To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
When presidents take positions on pending Supreme Court cases or criticize the Court's decisions, they are susceptible to being attacked for acting as bullies and violating the norm of judicial independence. Why then do presidents target Supreme Court decisions in their public appeals? In this book, Paul M. Collins, Jr and Matthew Eshbaugh-Soha argue that presidents discuss the Court's decisions to demonstrate their responsiveness to important matters of public policy and to steer the implementation of the Court's decisions. Using data from Washington to Trump, they show that, far from being bullies, presidents discuss cases to promote their re-election, policy goals, and historical legacies, while attempting to affect the impact of Court decisions on the bureaucracy, Congress, the media, and the public.
We report the utility of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) conducted in a clinically relevant time frame (ie, sufficient for guiding management decision), in managing a Streptococcus pyogenes outbreak, and present a comparison of its performance with emm typing.
A 2,000-bed tertiary-care psychiatric hospital.
Active surveillance was conducted to identify new cases of S. pyogenes. WGS guided targeted epidemiological investigations, and infection control measures were implemented. Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)–based genome phylogeny, emm typing, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were performed. We compared the ability of WGS and emm typing to correctly identify person-to-person transmission and to guide the management of the outbreak.
The study included 204 patients and 152 staff. We identified 35 patients and 2 staff members with S. pyogenes. WGS revealed polyclonal S. pyogenes infections with 3 genetically distinct phylogenetic clusters (C1–C3). Cluster C1 isolates were all emm type 4, sequence type 915 and had pairwise SNP differences of 0–5, which suggested recent person-to-person transmissions. Epidemiological investigation revealed that cluster C1 was mediated by dermal colonization and transmission of S. pyogenes in a male residential ward. Clusters C2 and C3 were genomically diverse, with pairwise SNP differences of 21–45 and 26–58, and emm 11 and mostly emm120, respectively. Clusters C2 and C3, which may have been considered person-to-person transmissions by emm typing, were shown by WGS to be unlikely by integrating pairwise SNP differences with epidemiology.
WGS had higher resolution than emm typing in identifying clusters with recent and ongoing person-to-person transmissions, which allowed implementation of targeted intervention to control the outbreak.
Ceramics were subjected to organic residue analysis from two collections: a series of middle Copper Age (Bodrogkeresztúr) vessels hitherto known as ‘milk jugs’, curated in the Magyar Nemzeti Múzeum, Budapest, and a collection of early Baden (Boleráz) vessels from the recently discovered settlement of Gyo”r-Szabadrét-domb, in western Hungary. The aim of the analyses was to establish whether or not these vessels, often associated with milk based on typological criteria, were actually used to process, store or serve dairy products. The results of the analyses revealed that no dairy products could be securely identified in the so-called ‘milk jugs’. Nevertheless dairy products were identified in other vessel types.
The assembly of matter in the universe proliferates a wide variety of halo structures, often with enigmatic consequences. Giant spiral galaxies, for example, contain both dark matter and hot gas, while dwarf spheroidal galaxies, with weaker gravity, contain much larger fractions of dark matter, but little gas. Globular clusters, superficially resembling these dwarf spheroidals, have little or no dark matter. Halo temperatures are also puzzling: hot cluster halos contain cooler galaxy halos; dwarf galaxies have no hot gas at all despite their similar internal processes. Another mystery is the origin of the gas that galaxies require to maintain their measured star formation rates (SFRs). We outline how gravitational quantum theory solves these problems, and enables baryons to function as weakly-interacting-massive-particles (WIMPs) in Lambda Cold Dark Matter (LCDM) theory. Significantly, these dark-baryon ensembles may also be consistent with primordial nucleosynthesis (BBN) and cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies.
We show that as equilibrium is approached in deep gravity wells, such as those of galactic halos, gravitational quantum theory predicts that radial particle densities ρ(r) tend toward 1/r2 profiles, and photon-baryon scattering cross sections are significantly reduced.
Reducing the use of seclusion to deal with challenging behaviour is a priority in secure services for women. This study describes the concurrent introduction of a series of initiatives based on recovery principles and the full involvement of patients in their risk management plans.
Following change implementation, the first 19 patients who had completed one year of treatment were matched with 19 patients who had completed their first year of treatment before change.
A significant decline in both the number of seclusions and risk behaviour post-change was complemented by improved staff ratings of institutional behaviour, increased treatment engagement and a reduction in time spent in medium security. Staff and patients differed in terms of their ratings of the most effective strategies introduced. Patients favoured the Relational Security item of increased individual engagement and timetabled Behaviour Chain Analysis sessions. Staff viewed on ward training and use of de-escalation techniques as most effective.
Findings confirm results from mixed gender forensic mental health samples that seclusion can be successfully reduced without an increase in patient violence or alternative coercive strategies. Limitations of the study are discussed along with the need for future evaluations to address issues of fidelity and utilise vigorously designed case studies.
