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Human innate immune plays an essential role in the spontaneous clearance of acute infection and therapy of HCV. We investigated whether the SNPs in retinoic acid-inducible gene I-like receptor family were associated with HCV spontaneous clearance and response to treatment. To evaluate the clinical value of DDX58 rs3824456, rs10813831 and rs10738889 genotypes on HCV spontaneous clearance and treatment response in Chinese Han population, we genotyped 1001 HCV persistent infectors, 599 participants with HCV natural clearance and 354 patients with PEGylated interferon-α and ribavirin (PEG IFN-α/RBV) treatment. People carrying rs10813831-G allele genotype were more liable to achieve spontaneous clearance than the carriage of the T allele (dominant model: adjusted OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.08–1.71, P = 0.008). In rs10738889, the rate of persistent infection was significantly lower in patients with the TC genotype compared to those with TT genotype (dominant model: adjusted OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.06–1.74, P = 0.015). Multivariate stepwise analysis indicated that rs10738889, age, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were independent predictors for HCV spontaneous clearance. However, there were no significant differences in the three selection SNPs between the non-SVR group and the SVR group. These results suggest the DDX58 rs10813831 and rs10738889 are associated with spontaneous clearance of HCV, which may be identified as a predictive marker in the Chinese Han population of HCV.
Manganese sulfides (MnS) with a diversity of well-defined morphologies and phases have been successfully synthesized by the solvothermal approach. The phase structure and morphology of MnS could readily be tuned by adjusting the sulfur sources and solvents. Hollow γ-MnS spheres were obtained by treating L-cysteine and manganese source in ethylene glycol (EG) at 200 °C for 2 h, whereas a replacement of the mixture solvent by EG and deionized water yields the hierarchical flower-like γ-MnS. γ-MnS tubes were also produced under the same condition by using diethylene glycol and deionized water as solvents. When thioacetamide used as the sulfur source and oleylamine used as the solvent, monodisperse α-MnS nanoparticles with the mean diameter of 17 nm could be synthesized successfully. The phase structures, sizes, and morphologies of samples were investigated in detail by powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The UV-vis absorption peak and the width of band gap with different morphologies of the as-prepared MnS were measured. The samples described in this paper are promising to be utilized in solar cells, biomedicine, short wavelength electronic devices, photocatalysis, and other fields.
We consider a discrete-time branching random walk in the boundary case, where the associated random walk is in the domain of attraction of an α-stable law with 1 < α < 2. We prove that the derivative martingale Dn converges to a nontrivial limit D∞ under some regular conditions. We also study the additive martingale Wn and prove that n1/αWn converges in probability to a constant multiple of D∞.
Data on dietary patterns in relation to the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a middle-aged Chinese population are sparse. The present study was performed to determine the major dietary patterns among a population aged 45–59 years and to evaluate their associations with MetS risk in China.
Cross-sectional examination of the association between dietary patterns and MetS. Face-to-face interviews were used to assess dietary intake using a validated semi-quantitative FFQ. OR and 95 % CI for MetS were calculated across quartiles of dietary pattern scores using multivariate logistic regression analysis models.
City of Linyi, Shandong Province, China.
Adults (n 1918) aged 45–59 years.
Three major dietary patterns were identified: traditional Chinese, animal food and high-energy. After adjustment for potential confounders, individuals in the highest quartile of the traditional Chinese pattern had a reduced risk of MetS relative to the lowest quartile (OR=0·72, 95 % CI 0·596, 0·952; P<0·05). Compared with those in the lowest quartile, individuals in the highest quartile of the animal food pattern had a greater risk of MetS (OR=1·28; 95 % CI 1·103, 1·697; P<0·05). No significant association was observed between the high-energy pattern and risk of MetS.
These findings indicate that the traditional Chinese pattern was associated with a reduced risk, while the animal food pattern was associated with increased risk of MetS. Given the cross-sectional nature of our study, further prospective studies are warranted to confirm these findings.
