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Passive acoustic monitoring is rapidly gaining recognition as a practical, affordable and robust tool for measuring gun hunting levels within protected areas, and consequently for its potential to evaluate anti-poaching patrols’ effectiveness based on outcome (i.e., change in hunting pressure) rather than effort (e.g., kilometres patrolled) or output (e.g., arrests). However, there has been no report to date of a protected area successfully using an acoustic grid to explore baseline levels of gun hunting activity, adapting its patrols in response to the evidence extracted from the acoustic data and then evaluating the effectiveness of the new patrol strategy. We report here such a case in Cameroon’s Korup National Park, where anti-poaching patrol effort was markedly increased in the 2015–2016 Christmas/New Year holiday season to curb the annual peak in gunshots recorded by a 12-sensor acoustic grid in the same period during the previous 2 years. Despite a three- to five-fold increase in patrol days, distance and area covered, the desired outcome – lower gun hunting activity – was not achieved under the new patrol scheme. The findings emphasize the need for adaptive wildlife law enforcement and how passive acoustic monitoring can help attain this goal, and they warn about the risks of using effort-based metrics of anti-poaching strategies as a surrogate for desired outcomes. We propose ways of increasing protected areas’ capacity to adopt acoustic grids as a law enforcement monitoring tool.
Improving the quality of care on psychiatric inpatient wards has been a major focus in recent mental health policy, a recurrent criticism being that contact between staff and patients is limited in time and therapeutic value. Change is unlikely to be achieved without recruitment and retention of a high quality and well-motivated work force.
The NHS commissioned national inpatient mental health staff morale study is intended to inform service planning and policy by delivering evidence on the morale of the inpatient mental health workforce and the clinical, organisational, architectural and human resources factors that influence it.
100 wards in 17 area ‘Trusts’ are participating in the study, in addition to 40 community teams. The study will take place over two years, and has 6 modules:
1. A quantitative questionnaire for all staff in participating wards and
2. A comparison group in 20 community mental health teams and 20 crisis teams.
3. Case studies of 10 wards scoring in the top and bottom quartile for indicators of morale.
4. Repeated questionnaires for 20 wards in the second year to investigate how morale changes over time.
5. Staff who leave the wards in the course of the first year will be asked their reasons for leaving.
6. Links between rates of staff sickness and morale will be investigated.
Questionnaires have been distributed to 3,500 staff with a response rate of 65%, results from which will be presented in 2009.
We are honored to have the opportunity to serve as the latest editors of Studies in American Political Development. We wish to thank and credit Anthony Chen and Eric Schickler for their outstanding service and contributions. First established by Karen Orren and Stephen Skowronek in 1986 as a space for theoretical, methodological, and substantive commitments intrinsic in the study of American political development (APD), we look forward to maintaining the journal's esteemed reputation as a place for important questions and empirically rich and theoretically innovative answers.
There is a complex interplay between mobility and cognition in older adults. We have previously shown that a high-DHA multi-nutrient supplement improves habitual walking speed, verbal memory and psychomotor response latency in older women. Exercise also improves mobility and cognition in older adults, and n-3 fatty acids and exercise share a range of overlapping biological effects. This study examined for the first time the effects of the high-DHA multi-nutrient supplement and aerobic exercise on mobility and cognition in older women. Women (mean age 67 (sd 8) years) were assigned to the following groups: multi-nutrient (1 g DHA, 160 mg EPA, 240 mg Ginkgo biloba, 60 mg phosphatidylserine, 20 mg d-α tocopherol, 1 mg folic acid and 20 µg vitamin B12 per d, n 13), multi-nutrient and exercise (spin class twice per week, n 14), exercise and placebo (n 12) or placebo (n 12). The multi-nutrient was given for 24 weeks and exercise for 12 weeks. No treatment effects were observed for the primary outcome, habitual walking speed. Improvements in verbal memory and executive function were seen for all treatments groups v. placebo (all, P < 0·05). Significant improvements in self-reported emotional well-being were seen with multi-nutrient and exercise groups v. placebo (P = 0·03). The results suggest that the high-DHA multi-nutrient supplement produces similar improvements in cognitive function to aerobic exercise, offering the intriguing prospect that supplementation may be able to mitigate some of the effects of low physical activity on cognitive function in the elderly.
Coexistence of people and large carnivores depends on a complex combination of factors that vary geographically. Both the number and range of the Asiatic lion Panthera leo leo in the Greater Gir landscape, India, has increased since the 1990s. The challenge has been managing the success of conservation, with a particular focus on the spillover population ranging extensively in human-dominated landscapes. To understand the factors conducive to lion survival in this landscape, we undertook an interview-based survey. Overall, people expressed positive, tolerant attitudes towards lions. There was a distinct contrast between people's liking for lions (76.9% of respondents) compared to leopards (27.7%) in spite of greater depredation of livestock by lions (82.6%) than by leopards (17.4%). Younger people and respondents having greater awareness regarding lions expressed positive attitudes. Although community discussions on lions had a positive effect, there was no evidence that land-holding, management interventions, personal encounters with lions, or association of lions with religion affected attitudes. Respondents who had experienced livestock depredation tended to express negative attitudes. Respondents with positive attitudes towards lions favoured non-interventionist strategies for managing lions in the village areas. We advocate consideration of varied factors influencing tolerance of wildlife in conservation planning. We emphasize that site-specific human–wildlife conflict issues such as crop-foraging by wild ungulates and variation in attitudes towards different species should also be considered. Specifically, improved livestock management, motivation of local youth and their participation in awareness campaigns could all further strengthen the prevalent positive attitudes towards lions.