To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
We assessed the impact of an embedded electronic medical record decision-support matrix (Cerner software system) for the reduction of hospital-onset Clostridioides difficile. A critical review of 3,124 patients highlighted excessive testing frequency in an academic medical center and demonstrated the impact of decision support following a testing fidelity algorithm.
We have used the Coronagraphic and Heliospheric Imaging data from Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO) to observe a prominence which is erupted on June 7th 2011. This prominence is subjected to the morphological evolution of MRT instability from the lower solar corona upto the inter-planetary space. The unstable structures are converted into the bunch of localized plasma spikes due to the turbulent mixing, and propagate in the inter-planetary space upto 1 A.U.
An internationally approved and globally used classification scheme for the diagnosis of CHD has long been sought. The International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code (IPCCC), which was produced and has been maintained by the International Society for Nomenclature of Paediatric and Congenital Heart Disease (the International Nomenclature Society), is used widely, but has spawned many “short list” versions that differ in content depending on the user. Thus, efforts to have a uniform identification of patients with CHD using a single up-to-date and coordinated nomenclature system continue to be thwarted, even if a common nomenclature has been used as a basis for composing various “short lists”. In an attempt to solve this problem, the International Nomenclature Society has linked its efforts with those of the World Health Organization to obtain a globally accepted nomenclature tree for CHD within the 11th iteration of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). The International Nomenclature Society has submitted a hierarchical nomenclature tree for CHD to the World Health Organization that is expected to serve increasingly as the “short list” for all communities interested in coding for congenital cardiology. This article reviews the history of the International Classification of Diseases and of the IPCCC, and outlines the process used in developing the ICD-11 congenital cardiac disease diagnostic list and the definitions for each term on the list. An overview of the content of the congenital heart anomaly section of the Foundation Component of ICD-11, published herein in its entirety, is also included. Future plans for the International Nomenclature Society include linking again with the World Health Organization to tackle procedural nomenclature as it relates to cardiac malformations. By doing so, the Society will continue its role in standardising nomenclature for CHD across the globe, thereby promoting research and better outcomes for fetuses, children, and adults with congenital heart anomalies.
Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is one of the oldest and most nutritional oilseed crops, of which domestication history has been poorly understood. This study suggested that sesame has undergone domestication bottleneck during its use for a long time. In this investigation, the molecular analysis included 4.4 Mbp of the genomic DNA of sesame comprising stearoyl acyl desaturase (sad), fatty acid desaturase 2 (fad2) and omega 3 fatty acid desaturase (o3fad) genes in 99 accessions of four populations of sesame germplasm namely: wild species, landraces, improved cultivars and introgressed lines. Results indicated that the improved cultivars and landraces lost 46.6 and 36.7% of nucleotide diversity, respectively, which indicate that the genetic diversity of the crop had been eroded due to selection after domestication. However, there was no significant reduction in genetic diversity of improved cultivars compared with landraces, indicating that unique improved cultivars generated through crosses were of less frequency in this population. Moreover, introgressed lines retained only 17.77% (π) and 4.57% (θ) of landrace diversity. To evaluate the impact of selection across fatty acid biosynthetic pathway, individual nucleotide diversity at three major genes involved in the pathway was surveyed. The analysis between wild and improved cultivars supported positive selection in fad2 and o3fad loci. Though locus-to-locus sequence variation was observed, positive results with two most important loci supported selection after domestication. Reduced diversity in these critical quality governing genes in improved cultivars suggested that future sesame cultivation would benefit from the incorporation of alleles from sesame's wild relatives.
The Andaman & Nicobar Islands are a group of 572 large and small islands & islets in the southeastern part of the Bay of Bengal. This preliminary study reports on husbandry practices and phenotypic characterization of indigenous Nicobari pig, in its home tract (Nicobar group of islands). A total of 377 families were surveyed in randomly selected villages on Car Nicobar, Nancowrie, Teressa, Katchal and Chowra islands. Results of the study revealed that Nicobari pigs were mostly semi feral in nature and reared under a free range system. Pigs were fed mainly with coconut and other locally available resources. The Nicobari pigs appeared short with long body. They showed high prolificacy with an average litter size of 8–10 numbers. These pigs were considered as a family asset among the Nicobari tribe. No commercial farms and slaughter was practiced by the tribes. It is concluded that the Nicobari pigs are considered as an indigenous pig breed/germplasm (Sus scrofa Nicobaricus) belonging to this island territory. Owing to its adaptation and performance under resource-driven island ecosystem, Nicobari pig warrants conservation and improvement. In addition, genetic characterization this pig using SNP would help to confirm their genetic distinctiveness and recognition as a new breed for conservation and sustainable utilization.