The Grenfell bone rod resembles other instances of Clovis-era organic or osseous technology and has on a number of occasions been considered with other Clovis bone, antler, and ivory rods or beveled artifacts. It had been suspected of being constructed from proboscidean long bone. As an early discovery (made in 1883), the Grenfell artifact had somewhat obscure provenience details and a lengthy curatorial history. We describe accelerator mass spectrometry and zooarchaeology by mass spectrometry methods that allow rapid, minimally destructive determinations of both the age and the raw material composition of osseous artifacts. Our analysis reveals that the Grenfell artifact is actually a terminal Paleoindian-era manifestation made of bison bone. Similar methods could be more widely applied in North America in order to build more refined data sets for osseous technologies. These results also reveal the ease with which archaeologists can secure additional information from existing collections, highlighting our ethical obligations to do so.
Purulent pericarditis is a rare diagnosis to be made. It is exceedingly rare as a primary infection. We describe the case of an 18-month-old boy who presented with primary purulent pericarditis and developed a secondary endocarditis. Current literature on the subject is reviewed and discussed.
Ellis–van Creveld syndrome is a rare condition associated with a very high incidence of congenital malformations of the heart. Prior reports have suggested increased morbidity and mortality following surgery for congenital malformations of the heart in patients with Ellis–van Creveld syndrome.
Materials and methods
The Pediatric Health Information System database, an administrative database containing data from 43 free-standing paediatric hospitals in North America, was queried to search for patients with the diagnostic code for Ellis–van Creveld syndrome between 2004 and 2011. Those patients who underwent cardiac procedures were compared with those who did not with respect to measures of healthcare utilisation.
A total of 138 admissions occurred in 93 patients with Ellis–van Creveld syndrome during the study period. Of these, 74% had an underlying diagnosis of congenital malformations of the heart. Half of the patients in the sample underwent a cardiac surgical or interventional catheterisation procedure. Patients who underwent a cardiac procedure had a longer hospital length of stay, higher incidence of intensive care unit admission, and higher total and per day hospital charges than patients who did not undergo cardiac surgery during admission.
In a large group of inpatients with Ellis–van Creveld syndrome, the prevalence of congenital malformations of the heart was similar to that reported in prior studies. Cardiac surgical and interventional procedures appear to drive a substantial portion of healthcare utilisation in these patients.
The recording and analysis of a burnt mound and adjacent palaeochannel deposits on the floodplain of the River Soar in Leicestershire revealed that the burnt mound was in use, possibly for a number of different purposes, at the transition from the Neolithic to the Bronze Age. An extensive radiocarbon dating programme indicated that the site was revisited. Human remains from the palaeochannel comprised the remains of three individuals, two of whom pre-dated the burnt mound by several centuries while the partial remains of a third, dating from the Late Bronze Age, provided evidence that this individual had met a violent death. These finds, along with animal bones dating to the Iron Age, and the remains of a bridge from the early medieval period, suggest that people were drawn to this location over a long period of time.
Identifying animals to species from relict proteins is a powerful new archaeological tool. Here the authors apply the method to answer questions relating to the Salish of west coast North America. Did they weave their blankets out of dog hair? The proteomic analysis shows that they did, interweaving it with goat, and that the woolly dog was increasingly superseded by sheep in the later nineteenth century.
A thermodynamic model for the site preference of dilute solutes in ordered compounds was developed recently. The model is extended here in two ways to help interpret experimental results from this laboratory. (1) A preference for solutes to occupy sites in ‘sinks’ such as grain boundaries rather than regular lattice sites is included using a simple model. A wide range of site preference behavior is found; for example, a solute may switch between substitutional and sink sites with changing composition. (2) The effect of an attractive interaction between solute and defect on the site preference is examined. Conditions are established under which a solute can be stabilized by association with a defect on a site where the solute would otherwise not be found.
In-situ real-time optical reflectance spectroscopy is applied to investigate structural changes as hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) loses H and crystallizes at elevated temperature. The interference fringe spectrum (cutoff energy and amplitude) mainly characterize changes in the bulk, while the the crystal Si (c-Si) direct-transition ultra-violet reflectance signatures reveal the presence of any crystalline phase at the surface. Effusion of atomic hydrogen is monitored by a decrease of the interference fringe cutoff energy and is thermally activated with about 1.7 eV. In a-Si:H on glass, optical reflectance spectra are consistent with 2.8 eV activated homogeneous nucleation and growth of a small grain (˜ 100 nm) polycrystalline phase. In contrast, a-Si:H on c-Si crystallizes by solid phase epitaxy with very different spectral kinetics. Our measurements reveal the temperature-time window for thermal crystallization of a-Si:H for photovoltaic device applications, and highlight the versatility of the in-situ spectral reflectance monitoring.
Zinc Oxide (ZnO) is actively investigated for hybrid organic inorganic device applications. The interface greatly influences the electronic properties of these devices. Molecular surface modification of ZnO is being investigated for its potential to control the alignment of energy levels, charge transfer, as well as, interfacial chemical characteristics that influence device fabrication. In this study, octadecyltriethoxysilane (OTES) treatments of thin film ZnO produced by sol-gel decomposition were explored. The ZnO films were hydroxylated and then modified using OTES in solution. The condensation reaction of the OTES at the surface was promoted by the addition of a protoamine catalyst. Contact angle and infrared spectroscopy studies confirmed the surface modification and indicated that the coverage of the OTES was submonolayer. The modified ZnO films were reproducible and stable for long periods. The effects of the modification on subsequently spin-cast poly[3-hexylthiophene](P3HT) and on hybrid ZnO/P3HT organic solar cell performance are discussed.