To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Many mental disorders, including depression, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, are associated with poor dietary quality and nutrient intake. There is, however, a deficit of research looking at the relationship between obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) severity, nutrient intake and dietary quality.
This study aims to explore the relationship between OCD severity, nutrient intake and dietary quality.
A post hoc regression analysis was conducted with data combined from two separate clinical trials that included 85 adults with diagnosed OCD, using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-5. Nutrient intakes were calculated from the Dietary Questionnaire for Epidemiological Studies version 3.2, and dietary quality was scored with the Healthy Eating Index for Australian Adults – 2013.
Nutrient intake in the sample largely aligned with Australian dietary guidelines. Linear regression models adjusted for gender, age and total energy intake showed no significant associations between OCD severity, nutrient intake and dietary quality (all P > 0.05). However, OCD severity was inversely associated with caffeine (β = −15.50, 95% CI −28.88 to −2.11, P = 0.024) and magnesium (β = −6.63, 95% CI −12.72 to −0.53, P = 0.034) intake after adjusting for OCD treatment resistance.
This study showed OCD severity had little effect on nutrient intake and dietary quality. Dietary quality scores were higher than prior studies with healthy samples, but limitations must be noted regarding comparability. Future studies employing larger sample sizes, control groups and more accurate dietary intake measures will further elucidate the relationship between nutrient intake and dietary quality in patients with OCD.
We conducted a retrospective review of a hybrid antimicrobial restriction process demonstrating adherence to appropriate use criteria in 72% of provisional-only orders, in 100% of provisional orders followed by ID orders, and in 97% of ID-initiated orders. Therapy interruptions occurred in 24% of provisional orders followed by ID orders.
We examined the return on investment (ROI) from the Endovascular Reperfusion Alberta (ERA) project, a provincially funded population-wide strategy to improve access to endovascular therapy (EVT), to inform policy regarding sustainability.
We calculated net benefit (NB) as benefit minus cost and ROI as benefit divided by cost. Patients treated with EVT and their controls were identified from the ESCAPE trial. Using the provincial administrative databases, their health services utilization (HSU), including inpatient, outpatient, physician, long-term care services, and prescription drugs, were compared. This benefit was then extrapolated to the number of patients receiving EVT increased in 2018 and 2019 by the ERA implementation. We used three time horizons, including short (90 days), medium (1 year), and long-term (5 years).
EVT was associated with a reduced gross HSU cost for all the three time horizons. Given the total costs of ERA were $2.04 million in 2018 ($11,860/patient) and $3.73 million in 2019 ($17,070/patient), NB per patient in 2018 (2019) was estimated at −$7,313 (−$12,524), $54,592 ($49,381), and $47,070 ($41,859) for short, medium, and long-term time horizons, respectively. Total NB for the province in 2018 (2019) were −$1.26 (−$2.74), $9.40 ($10.78), and $8.11 ($9.14) million; ROI ratios were 0.4 (0.3), 5.6 (3.9) and 5.0 (3.5). Probabilities of ERA being cost saving were 39% (31%), 97% (96%), and 94% (91%), for short, medium, and long-term time horizons, respectively.
The ERA program was cost saving in the medium and long-term time horizons. Results emphasized the importance of considering a broad range of HSU and long-term impact to capture the full ROI.
Stem cells give rise to the entirety of cells within an organ. Maintaining stem cell identity and coordinately regulating stem cell divisions is crucial for proper development. In plants, mobile proteins, such as WUSCHEL-RELATED HOMEOBOX 5 (WOX5) and SHORTROOT (SHR), regulate divisions in the root stem cell niche. However, how these proteins coordinately function to establish systemic behaviour is not well understood. We propose a non-cell autonomous role for WOX5 in the cortex endodermis initial (CEI) and identify a regulator, ANGUSTIFOLIA (AN3)/GRF-INTERACTING FACTOR 1, that coordinates CEI divisions. Here, we show with a multi-scale hybrid model integrating ordinary differential equations (ODEs) and agent-based modeling that quiescent center (QC) and CEI divisions have different dynamics. Specifically, by combining continuous models to describe regulatory networks and agent-based rules, we model systemic behaviour, which led us to predict cell-type-specific expression dynamics of SHR, SCARECROW, WOX5, AN3 and CYCLIND6;1, and experimentally validate CEI cell divisions. Conclusively, our results show an interdependency between CEI and QC divisions.
