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The National Institute of Neurological Disease and Stroke-Canadian Stroke Network (NINDS-CSN) 5-minute neuropsychology protocol consists of only verbal tasks, and is proposed as a brief screening method for vascular cognitive impairment. We evaluated its feasibility within two weeks after stroke and ability to predict the development of post-stroke dementia (PSD) at 3 months after stroke.
We prospectively enrolled subjects with ischemic stroke within seven days of symptom onset who were consecutively admitted to 12 university hospitals. Neuropsychological assessments using the NINDS-CSN 5-minute and 60-minute neuropsychology protocols were administered within two weeks and at 3 months after stroke onset, respectively. PSD was diagnosed with reference to the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association statement, requiring deficits in at least two cognitive domains.
Of 620 patients, 512 (82.6%) were feasible for the NINDS-CSN 5-minute protocol within two weeks after stroke. The incidence of PSD was 16.2% in 308 subjects who had completed follow-up at 3 months after stroke onset. The total score of the NINDS-CSN 5-minute protocol differed significantly between those with and without PSD (4.0 ± 2.7, 7.4 ± 2.7, respectively; p < 0.01). A cut-off value of 6/7 showed reasonable discriminative power (sensitivity 0.82, specificity 0.67, AUC 0.74). The NINDS-CSN 5-minute protocol score was a significant predictor for PSD (adjusted odds ratio 6.32, 95% CI 2.65–15.05).
The NINDS-CSN 5-minute protocol is feasible to evaluate cognitive functions in patients with acute ischemic stroke. It might be a useful screening method for early identification of high-risk groups for PSD.
A few epidemiological data are available assessing the associations of intakes of sodium (Na) and potassium (K) with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We aimed to examine the associations of dietary intake of Na and K with the prevalence of ultrasound-diagnosed NAFLD. We performed a cross-sectional study of 100 177 participants (46 596 men and 53 581 women) who underwent a health screening examination and completed a FFQ at the Kangbuk Samsung Hospital Total Healthcare Centers, South Korea, between 2011 and 2013. NAFLD was defined by ultrasonographic detection of fatty liver in the absence of excessive alcohol intake or other known causes of liver disease. The proportion of NAFLD was 35·6 % for men and 9·8 % for women. Increasing prevalence of NAFLD was observed with increasing Na intake. The multivariable-adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) of NAFLD comparing the highest with the lowest quintile of energy-adjusted Na intake were 1·25 (95 % CI 1·18, 1·32; Ptrend<0·001) in men and 1·32 (95 % CI 1·18, 1·47; Ptrend <0·001) in women. However, when we additionally adjusted for body fat percentage, the association became attenuated; the corresponding PR of NAFLD were 1·15 (95 % CI 1·09, 1·21) in men and 1·06 (95 % CI 0·95, 1·17) in women. No inverse association was observed for energy-adjusted K intake. Our findings suggest that higher Na intake is associated with a greater prevalence of NAFLD in young and middle-aged asymptomatic adults, which might be partly mediated by adiposity.
A trend toward greater body size in dizygotic (DZ) than in monozygotic (MZ) twins has been suggested by some but not all studies, and this difference may also vary by age. We analyzed zygosity differences in mean values and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) among male and female twins from infancy to old age. Data were derived from an international database of 54 twin cohorts participating in the COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins), and included 842,951 height and BMI measurements from twins aged 1 to 102 years. The results showed that DZ twins were consistently taller than MZ twins, with differences of up to 2.0 cm in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.9 cm in adulthood. Similarly, a greater mean BMI of up to 0.3 kg/m2 in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.2 kg/m2 in adulthood was observed in DZ twins, although the pattern was less consistent. DZ twins presented up to 1.7% greater height and 1.9% greater BMI than MZ twins; these percentage differences were largest in middle and late childhood and decreased with age in both sexes. The variance of height was similar in MZ and DZ twins at most ages. In contrast, the variance of BMI was significantly higher in DZ than in MZ twins, particularly in childhood. In conclusion, DZ twins were generally taller and had greater BMI than MZ twins, but the differences decreased with age in both sexes.