There is an urgent need to understand lived experiences of climate change in the context of African cities, where even small climate shocks can have significant implications for the livelihoods of the urban poor. This article examines narratives of climate and livelihood changes within Jinja Municipality, Uganda, emphasizing how Jinja's residents make sense of climate change through their own narrative frames rather than through the lens of global climate change discourses. We demonstrate how the onset of climate change in Jinja is widely attributed to perceived moral and environmental failings on the part of a present generation that is viewed as both more destructive than previous generations and unable to preserve land, trees and other resources for future generations. A focus on local ontologies of climate change highlights how the multiple, intersecting vulnerabilities of contemporary urban life in Jinja serve to obfuscate not only the conditions of possibility of an immediate future, but the longer-term horizons for future generations, as changing weather patterns exacerbate existing challenges people face in adapting to wider socio-economic changes and rising livelihood vulnerability. This form of analysis situates changing climate and environments within the context of everyday urban struggles and emphasizes the need for civic participation in developing climate change strategies that avoid the pitfalls of climate reductionism. The article draws on more than 150 qualitative interviews, generational dialogue groups, and creative methods based on research-led community theatre.
The high rate of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) was one of the key issues of global public health concern. Interferon (IFN)-λ relevant genes were in the antiviral treatment pathway, not only influenced hepatitis C virus (HCV) spontaneous clearance, but also affected the IFN-mediated viral clearance. The aim of this study was to identify the association of interleukin 28B (IL28B), myxovirus resistance A (MxA) gene polymorphisms with HCV spontaneous clearance and therapeutic response in Chinese CHC patients. IL28B and MxA gene genotypes were detected among 231 CHC carriers, 428 subjects with HCV spontaneous clearance and 662 CHC patients with pegylated IFN-α and ribavirin (pegIFN-α/RBV) treatment. Patients with MxA rs2071430 TT genotype were more likely to develop HCV infection chronicity (additive model: odds ratio (OR) 1.22, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01–1.48, P = 0.042). IL28B rs1298075 variant genotypes (additive model: OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.34–0.98, P = 0.040) and MxA rs17000900 variant genotypes (additive model: OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.30–0.99, P = 0.048) were less likely to achieve a sustained virological response. The life table indicated that patients with IL28B rs1298075 AG genotype were slower to achieve a viral load <500 copies/ml (P = 0.018). During the treatment, the downward trend in viral load was different among each IL28B rs1298075 genotype, especially in subgroup with a baseline HCV-RNA >106 copies/ml (all P < 0.05). This study illustrated that the carriage of IL28B rs12980275 AA had a positive effect on treatment response to pegIFN-α/RBV among Chinese CHC patients.
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a major cause of chronic kidney disease. We aimed to investigate the effect of the low-protein diets (LPD) supplemented with ketoacids (LPD+KA) in KKAy mice, an early type 2 DN model. KKAy mice were treated with normal protein diet (NPD), LPD or LPD+KA from 12 to 24 weeks of age. A period of 12-week treatment with LPD significantly reduced albuminuria as compared with that observed after NPD treatment. Treatment with LPD+KA further reduced albuminuria as compared with that observed with LPD treatment alone. Moreover, LPD treatment reduced mesangial expansion, thickness of glomerular basement membrane and the severity of the podocyte foot process effacement in KKAy mice; these effects were more pronounced in KKAy mice treated with LPD+KA. Both LPD and LPD+KA treatments slightly reduced total body weight, but had no significant effect on kidney weight and blood glucose concentrations when compared with NPD-treated KKAy mice. LPD treatment slightly attenuated oxidative stress in kidneys as compared with that observed in NPD-treated KKAy mice; however, LPD+KA treatment remarkably ameliorated oxidative stress in diabetic kidneys as shown by decreased malondialdehyde concentrations, protein carbonylation, nitrotyrosine expression and increased superoxide dismutase expression. Nutritional therapy using LPD+KA confers additional renal benefits as compared with those of LPD treatment alone in early type 2 DN through inhibition of oxidative stress.
