To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Lichens are a well-known symbiosis between a host mycobiont and eukaryote algal or cyanobacterial photobiont partner(s). Recent studies have indicated that terrestrial lichens can also contain other cryptic photobionts that increase the lichens’ ecological fitness in response to varying environmental conditions. Marine lichens live in distinct ecosystems compared with their terrestrial counterparts because of regular submersion in seawater and are much less studied. We performed bacteria 16S and eukaryote 18S rRNA gene metabarcoding surveys to assess total photobiont diversity within the marine lichen Lichina pygmaea (Lightf.) C. Agardh, which is widespread throughout the intertidal zone of Atlantic coastlines. We found that in addition to the established cyanobacterial photobiont Rivularia, L. pygmaea is also apparently host to a range of other marine and freshwater cyanobacteria, as well as marine eukaryote algae in the family Ulvophyceae (Chlorophyta). We propose that symbiosis with multiple freshwater and marine cyanobacteria and eukaryote photobionts may contribute to the ability of L. pygmaea to survive the harsh fluctuating environmental conditions of the intertidal zone.
This study introduces a special series on validity studies of the Cognition Battery (CB) from the U.S. National Institutes of Health Toolbox for the Assessment of Neurological and Behavioral Function (NIHTB) (Gershon, Wagster et al., 2013) in an adult sample. This first study in the series describes the sample, each of the seven instruments in the NIHTB-CB briefly, and the general approach to data analysis. Data are provided on test–retest reliability and practice effects, and raw scores (mean, standard deviation, range) are presented for each instrument and the gold standard instruments used to measure construct validity. Accompanying papers provide details on each instrument, including information about instrument development, psychometric properties, age and education effects on performance, and convergent and discriminant construct validity. One study in the series is devoted to a factor analysis of the NIHTB-CB in adults and another describes the psychometric properties of three composite scores derived from the individual measures representing fluid and crystallized abilities and their combination. The NIHTB-CB is designed to provide a brief, comprehensive, common set of measures to allow comparisons among disparate studies and to improve scientific communication. (JINS, 2014, 20, 1–12)
A method to remove the effects of elastic and thermal diffuse scattering (TDS) of the incident electron probe from electron energy-loss and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy data for atomically resolved spectrum images of single crystals of known thickness is presented. By calculating the distribution of the probe within a specimen of known structure, it is possible to deconvolve the channeling of the probe and TDS from experimental data by reformulating the inelastic cross-section as an inverse problem. In electron energy-loss spectroscopy this allows valid comparisons with first principles fine-structure calculations to be made. In energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, direct compositional analyses such as ζ-factor and Cliff–Lorimer k-factor analysis can be performed without the complications of channeling and TDS. We explore in detail how this method can be incorporated into existing multislice programs, and demonstrate practical considerations in implementing this method using a simulated test specimen. We show the importance of taking into account the scattering of the probe in k-factor analysis in a zone axis orientation. The applicability and limitations of the method are discussed.
This chapter discusses the management of surgical abdomen. It presents special circumstances, which make management of surgical abdomen difficult in some patients, including children, developmentally delayed, or obtunded individuals (from illness or drugs), patients with spinal cord injuries, pregnant patients, elderly or immunosuppressed patients, and morbid obese patients. Patients could present with referred pain, which is pain experienced at a site (or sites) distant from the initiating organ due to a shared neural origin with another body organ, such as right shoulder pain due to biliary colic or back pain due to pancreatitis. Acute-onset pain lasting longer than 6 hours in a previously healthy patient is often due to a surgical condition. As with the stable patient, a well-formulated differential diagnosis based on careful history and physical examination guides the plan of care far better than a shotgun approach of imaging and laboratory tests.
The automated external defibrillator (AED) is a tool that contributes to survival with mixed outcomes. This review assesses the effectiveness of the AED, consistencies and variations among studies, and how varying outcomes can be resolved.
A worksheet for the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) 2010 science review focused on hospital survival in AED programs was the foundation of the articles reviewed. Articles identified in the search covering a broader range of topics were added. All articles were read by at least two authors; consensus discussions resolved differences.
AED use developed sequentially. Use of AEDs by emergency medical technicians (EMTs) compared to manual defibrillators showed equal or superior survival. AED use was extended to trained responders likely to be near victims, such as fire/rescue, police, airline attendants, and casino security guards, with improvement in all venues but not all programs. Broad public access initiatives demonstrated increased survival despite low rates of AED use. Home AED programs have not improved survival; in-hospital trials have had mixed results. Successful programs have placed devices in high-risk sites, maintained the AEDs, recruited a team with a duty to respond, and conducted ongoing assessment of the program.
The AED can affect survival among patients with sudden ventricular fibrillation (VF). Components of AED programs that affect outcome include the operator, location, the emergency response system, ongoing maintenance and evaluation. Comparing outcomes is complicated by variations in definitions of populations and variables. The effect of AEDs on individuals can be dramatic, but the effect on populations is limited.
StokesNA, ScapigliatiA, TrammellAR, ParishDC. The Effect of the AED and AED Programs on Survival of Individuals, Groups and Populations. Prehosp Disaster Med.2012;27(5):1–6.
A propensity to attend to other people's emotions is a necessary condition for human empathy.
To test our hypothesis that psychopathic disorder begins as a failure to attend to the eyes of attachment figures, using a ‘love’ scenario in young children.
Children with oppositional defiant disorder, assessed for callous–unemotional traits, and a control group were observed in a love interaction with mothers. Eye contact and affection were measured for each dyad.
There was no group difference in affection and eye contact expressed by the mothers. Compared with controls, children with oppositional defiant disorder expressed lower levels of affection back towards their mothers; those with high levels of callous–unemotional traits showed significantly lower levels of affection than the children lacking these traits. As predicted, the former group showed low levels of eye contact toward their mothers. Low eye contact was not correlated with maternal coercive parenting or feelings toward the child, but was correlated with psychopathic fearlessness in their fathers.
Impairments in eye contact are characteristic of children with callous–unemotional traits, and these impairments are independent of maternal behaviour.
Iris' written work has been very widely admired; she has
obviously helped shape the field of democratic political theory; she has
deeply influenced students. The discussion of this work will go on in
books and articles until her ideas have been fully absorbed. Here I will
say a little about my particular experience of her collegiality. I was
Iris' junior colleague at Chicago for six years. I met Iris eight
years ago this week, under a portico outside a large hotel like the one in
which you are all gathered, not too long after I had first read
Democracy and Difference and shortly before my first APSA paper
presentation on, as it happened, deliberative democracy. I had no way of
knowing then how directly and deeply she would affect my intellectual
life. She was already for me a standard, even before I met her. But how
that fact deepened over time is what I want to render here.
This work reports on the densification of iron nanoparticles heated at moderate rates without applied pressure as observed by TEM imaging, gas adsorption pore size measurement, and X-ray diffraction. Despite a low packing density, the small pore size is amenable to significant densification by pressureless sintering. Carbon residues from the stabilizing ligands affect both the composition and processing of the particles. This approach is amenable to deposition on non-planar or fragile substrates. Additionally, large areas can be processed in parallel.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.