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The Very High Frequency (VHF) Data Exchange System (VDES) is a new radio communication system being developed by the international maritime community, with the principal objectives to safeguard existing Automatic Identification System (AIS) core functions and enhance maritime communication applications, based on robust, efficient and secure data transmission with wider bandwidth than the AIS. VDES is also being considered as a potential component of the R-mode concept, where the same signals used for communication are also used for ranging, thus mitigating the impact of disruptions to satellite positioning services. This paper establishes statistical performance bounds on the ranging precision of VDES R-mode, assuming an additive white Gaussian noise propagation channel. Modified Cramér-Rao bounds on the pseudorange estimation error are provided for all waveforms currently proposed for use in terrestrial VDES communications. These are then used to estimate the maximum usable ranges for AIS/VDES R-mode stations. The results show that, under the assumed channel conditions, all of the new VDES waveforms provide better ranging performance than the AIS waveform, with the best performance being achieved using the 100 kHz bandwidth terrestrial VDE waveforms.
Neurocognitive deficits are often seen as core features of schizophrenia, and as primary determinants of poor functioning. Yet, our clinical observations suggest that individuals who score within the impaired range on standardized tests can reliably perform better in complex real-world situations, especially when performance is embedded within a positive socio-affective context.
We analyzed literature on the influence of non-neurocognitive factors on test performance in order to clarify their contributions.
We identified seven non-neurocognitive factors that significantly contribute to neurocognitive test performance: avolition, dysfunctional attitudes, effort, stress, negative emotions, asociality, and disorganized symptoms. We then proposed an alternative model based on dysfunctional (e.g. defeatist) attitudes and their consequences for motivation and sustained task engagement. We demonstrated that these factors account for substantial variance in negative symptoms, neurocognitive test performance, and functional outcomes. We then demonstrated that recovery-oriented cognitive therapy – which is derived from this alternative model and primarily targets dysfunctional beliefs – has been successful in the treatment of low functioning individuals with schizophrenia.
The contributions of neurocognitive impairments to poor real-world functioning in people with schizophrenia may be overstated in the literature, and may even be limited relative to non-neurocognitive factors. We offer suggestions for further research to more precisely quantify the contributions of attitudinal/motivation v. neurocognitive factors in schizophrenia.
Our knowledge of the functions of the prefrontal cortex, often called executive, supervisory, or control, has been transformed over the past 50 years. After operationally defining terms for clarification, we review the impact of advances in functional, structural, and theoretical levels of understanding upon neuropsychological assessment practice as a means of identifying 11 principles/challenges relating to assessment of executive function. Three of these were already known 50 years ago, and 8 have been confirmed or emerged since. Key themes over this period have been the emergence of the use of naturalistic tests to address issues of “ecological validity”; discovery of the complexity of the frontal lobe control system; invention of new tests for clinical use; development of key theoretical frameworks that address the issue of the role of prefrontal cortex systems in the organization of human cognition; the move toward considering brain systems rather than brain regions; the advent of functional neuroimaging, and its emerging integration into clinical practice. Despite these huge advances, however, practicing neuropsychologists are still desperately in need of new ways of measuring executive function. We discuss pathways by which this might happen, including decoupling the two levels of explanation (information processing; brain structure) and integrating very recent technological advances into the neuropsychologist’s toolbox. (JINS, 2017, 23, 755–767)
Whether monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins differ from each other in a variety of phenotypes is important for genetic twin modeling and for inferences made from twin studies in general. We analyzed whether there were differences in individual, maternal and paternal education between MZ and DZ twins in a large pooled dataset. Information was gathered on individual education for 218,362 adult twins from 27 twin cohorts (53% females; 39% MZ twins), and on maternal and paternal education for 147,315 and 143,056 twins respectively, from 28 twin cohorts (52% females; 38% MZ twins). Together, we had information on individual or parental education from 42 twin cohorts representing 19 countries. The original education classifications were transformed to education years and analyzed using linear regression models. Overall, MZ males had 0.26 (95% CI [0.21, 0.31]) years and MZ females 0.17 (95% CI [0.12, 0.21]) years longer education than DZ twins. The zygosity difference became smaller in more recent birth cohorts for both males and females. Parental education was somewhat longer for fathers of DZ twins in cohorts born in 1990–1999 (0.16 years, 95% CI [0.08, 0.25]) and 2000 or later (0.11 years, 95% CI [0.00, 0.22]), compared with fathers of MZ twins. The results show that the years of both individual and parental education are largely similar in MZ and DZ twins. We suggest that the socio-economic differences between MZ and DZ twins are so small that inferences based upon genetic modeling of twin data are not affected.