Affordance refers to the properties or designs of a thing that offer the function of the thing. This paper discusses the affordance of Braille music in terms of three notions: mediational means, mastery and appropriation, and focuses on answering the following three questions: (i) How do musicians with visual impairments (MVI) perceive Braille music and what does it reveal about the characteristics and limitations of Braille music? (ii) What are the traits influencing the affordance of Braille music and how does it fit the needs of MVI? (iii) What are the conditions that make Braille music more affordable? To qualitatively investigate these topics, we interviewed nine music teachers and their seven students with visual impairment at a school for the blind in Korea. We found that learning and mastering Braille music is not an easy task, and that blind musicians tend to depend more on auditory input and memorisation. These findings suggest that the current level of development, diffusion and employment of Braille music is not satisfactory in Korea. In order to promote the affordance of Braille music, the adaptability, learnability/usability and availability of Braille music must be enhanced.
The present study aimed to assess the adequacy of Ca intake and major food sources of Ca in Korean children and adolescents.
A cross-sectional study.
Data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2007–2010. We analysed the daily Ca intake, major food sources of Ca and the prevalence of inadequate Ca intake in the study population. Ca intake was categorized as inadequate when the participant's daily Ca intake was less than the Estimated Average Requirement.
The study population consisted of 7233 children and adolescents (3973 boys, 3260 girls; aged 1–18 years).
Mean Ca intake was 510·2 mg/d in boys and 431·7 mg/d in girls. Overall, 75·0 % of adolescents (boys 71·6 %, girls 79·1 %) had inadequate Ca intake. The prevalence of inadequate Ca intake increased significantly from toddlers (45–55 %) to adolescents (78–86 %) in both genders. The highest ranked food sources for Ca were dairy products (35·0 %), followed by vegetables (17·3 %), grains (11·3 %) and seafood (9·9 %). Ca intake from dairy products decreased significantly from 57 % in toddlers to 30 % in adolescents, while Ca intakes from other foods increased with age.
Inadequate Ca intake is highly prevalent and increased with age in Korean children and adolescents. It should be emphasized to encourage children and adolescents to eat more Ca-rich products to meet their Ca needs.
Visual hallucination (VH) is a common psychotic symptom in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and may be a significant predictor of cognitive impairment (CI) in such patients.
This study aimed to investigate the pattern of glucose metabolism of VH and the relationship between VH and CI in PD.
We studied 28 PD patients, including 15 with VH (PD-VH) and 13 without VH (PD-NVH). Of the 15 PD-VH patients, 8 patients had cognitive impairment (PD-VHCI) whereas 7 did not (PD-VHNCI). All patients underwent [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ([18F] FDG PET) followed by statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analyses.
Compared to the patients with PDNVH, PD-VHNCI patients showed glucose hypometabolism in the inferior and middle temporal cortices, fusiform gyri, and frontal areas, suggesting the involvement of the ventral visual pathway. Compared to the patients with PDNVH, PD-VHCI patients showed glucose hypometabolism in the temporoparietal association cortices with scattered frontal areas.
Dysfunction of ventral visual pathway involving the temporal lobe may play a key role in VH development in PD patients. The evolving distribution from the ventral visual pathway to more extensive posterior cortices in PD-VHCI patients suggests that VH may be a prodromal symptom occurring prior to CI in PD patients.
We aimed to assess the prevalence and associated factors of vitamin D deficiency in healthy adolescents and to determine parent–adolescent association in vitamin D status.
A cross-sectional study.
Data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008–2009. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels were measured using 125I-labelled RIA kits. Vitamin D deficiency in adolescents was defined as 25(OH)D level <27·5 nmol/l, and 25(OH)D levels between 27·5 and <50 nmol/l were considered insufficient. For the parents, vitamin D deficiency was defined as 25(OH)D level <50 nmol/l.
The study population consisted of 2062 adolescents (1095 boys, 967 girls; aged 10–18 years) and their parents (1005 fathers, 1341 mothers).
Overall, 13·4 % of adolescents (boys 11·7 %, girls 15·4 %) were 25(OH)D deficient, 54·7 % were 25(OH)D insufficient. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency increased with age (P < 0·0001). Parental vitamin D deficiency was more prevalent in vitamin D-deficient adolescents than in non-deficient adolescents (all P < 0·0001). In multivariate logistic regression analyses, predictors for vitamin D deficiency were senior high school students (OR = 3·45–4·33), winter/spring season (OR = 3·18–5·11/5·35–7·36) and parental vitamin D deficiency (OR = 1·78–4·88; all P < 0·05).
