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The mechanism through which developmental programming of offspring overweight/obesity following in utero exposure to maternal overweight/obesity operates is unknown but may operate through biologic pathways involving offspring anthropometry at birth. Thus, we sought to examine to what extent the association between in utero exposure to maternal overweight/obesity and childhood overweight/obesity is mediated by birth anthropometry. Analyses were conducted on a retrospective cohort with data obtained from one hospital system. A natural effects model framework was used to estimate the natural direct effect and natural indirect effect of birth anthropometry (weight, length, head circumference, ponderal index, and small-for-gestational age [SGA] or large-for-gestational age [LGA]) for the association between pre-pregnancy maternal body mass index (BMI) category (overweight/obese vs normal weight) and offspring overweight/obesity in childhood. Models were adjusted for maternal and child socio-demographics. Three thousand nine hundred and fifty mother–child dyads were included in analyses (1467 [57.8%] of mothers and 913 [34.4%] of children were overweight/obese). Results suggest that a small percentage of the effect of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI overweight/obesity on offspring overweight/obesity operated through offspring anthropometry at birth (weight: 15.5%, length: 5.2%, head circumference: 8.5%, ponderal index: 2.2%, SGA: 2.9%, and LGA: 4.2%). There was a small increase in the percentage mediated when gestational diabetes or hypertensive disorders were added to the models. Our study suggests that some measures of birth anthropometry mediate the association between maternal pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity and offspring overweight/obesity in childhood and that the size of this mediated effect is small.
To characterize the association of longitudinal changes in maternal anthropometric measures with neonatal anthropometry and to assess to what extent late-gestational changes in maternal anthropometry are associated with neonatal body composition.
In a prospective cohort of pregnant women, maternal anthropometry was measured at six study visits across pregnancy and after birth, neonates were measured and fat and lean mass calculated. We estimated maternal anthropometric trajectories and separately assessed rate of change in the second (15–28 weeks) and third trimester (28–39 weeks) in relation to neonatal anthropometry. We investigated the extent to which tertiles of third-trimester maternal anthropometry change were associated with neonatal outcomes.
Women were recruited from twelve US sites (2009–2013).
Non-obese women with singleton pregnancies (n 2334).
A higher rate of increase in gestational weight gain was associated with larger-birth-weight infants with greater lean and fat mass. In contrast, higher rates of increase in maternal anthropometry measures were not associated with infant birth weight but were associated with decreased neonatal lean mass. In the third trimester, women in the tertile of lowest change in triceps skinfold (−0·57 to −0·06 mm per week) had neonates with 35·8 g more lean mass than neonates of mothers in the middle tertile of rate of change (−0·05 to 0·06 mm per week).
The rate of change in third-trimester maternal anthropometry measures may be related to neonatal lean and fat mass yet have a negligible impact on infant birth weight, indicating that neonatal anthropometry may provide additional information over birth weight alone.
Trapped waves can exist in the presence of bodies in open water, and also in channels of finite width. Various examples are found for bodies that support trapped waves in channels, including floating and submerged bodies and bottom-mounted cylinders. Different types of trapping are considered where the body is fixed or free to move in response to the oscillatory pressure. In some cases both types are supported by the same body. In most cases for fixed bodies the fluid motion is antisymmetric about the centreline of the channel, but special body shapes exist where the trapped mode is asymmetric. For free bodies the trapping modes and body motions are symmetric about the centreline if the body is floating or antisymmetric if it is submerged.
Lectotypes are designated for eight names in Eriocaulon in tropical Asia, namely E. alatum, E. hamiltonianum, E. hookerianum, E. infirmum, E. lanigerum, E. nautiliforme, E. nigrum and E. ubonense. Additional information on the lectotype of Eriocaulon quinquangulare is given.
There is increasing interest among developmental psychopathologists in broad transdiagnostic factors that give rise to a wide array of clinical presentations (multifinality), but little is known about how these processes lead to particular psychopathological manifestations over the course of development. We examined whether individual differences in the error-related negativity (ΔERN), a neural indicator of error monitoring, predicts whether early persistent irritability, a prototypical transdiagnostic construct, is associated with later internalizing versus externalizing outcomes. When children were 3 years old, mothers were interviewed about children's persistent irritability and completed questionnaires about their children's psychopathology. Three years later, EEG was recorded while children performed a go/no-go task to measure the ΔERN. When children were approximately 9 years old, mothers again completed questionnaires about their children's psychopathology. The results indicated that among children who were persistently irritable at age 3, an enhanced or more negative ΔERN at age 6 predicted the development of internalizing symptoms at age 9, whereas a blunted or smaller ΔERN at age 6 predicted the development of externalizing symptoms. Our results suggest that variation in error monitoring predicts, and may even shape, the expression of persistent irritability and differentiates developmental trajectories from preschool persistent irritability to internalizing versus externalizing outcomes in middle to late childhood.
