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Giardia duodenalis is a common intestinal parasite in humans and other mammals, and it causes major public and veterinary health problems worldwide. China is a major pig-raising country, and studies on Giardia in pigs have important public health significance. The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of Giardia and assess its genetic characterization. A total of 93 samples were collected from two farms in Shanghai. The presence of Giardia was determined using PCR and sequence analysis of glutamate dehydrogenase, beta-giardin and triose phosphate isomerase genes. The average prevalence of G. duodenalis infection was 26.88% (25/93) in the pigs, with 28.13% (18/64) in farm 1 vs 24.14% (7/29) in farm 2. All the PCR-positive products were successfully sequenced, and assemblage E was more prevalent. Zoonotic assemblages A and B and canine-specific assemblage C were identified in farm 1, whereas, only assemblage E was detected in farm 2. Interestingly, two pig isolates showed 100% homology with human-derived isolates from Australia and China at the bg and tpi loci respectively. Pigs infected with Giardia infect humans by polluting the environment; whether pigs are a potential environmental source of the human pathogen in China requires more epidemiological data.
The High-degree Cubature Kalman Filter (HCKF) is proposed as a novel methodology based on the arbitrary degree spherical rule, which can achieve better performance than the traditional Kalman filter. However, it also has a large calculation burden when used in a high-dimension and high-degree of accuracy estimation system. The number of sampling points of an HCKF increases polynomially with increasing state-space dimensions, which further increases the calculation burden. The reduction of the number of the state-space dimensions is the main contribution of this study. A strategy for HCKF based on the partitioning of the state-space and orthogonal principle is introduced, referred to as the Multiple Robust HCKF (MRHCKF). It is shown that this technique can effectively reduce the calculation burden for the high-dimension system with robust performance. Numerical simulations are performed for the example of high-dimension relative position and attitude estimation to show that the proposed method can obtain nearly the same performance as the HCKF, while drastically reducing computational complexity.
For straw incorporation, three crucial factors affect the soil microbial community and various enzyme activities: straw length, amount and burial depth. To analyse the individual and interactive effects of these three factors on the soil microbial community and various enzyme activities, 23 treatments with five levels of the three variables (straw length, amount and burial depth) were applied in a quadratic orthogonal rotation combination design. A comprehensive indicator was constructed that could represent soil microbial functional diversity and enzyme activity by determining the weights of measured indicators and using Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS). The results indicated that the soil microbiological indicators have a higher criteria weight than soil enzyme activity indicators. The final weight orders of indicators were as follows: Shannon–Weaver > invertase > Shannon evenness > urease > catalase > McIntosh index > Simpson diversity > phosphatase. The soil comprehensive values constructed by the TOPSIS method are reliable. The optimal combination for the improvement of soil microbial functional diversity and enzyme activity was a straw length of 13–24 cm, burial depth of 10–17 cm and straw amount of 370–650 g/m2.
In this paper, field effect transistors (FET) based on different kinds of non-graphene materials are introduced, which are MoS2, WSe2 and black phosphorus (BP). Those devices have their unique features in fabrication process compared with conventional FETs. Among them, MoS2 FET shows better electrical characteristics by applying a SiO2 protective layer; WSe2 FET is fabricated based on a new low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) method; BP FET acquires high on/off ratio and high hole mobility by using a simple dry transfer method. Those novel non-graphene materials inspire new design and fabrication process of basic logic device.
To determine the spray forming process parameters of 7075/Al–Si bimetallic gradient composite plate with two gas atomizers, a calculation model of the plate has been established by using the finite element software ANSYS. The effects of different motion trajectory, advance speed, swing cycle and spray center distance on shape, and silicon distribution of deposited plate have been simulated by the APDL programming language. The results show that a smooth and uniform surface is obtained when motion trajectory is in a regular jaggies mode. The deposited plate varies from platform to stepped shape with a center distance increasing from 20 mm to 50 mm; meanwhile, the width of the transition zone decreases gradually. As the period increases to 8 s, the silicon distribution of each layer presents a jagged fluctuation. Both the thickness of the deposited plate and the width of the transition zone decrease as the advance speed increases, except the silicon distribution. Finally, the modeling and simulation of the co-spray formed 7075/Al–Si bimetallic gradient composite plate are validated by experimental investigations and the simulation results are in good agreement with the actual results.