Because polarization encodes geometrical information about unresolved scattering regions, it provides a unique tool for analyzing the 3-D structures of supernovae (SNe) and their surroundings. SNe of all types exhibit time-dependent spectropolarimetric signatures produced primarily by electron scattering. These signatures reveal physical phenomena such as complex velocity structures, changing illumination patterns, and asymmetric morphologies within the ejecta and surrounding material. Interpreting changes in polarization over time yields unprecedentedly detailed information about supernovae, their progenitors, and their evolution.
Begun in 2012, the SNSPOL Project continues to amass the largest database of time-dependent spectropolarimetric data on SNe. I present an overview of the project and its recent results. In the future, combining such data with interpretive radiative transfer models will further constrain explosion mechanisms and processes that shape SN ejecta, uncover new relationships among SN types, and probe the properties of progenitor winds and circumstellar material.
We selected SN1006, the brightest and closest to Earth of all supernovas historically observed, for a study of 14C production by e−,e+-bremsstrahlung cascades initiated by hard γ rays (>10 MeV) from that event. During the cascade, bremsstrahlung energies eventually fall within a giant (n,γ), (n,2γ) cross-section, peaking at 23 MeV and approaching effectively zero below 10 MeV and above 40 MeV. The neutrons are absorbed primarily in the reaction 14N(n,p)14C. Cellulose from single-year tree rings from ad 1003 to ad 1020 was measured to determine ∆14C. Three years after the first visual observation of SN1006, ∆14C rose and remained above pre-ad 1009 values until ad 1018. Comparison of the 7 years before ad 1009 with the 9 years following show an average increase of 6.1 ± 1.6 (s.d.)‰ (significant at the 99.6% confidence level). Such a pulse of 14C requires a total production of neutrons of 17.1 × 107n cm−2e, implying an input of 11.3 × 104 ergs cm−2e γ-ray energy. This requires the total supernova γ-ray energy (>10 MeV) to have been 1 × 1050 ergs.
A trend toward greater body size in dizygotic (DZ) than in monozygotic (MZ) twins has been suggested by some but not all studies, and this difference may also vary by age. We analyzed zygosity differences in mean values and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) among male and female twins from infancy to old age. Data were derived from an international database of 54 twin cohorts participating in the COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins), and included 842,951 height and BMI measurements from twins aged 1 to 102 years. The results showed that DZ twins were consistently taller than MZ twins, with differences of up to 2.0 cm in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.9 cm in adulthood. Similarly, a greater mean BMI of up to 0.3 kg/m2 in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.2 kg/m2 in adulthood was observed in DZ twins, although the pattern was less consistent. DZ twins presented up to 1.7% greater height and 1.9% greater BMI than MZ twins; these percentage differences were largest in middle and late childhood and decreased with age in both sexes. The variance of height was similar in MZ and DZ twins at most ages. In contrast, the variance of BMI was significantly higher in DZ than in MZ twins, particularly in childhood. In conclusion, DZ twins were generally taller and had greater BMI than MZ twins, but the differences decreased with age in both sexes.
V. Michelle Silvera, Staff Pediatric Neuroradiologist at Boston Children’s Hospital and Assistant Professor of Radiology at Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA,
P. Ellen Grant, Director, Center on Fetal-Neonatal Neuroimaging and Developmental Science Center, Boston Children’s Hospital and Associate Professor of Radiology at Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA,
Gary L. Hedlund, Chief of Neuroimaging at the Primary Children’s Medical Center and Adjunct Professor of Radiology at the University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA,
Paul K. Kleinman, Department of Radiology, Boston Children’s Hospital, and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
How and when to image the head in infants and children with suspected abusive head trauma (AHT) has become more complex with the increasing widespread availability of robust and elegant imaging technologies. These complex decisions are generally individualized based on available resources and expertise. The evidence base is modest with respect to the comparative diagnostic performance of the various neuroimaging modalities or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences in this specific context (1–5). Based on the available literature and the expertise of a panel of experts, the American College of Radiology (ACR) has put forth “Appropriateness Criteria” for imaging AHT and the organization periodically updates their recommendations in light of new data (6, 7). The goal of this chapter is to provide guidance to imaging departments that reflects the authors’ experience in light of current knowledge. Imaging strategies with respect to the skull, scalp, and subscalp have been covered in Chapter 17 – this discussion will focus on the approach to imaging the intracranial alterations described in Chapters 18 and 19. Craniocervical junction and spinal imaging strategies are addressed in Chapter 21.