The atomic and electronic structures of multilayer graphene on a monolayer boron nitride (MLBN) have been investigated by using the pseudopotential method and the local density approximation (LDA) of the density functional theory (DFT). We show that the LDA energy band gap can be tuned in the range 41-278 meV for a multilayer graphene by using MLBN as a substrate. The dispersion of the π/π* bands slightly away from the K point is linear with the electron speed of 0.9×106 and 0.93×106 for graphene (MLG)/MLBN and ABA trilayer graphene (TLG)/MLBN systems, respectively. This behaviour becomes quadratic with a relative effective mass of 0.0021 for the bilayer graphene (BLG)/MLBN system. The calculated binding energies are in the range of 10-43 meV per C atom.
We study the static and dynamical behavior of the contact line between two fluids and a solid plate by means of the Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). The different fluid phases and their contact with the plate are simulated by means of standard Shan-Chen models. We investigate different regimes and compare the multicomponent vs. the multiphase LBM models near the contact line. A static interface profile is attained with the multiphase model just by balancing the hydrostatic pressure (due to gravity) with a pressure jump at the bottom. In order to study the same problem with the multicomponent case we propose and validate an idea of a body force acting only on one of the two fluid components. In order to reproduce results matching an infinite bath, boundary conditions at the bath side play a key role. We quantitatively compare open and wall boundary conditions and study their influence on the shape of the meniscus against static and lubrication theory solution.
Despite clozapine's superior clinical efficacy in treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS), its adverse effects, need for periodic leukocyte monitoring, cost and variable clinical outcomes mandate a clinical need to predict its treatment response. Although cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) is the principal determinant of metabolism of clozapine, the role of CYP1A2 gene in the clinical response to clozapine is uncertain. Hence, we investigated its association with treatment responses and adverse events of clozapine in TRS.
We evaluated four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the CYP1A2 gene, clinical responses and serum clozapine levels in 101 consecutive patients with TRS on stable doses of clozapine. We defined clozapine response a priori and investigated allelic and genotypic associations. We assessed the socio-demographic and clinical profiles, premorbid adjustment, traumatic life events, cognition and disability of the participants, using standard assessment schedules for appropriate multivariate analyses.
Our results revealed that CYP1A2 gene SNP (*1C, *1D, *1E and *1F) were not associated with clozapine treatment response, adverse effects, serum clozapine levels or with disability (p values > 0.10).
As CYP1A2 gene SNP do not help to predict the clinical response to clozapine, routine screening for them prior to start clozapine is currently unwarranted. We suggest future longitudinal genome-wide association studies investigating clinical and pharmacogenetic variables together.
Botrytis grey mould (BGM), caused by the fungus Botrytis cinerea Pers. ex Fr., is an important disease of chickpea causing economic losses across the world in chickpea-growing regions. There are no available resistance sources in cultivated chickpea against this disease. Cicer echinospermum and C. reticulatum, the only two compatible annual wild species, have been reported to have resistance to BGM. Hence, interspecific populations were developed with susceptible cultivars as female parents and C. echinospermum accession IG 73 074 and C. reticulatum accession IG 72 937 as the pollen donors to transfer and assess the nature of genetic control for BGM. Screening the progeny indicated that resistance to BGM was controlled by a single additive gene/allele (bgmr1cr and bgmr1ce), which can be introgressed through a backcross breeding programme.
This paper presents an experimental investigation on the role of return current in excitation of electronmagnetohydrodynamic (EMHD) structures. It is shown that only when return currents are excited parallel or anti-parallel to the background magnetic field the EMHD structures can be excited by a biased electrode in the plasma.
We present a single-mode relaxation-time theory of phonon conductivity of semisonductor superlattices with nanoscale periodicities. Analytic expressions have been obtained for phonon-interface scattering and phonon-phonon scattering taking into consideration the effects of interfaces and the presence of two materials in superlattices. Numerical calculations have been performed by using phonon eigensolutions obtained from an enhanced adiabatic bond charge model and by carrying out Brillouin zone integration using the special q-points scheme. The experimental measured conductivity results for Si(19)/Ge(5) and Si(72)/Ge(30) superlattices have been successfully explained.
