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Seed shatter is an important weediness trait on which the efficacy of harvest weed seed control (HWSC) depends. The level of seed shatter in a species is likely influenced by agroecological and environmental factors. In 2016 and 2017, we assessed seed shatter of eight economically important grass weed species in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] from crop physiological maturity to four weeks after maturity at multiple sites spread across eleven states in the southern, northern, and mid-Atlantic U.S. From soybean maturity to four weeks after maturity, cumulative percent seed shatter was lowest in the southern U.S. regions and increased as the states moved further north. At soybean maturity, the percent of seed shatter ranged from 1 to 70%. That range had shifted to 5 to 100% (mean: 42%) by 25 days after soybean maturity. There were considerable differences in seed shatter onset and rate of progression between sites and years in some species that could impact their susceptibility to HWSC. Our results suggest that many summer annual grass species are likely not ideal candidates for HWSC, although HWSC could substantially reduce their seed output at during certain years.
A survey of Veterans’ Affairs Medical Centers on control of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) and carbapenem-producing CRE (CP-CRE) demonstrated that most facilities use VA guidelines but few screen for CRE/CP-CRE colonization regularly or regularly communicate CRE/CP-CRE status at patient transfer. Most respondents were knowledgeable about CRE guidelines but cited lack of adequate resources.
The Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) guidelines were recently updated to include ultrasound confirmation of endotracheal tube (ETT) location as an adjunctive tool to verify placement. While this method is employed in the emergency department under the guidance of the most recent American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP; Irving, Texas USA) guidelines, it has yet to gain wide acceptance in the prehospital setting where it has the potential for greater impact. The objective of this study to is determine if training critical care medics using simulation was a feasible and reliable method to learn this skill.
Twenty critical care paramedics with no previous experience with point-of-care ultrasound volunteered for advanced training in prehospital ultrasound. Four ultrasound fellowship trained emergency physicians proctored two three-hour training sessions. Each session included a brief introduction to ultrasound “knobology,” normal sonographic neck and lung anatomy, and how to identify ETT placement within the trachea or esophagus. Immediately following this, the paramedics were tested with five simulated case scenarios using pre-obtained images that demonstrated a correctly placed ETT, an esophageal intubation, a bronchial intubation, and an improperly functioning ETT. Their accuracy, length of time to respond, and comfort with using ultrasound were all assessed.
All 20 critical care medics completed the training and testing session. During the five scenarios, 37/40 (92.5%) identified the correct endotracheal placements, 18/20 (90.0%) identified the esophageal intubations, 18/20 (90.0%) identified the bronchial intubation, and 20/20 (100.0%) identified the ETT malfunctions correctly. The average time to diagnosis was 10.6 seconds for proper placement, 15.5 seconds for esophageal, 15.6 seconds for bronchial intubation, and 11.8 seconds for ETT malfunction.
The use of ultrasound to confirm ETT placement can be effectively taught to critical care medics using a short, simulation-based training session. Further studies on implementation into patient care scenarios are needed.
This chapter examines the narratives (media, policy and statistical) around the notion of the ‘linguistic other’ in England and elsewhere in Europe. We argue that these narratives are closely bound up with the way nation states define their policies for social integration of migrant communities and, in particular, migrant children in schools. At the heart of the debates around conflicting narratives about the role of schools in this context is the question of linguistic diversity and second (or host) language development. Also in this chapter we review, from a sociological perspective, how researchers and policy-makers have endeavoured to understand the concept and practice of social integration in this context. In particular, we highlight the tensions between the focus on micro-level experience and on the macro-level socio-political implications. We provide a review of recent empirical studies on EAL internationally and reflect on current issues in light of recent policy developments. We discuss the variations that can be found across Europe in terms of mainstreaming and inclusion.
This chapter introduces the framework of a model of inclusive pedagogy that consists of four key dimensions: attitudinal inclusion, academic inclusion, linguistic inclusion and social inclusion. We illustrate the issues through reference to teacher data elicited at the project secondary schools. We discuss the prevalence of linguistic diversity in English schools that makes teachers’ knowledge about such language diversity essential to effectiveness in the classroom and, in light of this, we identify key forms of ‘bilingual assistance’ which support EAL pedagogy. The final section of the chapter presents an outline of a teacher knowledge framework which we argue needs to form the basis of teacher professional development in the EAL context.
This chapter discusses the policy and educational context of provision for newcomer migrant children in Europe and the United Kingdom (including a review of relevant EU documentation relating to the social and academic integration of newcomer children in schools) before focusing on the specific context of the East of England which is the setting for our empirical study. We review statistical data relating to regional provision of support for EAL in schools and discuss the findings of a regional school survey conducted for the project.