Sonography is a valuable imaging tool used to assess children with suspected AHT. The anterior and posterior fontanels and squamosal portions of the temporal bones (transmastoid) serve as natural acoustic windows for cranial sonography in infants up to six months of age. Cranial sonography is a low-cost, noninvasive modality that can be performed at the bedside without sedation, and is particularly useful in evaluating children with severe AHT in the intensive care unit who are too unstable for transport to the radiology department and prolonged imaging in the MRI suite. This modality allows for prompt assessment of hydrocephalus, some subdural hematomas (SDHs), parenchymal abnormalities, and mass effect; and can detect small white matter lacerations (contusional tears) – lesions that may go undetected on head computed tomography (CT) and are considered highly suggestive of inflicted injury (8). Color and spectral Doppler analysis provide useful information with regard to cerebral blood flow and readily detect occlusive thrombosis of the superior sagittal venous sinus.
For over 100 years, the genetics of human anthropometric traits has attracted scientific interest. In particular, height and body mass index (BMI, calculated as kg/m2) have been under intensive genetic research. However, it is still largely unknown whether and how heritability estimates vary between human populations. Opportunities to address this question have increased recently because of the establishment of many new twin cohorts and the increasing accumulation of data in established twin cohorts. We started a new research project to analyze systematically (1) the variation of heritability estimates of height, BMI and their trajectories over the life course between birth cohorts, ethnicities and countries, and (2) to study the effects of birth-related factors, education and smoking on these anthropometric traits and whether these effects vary between twin cohorts. We identified 67 twin projects, including both monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins, using various sources. We asked for individual level data on height and weight including repeated measurements, birth related traits, background variables, education and smoking. By the end of 2014, 48 projects participated. Together, we have 893,458 height and weight measures (52% females) from 434,723 twin individuals, including 201,192 complete twin pairs (40% monozygotic, 40% same-sex dizygotic and 20% opposite-sex dizygotic) representing 22 countries. This project demonstrates that large-scale international twin studies are feasible and can promote the use of existing data for novel research purposes.
John Buchan, known principally for a series of espionage thrillers, is also the author of a large number of supernatural stories. His attraction to the genre, while indicating his eclectic interests, was both aesthetic and pragmatic. From the point of view of style, supernatural fiction contains the same essential ingredients as his ‘shockers’: excitement, mystery, suspense. Secondly, Buchan ‘wrote to be read’, and in his day, supernatural stories habitually drew a large audience. Modern ignorance of Buchan's contribution to this genre may be the result of the popularity of his other books: the nearest he came to a collection of supernatural stories was The Watcher by the Threshold (1902), but this book has ‘constantly been overshadowed by his other work’. While novels like Prester John (1910), The Dancing Floor (1926), Witch Wood (1927) and The Gap in the Curtain (1932) contain supernatural elements, Buchan's most consistent work in the genre is to be found in his short fiction. He wrote around twenty supernatural short stories, from the 1890s to the 1930s, proving that he had ‘an abiding interest in the supernatural’. But because the stories appeared over many years and in various publications, they have not been considered as a contained body of work worthy of serious study.
Buchan's supernatural stories have been included in anthologies, but they have only recently been collected in single-author volumes. To date (to the best of my knowledge), five such collections have appeared. Many of the selections are confusing, however, because a number of the stories have no supernatural content. This reflects the difficulties some editors have in defining the supernatural, a difficulty compounded by the fact that Buchan's stories are variously presented as examples of supernatural, horror, and of fantasy fiction, categories which many specialists working in the field regard as mutually exclusive. Defining the term ‘supernatural’ as it applies to literature is, in fact, a doomed enterprise, for the supernatural resists precise definition.