The novel visible-light-responsive direct solid-state Z-scheme g-C3N4/BiOI heterojunction has been synthesized successfully by means of a solid phase calcination method and used for the degradation of microcystin-LR (MC-LR). The layered g-C3N4 disperses on the surface of BiOI microspheres. The samples are characterized by FESEM, HRTEM, XRD, FT-IR, UV-vis spectroscopy, XPS, BET, PL, and Mott–Sckottky. The photocatalytic activity and photodegradation mechanism of the as-prepared g-C3N4/BiOI microsphere photocatalysts are conducted under visible light irradiation using MC-LR as the target pollutant. The g-C3N4/BiOI material exhibits superior photocatalytic performance when compared with pure BiOI, the possible reason is the efficient separation of photogenerated carriers at the interface between g-C3N4 and BiOI. The heterostructure is responsible for the improved separation efficiency of photogenerated electron–hole pairs and thus the higher photocatalytic activity. The possible photocatalytic mechanism is proposed based on relative band positions of these two semiconductors.
Apathy is a condition characterized by a lack of motivation that manifests in emotional, behavioral, and cognitive domains. Although previous studies have indicated that apathy is associated with frontal lesions, few studies have focused on the different subdomains of apathy, and no in vivo human biochemical data have been obtained to examine the neurochemical changes related to apathy in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Thus, we investigated the frontal neurochemical alterations related to apathy among patients with AD using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS).
Apathy was assessed through the Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES). 1H MRS was performed to measure neurochemical metabolite levels in the anterior cingulate region and right orbitofrontal region. Associations between neurochemical metabolites and the total score and subscores of each domain of the AES were analyzed.
Altogether, 36 patients completed the study. Patients with lower N-acetylaspartate/creatine ratios (NAA/Cr) in the anterior cingulate region demonstrated higher total apathy scores (β = −0.56, p = 0.003) with adjustments for age, gender, educational level, dementia severity, and depression severity. In a further analysis, a lower NAA/Cr in the anterior cingulate region was associated with all subdomains of apathy, including cognition (β = −0.43, p = 0.028), behavior (β = −0.55, p = 0.002), and emotion (β = −0.50, p = 0.005). No statistically significant associations were discovered in the right orbitofrontal region.
Our results suggest that apathy, in each of its cognitive, behavioral, or emotional subdomains is associated with brain neurochemical alterations in the anterior cingulate region. Abnormal neuronal integrity over the anterior cingulate cortex may exhibit a central role in causing all aspects of apathy in patients with AD.
The Tianger area in the Tien Shan preserves many glacial landforms to which several methods of estimating ancient equilibrium-line altitudes (ELAs) can be applied. Thus it provides the opportunity to compare different methods and evaluate the correlation between the methods and their errors. This comparison provides guidance in the application of these methods in other mid-latitude alpine glaciated areas. In this paper we calculate characteristic ratios relating to the ELAs, including accumulation–area ratio (AAR), toe–headwall altitude ratio (THAR), terminus–summit altitude method (TSAM) and Höfer value, and their correlations with each other and the geomorphological characteristics. The AAR of a glacier is small when the slope of the bedrock beneath it is small and the area is large, and the AAR of a glacier with such characteristics is better correlated with its THAR, TSAM and Höfer value. Paleoclimate information derived from these characteristic ratios relating to ELAs is discussed. The glaciers and the glacial climate of the early and middle stage of the last glacial are more continental than those of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Compared with those of the LGM on the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau and surrounding mountains, the ELA characteristics of the early and middle stage of the last glacial in the Tianger area show more continental features.
