigs developing SD; however, eight out of fifteen pigs fed the diet with 80 g/kg inulin still developed the disease. The pH values in the caecum (P = 0·072) tended to decrease, and in the upper colon, the pH values did decrease (P = 0·047) linearly with increasing inulin levels in the diets, most probably due to a linear increase in the concentration of total volatile fatty acids in the caecum (P = 0·018), upper colon (P = 0·001) and lower colon (P = 0·013). In addition, there was a linear reduction in the proportion of the branched-chain fatty acids isobutyric acid and isovaleric acid in the caecum (P = 0·015 and 0·026) and upper colon (P = 0·011 and 0·013) with increasing levels of dietary inulin. In conclusion, the present study showed that a diet supplemented with a high level of inulin (80 g/kg) but not lower levels reduced the risk of pigs developing SD, possibly acting through a modification of the microbial fermentation patterns in the large intestine.
To study the demographic and clinical parameters of three different categories of obesity, with particular focus on a cohort of individuals with BMI ≥ 50 kg/m2, the fastest growing category of obesity.
Over 700 obese individuals were studied (186 with BMI = 30–39 kg/m2, 316 with BMI = 40–49 kg/m2 and 290 with BMI ≥ 50 kg/m2).
Median BMI was 51 kg/m2 for patients who reported onset of overweight before 15 years of age, 47 kg/m2 for patients who reported onset between 15 and 30 years, and 42 kg/m2 for patients who became overweight after 30 years of age. The BMI ≥ 50 kg/m2 group was notably younger than the group with BMI = 30–39 kg/m2 (44 (sd 11) years v. 50 (sd 15) years; P < 0·0001). Eighteen per cent of obese patients studied were considered metabolically healthy according to standard cut-off points for blood pressure, fasting glucose and lipid profiles. However, the proportion of metabolically healthy individuals was significantly higher in the BMI = 30–39 kg/m2 group than in the BMI = 40–49 kg/m2 and BMI ≥ 50 kg/m2 groups (31 % v. 17 % and 12 % respectively; P < 0·05 and P < 0·005). When compared with people of similar age in the general population, individuals with BMI ≥ 50 kg/m2 had lower rates of marriage (51 % v. 72 %) and a higher prevalence of unemployment (14 % v. 5 %).
The current study suggests that the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity worldwide will lead to many more individuals achieving a higher BMI at a younger age. Furthermore, an earlier onset of overweight does not appear to prevent the adverse metabolic health outcomes associated with extreme obesity.