An Al–10.83Zn–3.39Mg–1.22Cu–0.16Zr–0.16Sc alloy was produced using the spray deposition technology. The microstructure evolution within temperature ranging between 613 K and 733 K during hot pressing process at different initial strain rate was investigated in a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Partial resolution of the primary precipitates in the deposited microstructure, such as η-MgZn2 and Al3(ScZr), took place. Moreover, new secondary η-MgZn2 and Al3(ScZr) precipitated from the super saturated solid solution and their effects on the recrystallization were also analyzed. The Al3(ScZr) and η-MgZn2 precipitation can act as barriers for the movement of both dislocations and grain boundaries, which are the main factors for hindering the recrystallization. Additionally, the dislocation slide during hot deformation was also investigated in detail. The spray deposition Al–Zn–Mg–Cu alloy own the well deformability, and the typical perfect dislocations can be found in the hot deformation Al–Zn–Mg–Cu alloy.
The relationship between climate, crop growth and crop yield is complicated. This study aimed to determine the ratio of CO2–C emission to grain yield, the field treatments were initiated in 2003, but the measurements for this analysis were collected during the summer maize-growing seasons of 2011 and 2012 in the North China Plain. The experiment showed that conventional tillage with straw application significantly increased grain yield and the ratio of CO2–C emission to grain yield of summer maize. The mean soil CO2–C emission rate with no tillage was significantly lower than that when conventional tillage was used; however, straw application significantly increased the soil CO2–C emission rate, irrespective of whether tillage was performed or not. This was mainly because straw application changed the soil total porosity and organic carbon content. In conclusion, the results of this study support the hypothesis that the ratio of CO2–C emission to grain yield in the North China Plain can be increased by straw application, whereas no tillage decreases this ratio.
Ecological evidence suggests that niacin (nicotinamide and nicotinic acid) fortification may be involved in the increased prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes, both of which are associated with insulin resistance and epigenetic changes. The purpose of the present study was to investigate nicotinamide-induced metabolic changes and their relationship with possible epigenetic changes. Male rats (5 weeks old) were fed with a basal diet (control group) or diets supplemented with 1 or 4 g/kg of nicotinamide for 8 weeks. Low-dose nicotinamide exposure increased weight gain, but high-dose one did not. The nicotinamide-treated rats had higher hepatic and renal levels of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine, a marker of DNA damage, and impaired glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity when compared with the control rats. Nicotinamide supplementation increased the plasma levels of nicotinamide, N1-methylnicotinamide and choline and decreased the levels of betaine, which is associated with a decrease in global hepatic DNA methylation and uracil content in DNA. Nicotinamide had gene-specific effects on the methylation of CpG sites within the promoters and the expression of hepatic genes tested that are responsible for methyl transfer reactions (nicotinamide N-methyltransferase and DNA methyltransferase 1), for homocysteine metabolism (betaine–homocysteine S-methyltransferase, methionine synthase and cystathionine β-synthase) and for oxidative defence (catalase and tumour protein p53). It is concluded that nicotinamide-induced oxidative tissue injury, insulin resistance and disturbed methyl metabolism can lead to epigenetic changes. The present study suggests that long-term high nicotinamide intake (e.g. induced by niacin fortification) may be a risk factor for methylation- and insulin resistance-related metabolic abnormalities.
The present study investigated whether a recloning procedure would affect the reproductive performance or the germline transmission capacity of recloned transgenic pigs. This study has also laid the foundation for the development of elite transgenic swine breeds in the future. Recloned transgenic pigs were developed from ear tissue fibroblasts of primary transgenic cloned pigs using a recloning procedure, and their reproductive performance and exogenous gene transmission were analyzed. Two transgenic cell lines with different genetic backgrounds (derived from a female miniature pig and a male Landrace pig) with stable expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) were established successfully. Furthermore, recloned transgenic embryos were developed to full term successfully. One female Chinese experimental miniature piglet (CEMP) (GFP+) and three male Landrace piglets (GFP+) were delivered naturally. Furthermore, the index values for the reproductive characteristics of the recloned transgenic pigs, such as puberty, gestation period, sperm volume and sperm concentration, were not significantly different from those of conventionally bred pigs. In addition, 53% of the F1 offspring of the recloned transgenic pigs were GFP positive. These results demonstrate that ear tissue fibroblasts from primary transgenic cloned pigs efficiently support the full-term development of recloned transgenic embryos. Furthermore, recloned transgenic pigs maintain normal reproductive performance and stable germline (genetic) transmission capacities.