There is minimal data regarding antegrade-only accessory pathways in young patients. Given evolving recommendations and treatments, retrospective analysis of the clinical and electrophysiologic properties of antegrade-only pathways in patients <21 years old was performed, with subsequent comparison of electrophysiology properties to age-matched controls with bidirectional pathways. Of 522 consecutive young patients with ventricular pre-excitation referred for electrophysiology study, 33 (6.3%) had antegrade-only accessory pathways. Indications included palpitations (47%), chest pain (25%), and syncope (22%). The shortest value for either the accessory pathway effective refractory period or the pre-excited R-R interval was taken for each patient, with the median of the antegrade-only group significantly greater than shortest values for the bidirectional group (310 [280–360] ms versus 270 [240–302] ms, p < 0.001). However, the prevalence of pathways with high-risk properties (effective refractory period or shortest pre-excited R-R interval <250 ms) was similar in both study patients and controls (13% versus 21%) (p = 0.55). Sixteen patients had a single antegrade-only accessory pathway and no inducible arrhythmia. Six patients had Mahaim fibres, all right anterolateral with inducible antidromic reciprocating tachycardia. However, 11 patients with antegrade-only accessory pathways and 3 with Mahaim fibres had inducible tachycardia due to a second substrate recognised at electrophysiology study. These included concealed accessory pathways (7), bidirectional accessory pathways (5), and atrioventricular node re-entry (2). Antegrade-only accessory pathways require comprehensive electrophysiology evaluation as confounding factors such as high-risk conduction properties or inducible Supraventricular Tachycardia (SVT) due to a second substrate of tachycardia are often present.
Recognizing and managing existential suffering remains challenging. We present two cases demonstrating how existential suffering manifests in patients and how to manage it to alleviate suffering.
Case 1: A 69-year-old man with renal cell carcinoma receiving end-of-life care expressed fear of lying down “as he may not wake up.” He also expressed concerns of not being a good Christian. Supportive psychotherapy and chaplain support were provided, with anxiolytic medications as needed. He was able to express his fear of dying and concern about his family, and Edmonton Symptom Assessment System scores improved. He died peacefully with family at bedside. Case 2: A 71-year-old woman presented with follicular lymphoma and colonic obstruction requiring nasogastric drain of fecaloid matter. Initially, she felt that focusing on comfort rather than cure symbolized giving up but eventually felt at peace. Physical symptoms were well-controlled but emotionally she became more distressed, repeatedly asking angrily, “Why is it taking so long to die?.” She was supported by her family through Bible readings and prayers, but she was distressed about being a burden to them. An interdisciplinary approach involving expressive supportive counseling, spiritual care, and integrative medicine resulted in limited distress relief. Owing to increasing agitation, the patient and family agreed to titrate chlorpromazine to sedation. Her family was appreciative that she was restful until her death.
Existential suffering manifests through multiple domains in each patient. A combination of pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic techniques may be needed to relieve end-of-life suffering.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: We conducted interviews with investigators, clinicians, and health system and health agency leaders to assess regional educational needs in implementation and improvement science, including content (knowledge and skill), format, experiential learning, and mentoring, to identify barriers and guide planning. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Five CTSAs in the University of California Biomedical Research Acceleration, Integration, & Development consortium (UC BRAID) plus a fifth affiliated CTSA developed a common protocol and interviewed 31 California-based learners (current fellows, early and mid-career investigators, clinicians, and health agency personnel) and system leaders from health care and health agencies. Interviews focused on impact goals, educational needs in dissemination, implementation, and improvement (DII) science, challenges in DII research, preferred learning formats, desired proficiencies and skills, and barriers such as cost, time, awareness, terminology, and suitability and availability of training. A rapid review of literature identified potential domains of knowledge and skills for a proposed curriculum. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Areas of emphasis varied among interviewees; identified learning needs differed between traditional research perspectives (emphasizing areas such as partner engagement, grant writing, frameworks, study design) and applied perspectives (emphasizing areas such as managing change, complex systems, learning system capacity). Learners had a range of preferences; most interviewees desired formats that are longitudinal, experiential, applied, cooperative, and affordable. Variation in knowledge of, and interpretations of, DII terms and goals limited the ability of some interviewees to specify educational needs. A synthesis reveals areas for potential future co-development and networked approaches to regional training and capacity enhancement. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: In response to a rapidly changing health landscape, our academic health systems are developing capabilities to improve care for their populations. Our work informs the training and education needs that are critical to translation at a system-wide level. Regional convenings can raise awareness while translational programs fill educational gaps.
Australia’s welfare-to-work system has been subject to ongoing political contestation and policy reform since the 1990s. In this paper we take a big picture look at the Australian system over time, re-visiting our earlier analysis of the impact of marketisation on flexibility at the frontline over the first ten years of the Australian market in employment services. That analysis demonstrated that marketisation had failed to deliver the service flexibility intended through contracting-out, and had instead produced market herding around a common set of standardised frontline practices. In the interim, there have been two further major redesigns of the Australian system at considerable expense to taxpayers. Re-introducing greater flexibility and service tailoring into the market has been a key aim of these reforms. Calling on evidence from an original, longitudinal survey of frontline employment service staff run in 2008, 2012 and 2016, this paper considers how the Australian market has evolved over its second decade. We find remarkable consistency over time and, indeed, evidence of deepening organisational convergence. We conclude that, once in motion, isomorphic pressures towards standardisation quickly get locked into quasi-market regimes; at least when these pressures occur in low-trust contracting environments.