Vitamin D insufficiency is prevalent among healthy Korean adolescents and the parent–offspring association warrants vitamin D screening for family members of deficient individuals.
The prevalence of the feeling of cold hands and feet (FCHF) is high in the
general population but the etiology of FCHF is largely unknown. The aim of the
present study was to explore whether the FCHF is heritable. Eight hundred and
ninety-four pairs of twins completed a question about FCHF. Tetrachoric
correlations for FCHF were .58, .29, .67, .52, and .04 for monozygotic male,
dizygotic male, monozygotic female, and dizygotic female twins, respectively.
Model-fitting analyses suggested that in the best fitting model, additive
genetic and nonshared environmental variance including measurement error were
64% (95% CI: 55%-72%) and 36% (28%-45%), respectively. Sex differences in
genetic and environmental influences were not significant.
Thyroid cancer is the most common cancer among Korean women. However, there are few data on dietary factors related to thyroid cancer risk. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the association between raw vegetables and fruits intake and thyroid cancer in a case–control study. We included 111 histologically confirmed malignant thyroid cancer cases and 115 benign cases. Controls who did not have nodules in thyroid ultrasonography were matched to cases by age ( ± 2 years). Food and nutrient intakes were estimated using a quantitative FFQ with 121 items. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to obtain OR and corresponding 95 % CI. The intake of total vegetables was not associated with malignant thyroid cancer, but inversely associated with benign cases. High raw vegetable intake was inversely associated with thyroid cancer risk both in malignant and benign cases (P for trend = 0·01 in both malignant and benign cases). Among fruits, persimmon intake had an inverse association with thyroid cancer risk in both malignant and benign cases (P for trend = 0·06 in malignant cases; P for trend = 0·01 in benign cases) and tangerine intake had an inverse association in malignant cases (P for trend = 0·03). The frequency of consumption of raw vegetables and persimmon also had a consistent inverse association in both malignant and benign cases. These results suggest that high consumption of raw vegetables, persimmons and tangerines may decrease thyroid cancer risk and help prevent early-stage thyroid cancer.
In this study, we synthesized ZnO nanowires using Au catalytic particles formed on a ZnO seed layer. We modulated the microstructure of the ZnO seed layer by changing the sputtering power to investigate how the underlying ZnO film microstructure affects the distribution of ZnO nanowires. Examining the samples after each of the three key steps of the growth process (ZnO seed layer deposition, Au catalytic particle formation, and nanowire growth) using various characterization methods such as scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction helped us illuminate the profound impacts of the grain size of the seed layer on the nanowire density.
We have studied the growth of microcrystalline silicon (μc-Si) and amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) by layer by layer deposition technique, where the deposition and the radical exposure are done alternatively. He or hydrogen plasma exposure gives rise to the etching effect of both μc-Si and a-Si:H even though the etch rate by He plasma is much smaller. The long exposure of hydrogen radical on a-Si:H gives rise to the formation of μc-Si at low substrate temperature (Ts), whereas the hydrogen content decreases at high Ts. The growth mechanism of the crystallite is proposed on the basis of experimental results.
An optimized process of Pb(Zr,Ti)O3(PZT) ferroelectric capacitor has been investigated in order to develop a highly scaleable 1T/1C ferroelectric random access memory. The PZT ferroelectric capacitor, Pt/PZT/Pt stack, was formed on the TiO2/SiO2/Si substrate. The PZT thin films were prepared by conventional sol-gel multi-coating method. Physical and electrical properties of the PZT ferroelectric capacitors were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM and RT6000S, respectively.
It was revealed that the microstructure of PZT thin film is strongly influenced by sol-gel coating process, especially depending on coating methods of the first PZT layer. The second phase was observed in the PZT thin films, which is found to be pyrochlore phase. The size and density of pyrochlore phase were significantly reduced by modifying the coating methods of first PZT layer. Microstructure of PZT thin film capacitors was evaluated in detail along with electrical properties such as remnant polarization, coercive electric field, and dielectric leakage. The sensing Pr window was also introduced for proper sensing margin in IT/1C ferroelectric random access memory. This concept is well verified by 64Kb 1T/1C ferroelectric random access memory.