We review the present state of the understanding and application of high temperature superconductor materials ranging from attempts to clarify pairing mechanisms on the energy scale of a few milli-electron-volts to their use to embody terra-kwh continental wide deployment within the electricity enterprise. Examples include the use of density functional theory to study the relative roles of spin-fluctuation and/or lattice vibration induced Cooper pairing to modelling the incorporation of long distance HTSC transmission cables within the same natural gas pipeline rights-of-way infrastructure now emerging worldwide.
Social and psychological interventions are often complex. Understanding randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of these complex interventions requires a detailed description of the interventions tested and the methods used to evaluate them. However, RCT reports often omit, or inadequately report, this information. Incomplete and inaccurate reporting hinders the optimal use of research, wastes resources and fails to meet ethical obligations to research participants and consumers. In this paper, we explain how reporting guidelines have improved the quality of reports in medicine, and describe the ongoing development of a new reporting guideline for RCTs: CONSORT-SPI (an extension for social and psychological interventions). We invite readers to participate in the project by visiting our website, in order to help us reach the best-informed consensus on these guidelines (http://tinyurl.com/CONSORT-study).
Using photometry at just two wavelengths it is possible to fit a blackbody to the spectrum of infrared excess that is the signature of a debris disc. From this the location of the dust can be inferred. However, it is well known that dust in debris discs is not a perfect blackbody. By resolving debris discs we can find the actual location of the dust and compare this to that inferred from the blackbody fit. Using the Herschel Space Observatory we resolved many systems as part of the DEBRIS survey. Here we discuss a sample of 9 discs surrounding A stars and find that the discs are actually located between 1 and 2.5 times further from their star than predicted by blackbody fits to the spectral energy distribution (SED). The variation in this ratio is due to differences in stellar luminosities, location of the dust, size distribution and composition of the dust.
Sensorimotor inhibition, or the ability to filter out excessive or irrelevant information, theoretically supports a variety of higher-level cognitive functions. Impaired inhibition may be associated with increased impulsive and risky behavior in everyday life. Individuals infected with HIV frequently show impairment on tests of neurocognitive function, but sensorimotor inhibition in this population has not been studied and may be a contributor to the profile of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Thirty-seven HIV-infected individuals (15 with HAND) and 48 non-infected comparison subjects were assessed for prepulse inhibition (PPI), an eyeblink startle paradigm measuring sensorimotor gating. Although HIV status alone was not associated with PPI deficits, HIV-positive participants meeting criteria for HAND showed impaired PPI compared to cognitively intact HIV-positive subjects. In HIV-positive subjects, PPI was correlated with working memory but was not associated with antiretroviral therapy or illness factors. In conclusion, sensorimotor disinhibition in HIV accompanies deficits in higher-order cognitive functions, although the causal direction of this relationship requires investigation. Subsequent research on the role of sensorimotor gating on decision-making and risk behaviors in HIV may be indicated. (JINS, 2013, 19, 1–9)
Arctic arthropods are essential prey for many vertebrates, including birds, but arthropod populations and phenology are susceptible to climate change. The objective of this research was to model the relationship between seasonal changes in arthropod abundance and weather variables using data from a collaborative pan-Canadian (Southampton, Herschel, Bylot, and Ellesmere Islands) study on terrestrial arthropods. Arthropods were captured with passive traps that provided a combined measure of abundance and activity (a proxy for arthropod availability to foraging birds). We found that 70% of the deviance in daily arthropod availability was explained by three temperature covariates: mean daily temperature, thaw degree-day, and thaw degree-day2. Models had an adjusted R2 of 0.29–0.95 with an average among sites and arthropod families of 0.67. This indicates a moderate to strong fit to the raw data. The models for arthropod families with synchronous emergence, such as Tipulidae (Diptera), had a better fit (average adjusted R2 of 0.80) than less synchronous taxa, such as Araneae (R2 = 0.60). Arthropod abundance was typically higher in wet than in mesic habitats. Our models will serve as tools for researchers who want to correlate insectivorous bird breeding data to arthropod availability in the Canadian Arctic.