Objectives: A limited body of research is available on the relationships between multiplicity of birth and neuropsychological functioning in preterm children who were conceived in the age of assisted reproductive technology and served by the modern neonatal intensive care unit. Our chief objective was to evaluate whether, after adjustment for sociodemographic factors and perinatal complications, twin birth accounted for a unique portion of developmental outcome variance in children born at-risk in the surfactant era. Methods: We compared the neuropsychological functioning of 77 twins and 144 singletons born preterm (<34 gestational weeks) and served by William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI. Children were evaluated at preschool age, using standardized tests of memory, language, perceptual, and motor abilities. Results: Multiple regression analyses, adjusting for sociodemographic and perinatal variables, revealed no differences on memory or motor indices between preterm twins and their singleton counterparts. In contrast, performance of language and visual processing tasks was significantly lower in twins despite reduced perinatal risk in comparison to singletons. Effect sizes ranged from .33 to .38 standard deviations for global language and visual processing ability indices, respectively. No significant group by sex interactions were observed, and comparison of first-, or second-born twins with singletons yielded medium effect sizes (Cohen’s d=.56 and .40, respectively). Conclusions: The modest twin disadvantage on language and visual processing tasks at preschool-age could not be readily attributable to socioeconomic or perinatal variables. The possibility of biological or social twinning-related phenomena as mechanisms underlying the observed performance gaps are discussed. (JINS, 2016, 22, 865–877)
We wanted to present our experience with the extended endoscopic approach to clival pathology, focusing on cerebrospinal fluid leak and reconstruction challenges.
We examined a consecutive series of 37 patients undergoing the extended endoscopic approach for skull base tumours, 9 patients with clival pathology. Patients were examined for the incidence of post-operative cerebrospinal fluid leak in relation to tumour pathology, location, size, reconstruction and lumbar drain.
The overall incidence of post-operative cerebrospinal fluid leak was 10.8 per cent. Seventy-five per cent of patients who had a post-operative cerebrospinal fluid leak underwent a transclival approach (p < 0.05). All patients with clival pathology who underwent an intradural dissection had a post-operative cerebrospinal fluid leak (p < 0.05).
Post-operative cerebrospinal fluid leak rates after the extended endoscopic approach have improved significantly after advancements including the vascularised nasoseptal flap. Despite this, transclival approaches continue to pose much difficulty. Further investigation is necessary to develop technical improvements that can meet the unique challenges associated with this region.
We studied the associations between early postnatal growth gains and neuropsychological outcome in very preterm-born children. Specifically, we wished to establish whether relationships exist between gains in head circumference (relative to gains in body-weight or length), from birth to hospital discharge, and intellectual, language, or motor, performance at preschool age. We used data from 127 preschoolers, born <33 weeks, all graduates of the William Beaumont Hospital Neonatal Intensive-Care Unit (NICU) in Royal Oak, MI. Cognitive, motor, and language outcomes were evaluated using the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scales of Intelligence-Revised, Peabody Developmental Scales – 2nd Edition, and the Preschool Language Scale – 3rd Edition, respectively. Differences between Z-scores at birth and hospital discharge, calculated for three anthropometric measures (head circumference, weight, length), were variables of interest in separate simultaneous multiple regression procedures. We statistically adjusted for sex, socioeconomic status, birth weight, length of hospitalization, perinatal complications, and intrauterine growth. Examination of the relationships between anthropometric indices and outcome measures revealed a significant association between NICU head growth and global intelligence, with the Z-difference score for head circumference accounting for a unique portion of the variance in global intelligence (ηp2 =.04). Early postnatal head growth is significantly associated with neuropsychological outcome in very preterm-born preschoolers. To conclude, despite its relative brevity, NICU stay, often overlapping with the end of 2nd and with the 3rd trimester of pregnancy, appears to be a sensitive developmental period for brain substrates underlying neuropsychological functions. (JINS, 2015, 21, 126–136)
The paper describes a process which allows a vertical circular cylinder subject to plane monochromatic surface gravity waves to appear invisible to the far-field observer. This is achieved by surrounding the cylinder with an annular region of variable bathymetry. Two approaches are taken to investigate this effect. First a mild-slope approximation is applied to the governing linearised three-dimensional water wave equations to formulate a depth-averaged two-dimensional wave equation with varying wavenumber over the variable bathmetry. This is then solved by formulating a domain integral equation, solved numerically by discretisation. For a given set of geometrical and wave parameters, the bathymetry is selected by a numerical optimisation process and it is shown that the scattering cross-section is reduced towards zero with increasing refinement of the bathymetry. A fully three-dimensional boundary-element method, based on the WAMIT solver (see www.wamit.com) but adapted here to allow for depressions in the bed, is used to assess the accuracy of the mild-slope results and then further numerically optimise the bathymetry towards a cloaking structure. Numerical results provide strong evidence that perfect cloaking is possible for the fully three-dimensional problem. One practical application of the results is that cloaking implies a reduced mean drift force on the cylinder.