Single-crystalline rock-salt PbS nanowires (NWs) were synthesized using three different routes; the solvothermal, chemical vapor transport, and gas-phase substitution reaction of pre-grown CdS NWs. They were uniformly grown with the  or ,  direction in a controlled manner. In the solvothermal growth, the oriented attachment of the octylamine (OA) ligands enables the NWs to be produced with a controlled morphology and growth direction. As the concentration of OA increases, the growth direction evolves from the  to the higher surface-energy  and  directions. In the synthesis involving chemical vapor transport and the substitution reaction, the use of a lower growth temperature causes the higher surface-energy growth direction to change from  to . We fabricated field effect transistors using single PbS NW, which showed intrinsic p-type semiconductor characteristics for all three routes. For the PbS NW with a thinner oxide layer, the carrier mobility was measured to be as high as 10 cm2V−1s−1.
The relationship between dietary Zn intake and the risk of atherosclerosis remains unclear, and no epidemiological studies have been reported on the effects of dietary Zn intake on morphological changes in the vascular wall. We examined the relationship between dietary Zn intake and common carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) as a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis among the middle-aged and elderly populations. A cross-sectional analysis of a prospective cohort baseline study was performed with 4564 adults aged 40–89 years and free of clinical CVD. Dietary data were collected by trained interviewers using an FFQ. Common carotid IMT was measured using a B-mode ultrasound imaging technique. Subclinical atherosclerosis was determined using carotid IMT, and defined as >80th percentile of carotid IMT or ≥ 1 mm of carotid IMT. After adjustment for potential confounders, the mean carotid IMT in the low Zn intake group was higher than that in the high Zn intake group. When subclinical atherosclerosis was defined as >80th percentile value of IMT or ≥ 1 mm of carotid IMT, after adjustment for potential confounders, Zn intake was inversely related to subclinical atherosclerosis (5th v. 1st quintile, OR 0·64, 95 % CI 0·45, 0·90, P for trend = 0·069; 5th v. 1st quintile, OR 0·34, 95 % CI 0·16, 0·70, P for trend = 0·005, respectively). In persons free of clinical CVD, dietary Zn intake was inversely correlated with subclinical atherosclerosis. The present findings suggest a putative protective role of dietary Zn intake against the development of atherosclerosis.
This study examined the performance of poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl)(P3HT)- and [6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM)-based organic solar cells (OSCs) with a pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA) cathode interfacial layer between the active layer and cathode. The effect of inserting the cathode interfacial layer with different thicknesses was investigated. For the OSC samples with a 0.5 nm thick PMDA layer, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) was approximately 2.77% under 100 mW/cm2 (AM1.5) simulated illumination. It was suggested that the PMDA cathode interfacial layer acts as an exciton blocking layer, leading to an enhancement of the OSC performance.
Gim (Porphyra sp.) and miyeok (Undaria pinnatifida) are the seaweeds most consumed by Koreans. We investigated the association between the intake of gim and miyeok and the risk of breast cancer in a case–control study. Cases were 362 women aged 30–65 years old, who were histologically confirmed to have breast cancer. Controls visiting the same hospital were matched to cases according to their age (sd 2 years) and menopausal status. Food intake was estimated by the quantitative FFQ with 121 items, including gim and miyeok. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to obtain the OR and corresponding 95 % CI. The average intake and consumption frequency of gim in cases were lower than in controls. The daily intake of gim was inversely associated with the risk of breast cancer (5th v. 1st quintile, OR, 0·48; 95 % CI, 0·27, 0·86; P for trend, 0·026) after adjustment for potential confounders. After stratification analysis was performed according to menopausal status, premenopausal women (5th v. 1st quintile, OR, 0·44; 95 % CI, 0·24, 0·80; P for trend, 0·007) and postmenopausal women (5th v. 1st quintile, OR, 0·32; 95 % CI, 0·13, 0·80; P for trend, 0·06) showed similar inverse associations between gim intake and the risk of breast cancer after an adjustment for potential confounders except dietary factors. Miyeok consumption did not have any significant associations with breast cancer. These results suggest that high intake of gim may decrease the risk of breast cancer.