This introductory chapter sets out the rationale for the book and in particular for its focus on the relationship between social integration and language development in the experiences of newcomer school students with English as an additional language. It also provides a critical examination and definitional review of key terms and concepts at the heart of the discussion: EAL, newly arrived, mainstreaming, language development and social integration.
The final chapter summarises the main findings discussed in the book and looks ahead at future challenges and possibilities, drawing out implications from the research described in the earlier chapters with the aim of informing an improved understanding of the interdependence between social integration and language development in the schooling of newcomer EAL students. We conclude by identifying three key dimensions of a framework for optimal analysis and enhancement of the socio-educational experience of newcomer EAL students. These dimensions require further attention from researchers and practitioners: interdependence of second language development and social integration; inclusive pedagogy; and transactional home–school–home communication.
This chapter discusses salient methodological considerations and challenges in undertaking empirical research with young, newly arrived migrant students. This includes questions relating to negotiating access, sampling of core participants, the role of language and use of interpreters, and the importance of giving migrant students a voice as part of an overall holistic approach which focuses on the student perspective and the relationship of this to school and parental perspectives. Approaches to assessing language development and social integration are explored. Such considerations raise questions about the relevance of conducting research with newcomer migrant students in a range of different countries and contexts. This chapter also provides an overview of the research design adopted in the studies funded by the Bell Foundation and explores how such methodological considerations were taken into account throughout the study.
This chapter challenges the concept of school–home communication by offering a transactional notion of the home–school–home communication model (drawn from communication theory). We review the classic and more recent international literature on school–home communication in relation to newly arrived migrant children and the need to consider whether the presence of such children challenges the ‘one size fits all’ model. We use the dynamic notion of transactional communication to consider the empirical findings of the three-year research programme, covering secondary and primary schooling, and recommend alternative and more empowering constructions of school communication systems (its modes, processes, content and operationalisation). Our conclusions are of direct relevance to education practitioners, school community liaison officers and migrant communities themselves.
This chapter provides a longitudinal analysis of progression in a sample of EAL students newly arrived in the United Kingdom, highlighting the development of competence in different features of English language use in speaking and writing. In addition, we discuss evidence of change in the students’ experience of social integration as revealed in two sets of interviews with EAL students of different ages and national backgrounds and we consider how the students’ reported experience of social integration impacted on their linguistic and academic performance in the school over the two-year period following arrival. The chapter closes with an examination of the use of direct speech in English as a discursive framework in which they were able to dramatise their social experiences and to self-identify in the new environment.
Given the current context of the experience of migration on schools in England and Europe, and the competing policies and approaches to social integration in schools, there is a need to understand the connection between language development and social integration as a basis for promoting appropriate policies and practices. This volume explores the complex relationship between language, education and the social integration of newcomer migrant children in England, through an in-depth analysis of case studies from schools in the East of England. The authors set this evidence against the background of policy debates in the wider international setting, including a critical discussion of assumptions underlying national narratives of mainstreaming and assimilation. In the light of an absence of national guidelines for appropriate practice in schools, the authors outline a model of inclusive pedagogy for English as an additional language (EAL) and a framework of home-school communication to promote effective EAL parental engagement in schools.
Cohorting patients who are colonized or infected with multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) protects uncolonized patients from acquiring MDROs in healthcare settings. The potential for cross transmission within the cohort and the possibility of colonized patients acquiring secondary isolates with additional antibiotic resistance traits is often neglected. We searched for evidence of cross transmission of KPC+ Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPC-Kp) colonization among cohorted patients in a long-term acute-care hospital (LTACH), and we evaluated the impact of secondary acquisitions on resistance potential.
Genomic epidemiological investigation.
A high-prevalence LTACH during a bundled intervention that included cohorting KPC-Kp–positive patients.
Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and location data were analyzed to identify potential cases of cross transmission between cohorted patients.
Secondary KPC-Kp isolates from 19 of 28 admission-positive patients were more closely related to another patient’s isolate than to their own admission isolate. Of these 19 cases, 14 showed strong genomic evidence for cross transmission (<10 single nucleotide variants or SNVs), and most of these patients occupied shared cohort floors (12 patients) or rooms (4 patients) at the same time. Of the 14 patients with strong genomic evidence of acquisition, 12 acquired antibiotic resistance genes not found in their primary isolates.
Acquisition of secondary KPC-Kp isolates carrying distinct antibiotic resistance genes was detected in nearly half of cohorted patients. These results highlight the importance of healthcare provider adherence to infection prevention protocols within cohort locations, and they indicate the need for future studies to assess whether multiple-strain acquisition increases risk of adverse patient outcomes.