H+ ion implanted SOI structures formed by hydrogen ion slicing have been investigated by Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL). After implantation the wafers have been heat-treated by either furnace annealing (FA) or rapid thermal annealing (RTA). It has been found that implantation of 3 × 1017 H+/cm2 results in the formation of the amorphous Si layer (a-Si) inside silicon film on insulator. Structural transformations in a-Si depended on the annealing conditions. FA led to crystallization of a-Si and to the formation of monocrystalline silicon films. RTA results in the formation of the layers containing a high density of Si nanocrystals. A comparison of the Raman measurements with the PL data allows to conclude that PL bands obtained near 420 and 500 nm are not associated with the radiative recombination in Si nanocrystals.
The structural, optical and electronic properties of the Ge sheet polymer poylgermyne are summarized. Prepared via topotactic transformation of Zintl-phase CaGe2, (GeH)n forms a layered crystal in a tr6 stacking sequence with a distance of 5.65 Å between adjacent layers. The photoluminescence at 1.3 eV is excited nearly resonantly with a Stokes shift of 0.2 eV. Together with band structure calculations this shows that polygermyne has a direct band gap.
High density plasma etching of (Ba,Sr)TiO3 (BST) and LaNiO3 (LNO) thin films was performed in two different plasma chemistries, Cl2/Ar and CH4/H2/Ar. While the latter chemistry produced extremely low etch rates (≤ 100 Å-min−1) under all conditions, the Cl2/Ar produced a smooth anisotropic pattern transfer. The etching was still strongly ion-assisted, but maximum removal rates of ∼900 Å min−1 for both materials were achieved with selectivities of ∼16 for BST and ∼7 for LNO over Si. A single layer of thick (∼7 μm) photoresist is an effective mask under these conditions.
The crystallographic and morphological aspect associated with the formation of γ hydride phase (fct) from the β phase in β abilized Zr-20%Nb alloy has been reported. In this paper the βto γ transformation has been considered in the terms of the phenomenological theory of martensitic crystallography in order to predict the crystallographic features of the γ hydride in the β to γ transformation. The prediction made in the present analysis has been found to match very closely to the experimentally observed habit plane. The possibility of the α to γ transition through the formation of a transient β configuration has been examined.
We propose a tight-binding model for the polarization that considers direct and dipole contributions and employs microscopic quantities that can be calculated by first-principles methods, e.g. by employing Density Functional Theory (DFT). Applying our model to InxGa1-xAs alloys allows us to settle discrepancies between the values of e14 as obtained from experiments and from linear interpolations between the values of InAs and GaAs. Our calculated piezoelectric coefficient is in very good agreement with photo current measurements of InAs/GaAs(111) quantum well samples.
Dengue is an emerging arboviral disease and currently poses the greatest arboviral threat to human health. In recent decades, there has been a substantial increase in dengue outbreaks in many parts of the world including India. We performed an in-depth investigation of a major dengue outbreak in Andhra Pradesh, southern India in 2007 by serology, virus isolation, RT–PCR and genotyping. The results revealed an unusual emergence of dengue virus type 4 (DENV-4) along with the prevailing DENV-3. Phylogenetic analysis based on complete envelope gene of 182 globally diverse DENV-4 isolates demonstrated the involvement of a unique clade of genotype I of DENV-4 in the outbreak. This study also demonstrated a clear shift in the dominant serotype from DENV-3 to DENV-4 in India. This is the first report regarding the molecular characterization of Indian isolates of DENV-4, which has the potential to be involved in future outbreaks.
The present report compares the macrophage function in rodent hosts susceptible and resistant to the human lymphatic filariid Brugia malayi. Macrophages from both mastomys (resistant) and gerbil (susceptible) infected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with the infective larvae (L3) of B. malayi were isolated from peritoneal lavage at different time-intervals and formation rate of NO, H2O2, O2−, TNF-α, glutathione peroxidase and reductase was assayed. NO release was found to be significantly increased in resistant mastomys as compared to gerbils and the release was markedly suppressed by i.p. administration of the NOS inhibitor aminoguanidine (AG). The AG-treated mastomys also demonstrated significantly greater establishment of larvae which correlated well with suppressed formation of NO. Nitric oxide synergizes with superoxide to form peroxynitrite radical (potent oxidant), which is known to be more toxic per se than NO. Results indicate the possible involvement of peroxynitrite in the rapid killing of larvae in the peritoneal cavity of mastomys. In contrast, the production of H2O2 was found to be enhanced in both species indicating that B. malayi L3 could withstand the toxic effects of H2O2. The higher level of glutathione peroxidase and reductase, as observed in mastomys compared with the gerbil after larval introduction, possibly protects the cell against the injurious effect of H2O2. The TNF-α level remained virtually unchanged in both the hosts, suggesting an insignificant role for this cytokine in parasite establishment.