This paper is devoted to an extension of the finite-energy condition for extended Runge-Kutta-Nyström (ERKN) integrators and applications to nonlinear wave equations. We begin with an error analysis for the integrators for multi-frequency highly oscillatory systems , where M is positive semi-definite, . The highly oscillatory system is due to the semi-discretisation of conservative, or dissipative, nonlinear wave equations. The structure of such a matrix M and initial conditions are based on particular spatial discretisations. Similarly to the error analysis for Gaustchi-type methods of order two, where a finite-energy condition bounding amplitudes of high oscillations is satisfied by the solution, a finite-energy condition for the semi-discretisation of nonlinear wave equations is introduced and analysed. These ensure that the error bound of ERKN methods is independent of . Since stepsizes are not restricted by frequencies of M, large stepsizes can be employed by our ERKN integrators of arbitrary high order. Numerical experiments provided in this paper have demonstrated that our results are truly promising, and consistent with our analysis and prediction.
In this paper, a 2.45-GHz wideband harmonic rejection rectenna for wireless power transfer is proposed. The rectenna comprises a microstrip-fed circular ring slot antenna (CRSA) and a series-parallel rectifier (SPR). A compact micro strip resonant cell is inserted into the CRSA so that the harmonic suppression over a wide bandwidth (3–8 GHz) can be obtained. The radio-frequency (RF)–DC conversion efficiency of the SPR is improved effectively by loading a proper compensating inductance, especially under the low input power levels. Furthermore, the proposed rectenna can easily achieve large-scale rectenna arrays using its simple structure. The adopted rectenna fabricated on a low cost Taconic RF-35 substrate has been measured. By up to 3rd-order harmonic rejection, the efficiency of the rectenna can achieve 70.2% with the optimum load resistance 1 kΩ. Good agreement among the calculated, simulated, and measured rectenna is observed.
A series of novel KLaSr3−x(PO4)3F:xEu2+ phosphors were synthesized for the first time. The crystal structure, photoluminescence properties, concentration quenching, decay analysis, and the temperature dependent luminescence properties were investigated in detail. The unit cell parameters for KLaSr3(PO4)3F were estimated to be a = 9.8997 Å, c = 7.4075 Å, and V = 628.7 Å3. The photoluminescence excitation spectrum of KLaSr3(PO4)3F:Eu2+ shows a broad band from 225 nm to 450 nm with a maximum at about 320 nm. KLaSr3−x(PO4)3F:xEu2+ phosphors exhibit a wide emission band ranging from 425 to 550 nm. KLaSr3(PO4)3F:Eu2+ phosphors exhibit good thermal stability up to 423 K. KLaSr3(PO4)3F:Eu2+ was fabricated with commercial green (Ba,Sr)SiO4:Eu2+ and red CaAlSiN3:Eu2+ phosphors to obtain a white-light-emitting diode. All the results demonstrate that KLaSr3(PO4)3F:Eu2+ are promising blue phosphors for white-light ultraviolet light-emitting diode applications.
The morphology, chemistry and phylogenetic relationships of Chinese populations
of Bulbothrix are described. Nine species, including two new
species B. mammillaria Y. Y. Zhang & Li S. Wang sp.
nov. and B. lacinia Y. Y. Zhang & Li S. Wang sp.
nov., and two newly recorded for the flora, B. scortella and
B. meizospora, are reported. Bulbothrix
mammillaria can be recognized by the sparse cilia that are reduced to a
bulbate structure and the broad lobes (3–11 mm). Bulbothrix
lacinia differs from other species of the genus by dark brown,
spherical to short-cylindrical isidia and common lacinulae on the upper surface.
Phylogenetic relationships of currently known ITS sequences from
Bulbothrix were inferred to assess the affinities of the
new species. A key to all known species from China is presented.