We undertook a quality improvement project to address challenges with pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) line maintenance in a setting of low-baseline central-line infection rates. We observed a subsequent reduction in Staphylococcal PAC line infections and a trend toward a reduction in overall PAC infection rates over 1 year.
In Canada, recreational use of cannabis was legalized in October 2018. This policy change along with recent publications evaluating the efficacy of cannabis for the medical treatment of epilepsy and media awareness about its use have increased the public interest about this agent. The Canadian League Against Epilepsy Medical Therapeutics Committee, along with a multidisciplinary group of experts and Canadian Epilepsy Alliance representatives, has developed a position statement about the use of medical cannabis for epilepsy. This article addresses the current Canadian legal framework, recent publications about its efficacy and safety profile, and our understanding of the clinical issues that should be considered when contemplating cannabis use for medical purposes.
We used multivariable analyses to assess whether meeting core elements was associated with antibiotic utilization. Compliance with 7 elements versus not doing so was associated with higher use of broad-spectrum agents for community-acquired infections [days of therapy per 1,000 patient days: 155 (39) vs 133 (29), P = .02] and anti-methicillin-resistant S. aureus agents [days of therapy per 1,000 patient days: 145 (37) vs 124 (30), P = .03].
We assessed the impact of an embedded electronic medical record decision-support matrix (Cerner software system) for the reduction of hospital-onset Clostridioides difficile. A critical review of 3,124 patients highlighted excessive testing frequency in an academic medical center and demonstrated the impact of decision support following a testing fidelity algorithm.
We investigated the impact of discontinuation of contact precautions for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus infected or colonized patients on central-line associated bloodstream infection rates at an academic children’s hospital. Discontinuation of contact precautions with a bundled horizontal infection prevention platform resulted in no adverse impact on CLABSI rates.
Prenatal adversity shapes child neurodevelopment and risk for later mental health problems. The quality of the early care environment can buffer some of the negative effects of prenatal adversity on child development. Retrospective studies, in adult samples, highlight epigenetic modifications as sentinel markers of the quality of the early care environment; however, comparable data from pediatric cohorts are lacking. Participants were drawn from the Maternal Adversity Vulnerability and Neurodevelopment (MAVAN) study, a longitudinal cohort with measures of infant attachment, infant development, and child mental health. Children provided buccal epithelial samples (mean age = 6.99, SD = 1.33 years, n = 226), which were used for analyses of genome-wide DNA methylation and genetic variation. We used a series of linear models to describe the association between infant attachment and (a) measures of child outcome and (b) DNA methylation across the genome. Paired genetic data was used to determine the genetic contribution to DNA methylation at attachment-associated sites. Infant attachment style was associated with infant cognitive development (Mental Development Index) and behavior (Behavior Rating Scale) assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development at 36 months. Infant attachment style moderated the effects of prenatal adversity on Behavior Rating Scale scores at 36 months. Infant attachment was also significantly associated with a principal component that accounted for 11.9% of the variation in genome-wide DNA methylation. These effects were most apparent when comparing children with a secure versus a disorganized attachment style and most pronounced in females. The availability of paired genetic data revealed that DNA methylation at approximately half of all infant attachment-associated sites was best explained by considering both infant attachment and child genetic variation. This study provides further evidence that infant attachment can buffer some of the negative effects of early adversity on measures of infant behavior. We also highlight the interplay between infant attachment and child genotype in shaping variation in DNA methylation. Such findings provide preliminary evidence for a molecular signature of infant attachment and may help inform attachment-focused early intervention programs.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: A major limitation of cardiac stem cell transplantation following myocardial infarction (MI) is poor retention of cells in the ischemic microenvironment. Our study aims to better understand and promote the survival and differentiation of human cardiosphere-derived cells (hCDCs) in anoxia, a feature of infarcted myocardium. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We previously demonstrated that TGFβ1 and heparin-containing hydrogels (TH-hydrogel) can promote murine CDC survival. In this study, hCDCs were incubated in either normoxia or anoxia for 8 hours with and without TH-hydrogel. In addition, hCDCs without TH-hydrogel were assessed in 16 hours of anoxia. Following incubation, hCDCs were assayed for viability using calcein dye and immunostained for CD31, a marker of endothelial differentiation. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: hCDCs incubated for 8 hours in anoxia in both models equally demonstrated increased survival up to 30% when compared with cells incubated in normoxia. However, in contrast to hCDCs alone, hCDCs with TH-hydrogel additionally demonstrated increased differentiation into endothelial cells in both anoxia and normoxia. We found that hCDCs alone were able to upregulate CD31 only when subjected to 16 hours of anoxia. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: We demonstrate a new, previously unknown response of hCDCs to anoxia. This induces increased viability and differentiation of hCDCs into endothelial cells. The differentiation in anoxia was time dependent and could be expedited with use of TH-hydrogel. Anoxic preconditioning of hCDCs together with the TH-hydrogel system may improve the therapeutic potential of stem cell transplantation following MI.