We have used high-resolution, HST WFC3/IR, near-infrared imaging to conduct a detailed bulge-disk decomposition of the morphologies of ≃ 200 of the most massive (M* > 1011 M⊙) galaxies at 1 < z < 3 in the CANDELS-UDS field. We find that, while such massive galaxies at low redshift are generally bulge-dominated, at redshifts 1<z<2 they are predominantly mixed bulge+disk systems, and by z > 2 they are mostly disk-dominated. Interestingly, we find that while most of the quiescent galaxies are bulge-dominated, a significant fraction (25–40%) of the most quiescent galaxies, have disk-dominated morphologies. Thus, our results suggest that the physical mechanisms which quench star-formation activity are not simply connected to those responsible for the morphological transformation of massive galaxies.
Evaluation of a dietary Na reduction trial in a community setting.
Community-based randomized trial. Ten-week nutrition intervention activities focused on lifestyle modification to decrease dietary Na intake, under the supervision of a registered dietitian. Twenty-four hour urine specimens were collected at baseline and follow-up visits to determine 24 h urinary Na excretion.
The University of Pittsburgh Center for Healthy Aging, Key to Life Nutrition Program.
Hypertensive adults at least 65 years of age.
Mean age of participants was 75 years. Twenty-four hour mean urinary Na excretion at baseline was 3174 mg/d. This reduced to 2944 mg/d (P = 0·30) and 2875 mg/d (P ≤ 0·03) at 6- and 12-month follow-ups, respectively. In a sub-sample (urine volume of ≥1000 ml, baseline to 12 months), mean urinary Na excretion decreased from 3220 mg/d to 2875 mg/d (P ≤ 0·02).
Significant reductions in mean 24 h urinary Na were reported, but results fell short of the recommended guidelines of 1500 mg/d for at-risk individuals. Our results reiterate the difficulty in implementing these guidelines in community-based programmes. More aggressive public health efforts, food industry support and health policy changes are needed to decrease Na levels in older adults to the recommended guidelines.
In-situ and ex-situ measurements of environmental radioactivity were made on the iThemba LABS (iTL) grounds in South Africa. The MEDUSA and HPGe detector systems were used to make in-situ and ex-situ measurements, respectively. The MEDUSA was mounted ~0.5 m above the ground on a 4 × 4 vehicle to traverse [at ~2m∙s-1] the accessible portions of the iTL grounds. Spatial data (via a GPS receiver) were acquired every 1 s, and γ-ray spectra every 2 s. MEDUSA count rate maps were produced to show the spatial distribution of radioactivity on the grounds. The HPGe was used to measure the radioactivity in soil (and also in some grass) samples collected at particular spots on the iTL grounds. The sampled spots include six identified high activity spots (“hot spots”) and two “calibration spots”. The activity concentrations were determined for both the natural and anthropogenic radionuclides. The absorbed and effective doses (from external γ-ray irradiation) were also determined for the natural and anthropogenic radionuclides. The maximum effective dose to humans on the iTL grounds as a result of external exposure to natural and anthropogenic radionuclides was found to be well below the regulatory 1 mSv per year per member of public.
The Duke Twins Study of Memory in Aging is an ongoing, longitudinal study of cognitive change and dementia in the population-based National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council (NAS-NRC) Twin Registry of World War II Male Veterans. The primary goal of this study has been to estimate the overall genetic and environmental contributions to dementia with a specific focus on Alzheimer's disease. An additional goal has been to examine specific genetic and environmental antecedents of cognitive decline and dementia. Since 1989, we have completed 4 waves of data collection. Each wave included a 2-phase telephone cognitive screening protocol, followed by an in-home standardized clinical assessment for those with suspected dementia. For many participants, we have obtained postmortem neuro-pathological confirmation of the diagnosis of dementia. In addition to data on cognition, we have also collected information on occupational history, medical history, medications and other lifetime experiences that may influence cognitive function in late life. We provide an overview of the study's methodology and describe the focus of recent research.
The use of boron as a sintering aid reduces the sintering temperature, enhances the sintering density, and improves the microwave properties of Ba(Cd1/3Ta2/3)O3 ceramic dielectrics. Observations by transmission electron microscopy indicate that the liquid sintering mechanism contributes to the improvement in sintering density for boron concentrations exceeding 0.5 wt%. The introduction of as small as 0.01% boron also results in the production of high-density samples (∼95%), presumably indicating that a point defect mechanism may also play an important role in the sintering process. X-ray diffraction data combined with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy images show that boron-doped Ba(Cd1/3Ta2/3)O3 ceramic material has a well-ordered hexagonal structure. Annealing treatment is found to improve the microwave properties. The best sample has a dielectric constant of 32, a temperature coefficient of resonant frequency of 80 ± 15 ppm/°C, and a quality factor of >25,000 at 2 GHz.