To investigate the effects of cold rolling on the microstructure, the precipitation behavior and the morphology of δ-phase, Inconel 718 alloy samples with different cold rolling reductions were aged for different periods at temperatures range from 850 °C to 1000 °C. Detailed microstructural observations and quantitative measurements were conducted to characterize the evolution of the δ-phase during aging. The results show that the microstructure consists of large deformed grains as a result of a slow static recovery at the low aging temperatures (850 and 900 °C); whereas the austenite matrix is fully recrystallized at the high aging temperatures (950 and 1000 °C). It is also found that the amount of δ-phase and the number density of spherical δ-phase particles increase with the increase in the degree of cold rolling both at low and high aging temperatures. With respect to different microstructural changes for the cold-rolled samples at the low or the high aging temperatures, two distinct mechanisms have been, respectively, introduced to interpret the changes in the precipitation behavior and the appearance of δ-phase.
In this work, fluorescent Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) cells were developed as probes for imaging applications and to explore behaviorial interaction between B. subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). A novel biological strategy of coupling intracellular biochemical reactions for controllable biosynthesis of CdSe quantum dots by living B. subtilis cells was demonstrated, through which highly luminant and photostable fluorescent B. subtilis cells were achieved with good uniformity. With the help of the obtained fluorescent B. subtilis cells probes, S. aureus cells responded to co-cultured B. subtilis and to aggregate. The degree of aggregation was calculated and nonlinearly fitted to a polynomial model. Systematic investigations of their interactions implied that B. subtilis cells inhibit the growth of neighboring S. aureus cells, and this inhibition was affected by both the growth stage and the amount of surrounding B. subtilis cells. Compared to traditional methods of studying bacterial interaction between two species, such as solid culture medium colony observation and imaging mass spectrometry detection, the procedures were more simple, vivid, and photostable due to the efficient fluorescence intralabeling with less influence on the cells’ surface, which might provide a new paradigm for future visualization of microbial behavior.
Concerns have been raised about the benefits of Fe-containing supplements on infant birth weight among women with normal/high Hb levels at baseline. Thus far, no clinical trials have examined whether the effects of prenatal Fe-containing supplements on birth weight vary by maternal Hb levels. We compared the effects of Fe–folic acid (IFA) or multiple micronutrients (MMN) with folic acid (FA) supplements on birth weight among pregnant women with mild/no anaemia or high Hb levels. A double-blind randomised controlled trial was conducted in 2006–2009. In total, 18 775 pregnant women with mild/no anaemia (<100 g/l) were enrolled from five counties in north China. During the period from before 20 weeks of gestation to delivery, the women randomly received a daily supplement containing the following: (1) FA (400 μg); (2) IFA (FA, 400 μg; Fe, 30 mg); or (3) MMN (FA, Fe and thirteen additional vitamins and minerals). Birth weight was measured within the 1st hour of birth. Maternal Hb concentration was determined at enrolment. Among women with normal (≤132 g/l) or high (133–145 g/l) baseline Hb levels, IFA or MMN supplementation had no effect on birth weight. Among women with very high (>145 g/l) baseline Hb levels, IFA and MMN supplements increased birth weight by 91·44 (95 % CI 3·37, 179·51) g and 107·63 (95 % CI 21·98, 193·28) g (P<0·05), respectively, compared with the FA group. No differences were found between the IFA and the MMN group, regardless of maternal Hb concentration. In conclusion, the effects of Fe-containing supplements on birth weight depended on baseline Hb concentrations. The Fe-containing supplements improved birth weight in women with very high Hb levels before 20 weeks of gestation.
Crack propagation behaviors in a precracked single crystal Ag under mode I loading at different temperatures are studied by molecular dynamics simulation. The simulation results show that the crack propagation behaviors are sensitive to external temperature. At 0 K, the crack propagates in a brittle manner. Crack tip blunting and void generation are first observed followed by void growth and linkage with the main crack, which lead to the propagation of the main crack and brittle failure immediately without any microstructure evolution. As the temperature gets higher, more void nucleations and dislocation emissions occur in the crack propagation process. The deformation of the single crystal Ag can be considered as plastic deformation due to dislocation emissions. The crack propagation dynamics characterizing the microstructure evolution of atoms around the crack tip is also shown. Finally, it is shown that the stress of the single crystal Ag changes with the crack length synchronously.