The layered oxide LiVO2 recently has received more attention due to its interesting structural and magnetic behaviors involving the two-dimensional magnetic frustration in these systems. We synthesized a series of F-doped LiVO2 samples, and reported the F-doping effect on the structure and transition temperature Tt. The samples LiVO2-xFx (x=0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3) were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), magnetic susceptibility and specific heat measurement. The structural analysis shows that with increasing x, the ratio of lattice parameter c/a increasing, i.e. in the a-b plane the lattice is compressed while in the c-axis direction the lattice expands. The DSC measurements show that a first-order phase transition happens at around 500 K, and the thermal hysteresis around phase transition temperature Tt increases with increasing x. Substitution of O with F ions results in a change of two dimensional characteristics and the distortion of the VO6 block in structure, which significantly influence the magnetic ordering transition temperature Tt.
With the changing patterns of morbidity and mortality in China, noncommunicable chronic diseases have become the major threats to the health of the Chinese population. The causes of chronic diseases include genetic factors and behavioral risk factors such as the use of tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs, unhealthy dietary behaviors, and lack of physical activity. Twin studies offer a unique opportunity to disentangle the genetic and environmental risk and protective factors for chronic disease. The Qingdao Twin Registry (QTR) was initiated in 1998 as part of the National Chinese Twin Registry. Over 11,000 pairs of twins and multiples of all ages have been recruited into the registry. Several studies of physical and mental health are underway. Many of the adult twins have completed health and behavioral risk factor surveys, and the adolescent twins are participating in a study of gene–environment interactions in tobacco and alcohol use. Studies of the heritability of personality factors have been conducted. In 2002, Qingdao established the Qingdao Twin Health Promotion Association, a nonprofit organization that supports health services for twins and their parents, organizes special events and health-related activities for twins, and raises funds to conduct twin health examinations. The QTR will be a useful resource for future studies of population genetics in human health and disease.
Fifty-eight actinomycetes were isolated from surface-sterilized tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) roots and 43 isolates were screened for herbicidal activities. Isolate S5 was found to have potent herbicidal activity against germination of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), mung bean (Phaseolus radiatus L.) and grass (Paspalum notatum and Cynodon dactylon) seeds. But the metabolites of isolate S5 showed no influence on the growth of wheat seedlings. The S5 strain was identified as Streptomyces lavendulae var. glaucescens based on its morphological characteristics and physiological properties. The highest herbicidal activity was observed when 2% inocula were applied into S medium (containing 1% glucose, 0.3% beef extract and pH 7.0) and incubated at 25°C on a rotary shaker (160 rpm).
Resistance measurement, P–E hysteresis measurement, and transmission electron microscope and energy dispersive analysis of x-rays (TEM-EDAX) analysis were used to study the resistance failure of lead magnesium niobate-based multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCC) under dc voltage. It was found that the failure rate of MLCC with 1/9 Pd/Ag internal electrodes was 10 times that of MLCC with 3/7 Pd/Ag electrodes after the temperature–humidity–bias test (THB). Voltage shifts of hysteresis loops showed that an internal bias field between electrodes of MLCC was formed after THB test. Ag diffusion from electrodes into the ceramics during cofiring was examined through TEM-EDAX analysis. It was also found that the degraded specimens could be partially restored after storing under natural condition. On the basis of these results, the failure mechanism was established that oxygen vacancies induced by Ag diffusion accumulated under the external bias field, which increased the concentration of electronic defects, thereby resulting in the resistance failure of MLCC.
A nanocrystalline tungsten oxide photochromic thin film was prepared by colloid chemistry method. The microstructure, phase transition involved in the solution process, photochromic behavior, and mechanism of the film were investigated by means of transmission electron microscope, x-ray diffraction, ultraviolet-visible absorption spectra, and x-ray photoelectron spectra. It was found that the particle size and crystallinity of the thin film could be easily controlled by adjusting the concentration of oxalic acid in the colloid solution of tungsten oxide hydrate. With the increase of the oxalic acid concentration, the size of nanoparticles in the film decreased sharply, and meanwhile, a blue shift of the absorption peaks caused by the quantum size effect was observed accordingly. With the increase of the pH in the solution, tungsten oxide hydrate was gradually transformed into an oxided 12-tungstate with Keggin structure, which led to the change of photochromic property of the films. The photochromism of the film is believed to be due to the electron transfer between the different valence states of tungsten ions located in adjacent sites.
We report the infrared reflection and absorption spectra of the high Tc superconductor Tl2Ba2CaCu2O8 in the temperature range from 10 K to 300 K. For temperatures above 100 K, the reflection spectra show only small changes with temperature. Just below 100 K, the reflectance suddenly increases for energies below 210 cm−1 with very little change as the temperature is further decreased. Several peaks corresponding to normal modes of the material are observed in both reflection and absorption spectra.
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