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Multimorbidity is common but little is known about its relationship with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA).
Men Androgen Inflammation Lifestyle Environment and Stress Study participants underwent polysomnography. Chronic diseases (CDs) were determined by biomedical measurement (diabetes, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, obesity), or self-report (depression, asthma, cardiovascular disease, arthritis). Associations between CD count, multimorbidity, apnea-hyponea index (AHI) and OSA severity and quality-of-life (QoL; mental & physical component scores), were determined using multinomial regression analyses, after adjustment for age.
Of the 743 men participating in the study, overall 58% had multimorbidity (2+ CDs), and 52% had OSA (11% severe). About 70% of those with multimorbidity had undiagnosed OSA. Multimorbidity was associated with AHI and undiagnosed OSA. Elevated CD count was associated with higher AHI value and increased OSA severity.
We demonstrate an independent association between the presence of OSA and multimorbidity in this representative sample of community-based men. This effect was strongest in men with moderate to severe OSA and three or more CDs, and appeared to produce a greater reduction in QoL when both conditions were present together.
Variation in human cognitive ability is of consequence to a large number of health and social outcomes and is substantially heritable. Genetic linkage, genome-wide association, and copy number variant studies have investigated the contribution of genetic variation to individual differences in normal cognitive ability, but little research has considered the role of rare genetic variants. Exome sequencing studies have already met with success in discovering novel trait-gene associations for other complex traits. Here, we use exome sequencing to investigate the effects of rare variants on general cognitive ability. Unrelated Scottish individuals were selected for high scores on a general component of intelligence (g). The frequency of rare genetic variants (in n = 146) was compared with those from Scottish controls (total n = 486) who scored in the lower to middle range of the g distribution or on a proxy measure of g. Biological pathway analysis highlighted enrichment of the mitochondrial inner membrane component and apical part of cell gene ontology terms. Global burden analysis showed a greater total number of rare variants carried by high g cases versus controls, which is inconsistent with a mutation load hypothesis whereby mutations negatively affect g. The general finding of greater non-synonymous (vs. synonymous) variant effects is in line with evolutionary hypotheses for g. Given that this first sequencing study of high g was small, promising results were found, suggesting that the study of rare variants in larger samples would be worthwhile.
Euclid is the next ESA mission devoted to cosmology. It aims at observing most of the extragalactic sky, studying both gravitational lensing and clustering over ~15,000 square degrees. The mission is expected to be launched in year 2020 and to last six years. The sheer amount of data of different kinds, the variety of (un)known systematic effects and the complexity of measures require efforts both in sophisticated simulations and techniques of data analysis. We review the mission main characteristics, some aspects of the the survey and highlight some of the areas of interest to this meeting.
Surgical site infection (SSI) after total hip and knee arthroplasty is a common postoperative complication. We sought to determine readmission rates and costs for total hip and knee arthroplasty complicated by SSI.
The Thomson Reuters MarketScan database was searched for patients who underwent knee or hip arthroplasty in 2007. From these data, patients who received a diagnosis of SSI and were readmitted after diagnosis were identified.
A population of 31 to 45 million individuals receiving insurance coverage. Patients who underwent knee or hip arthroplasty who experienced a hospitalization for SSI in the year after surgery were analyzed.
Total readmission rates and costs per readmission at 30, 60, and 90 days and 1 year after diagnosis of SSI.
Of the 76,289 case patients with hip or knee replacement in 2007, 1,026 (1.3%) had a hospitalization for SSI within the year after surgery. Among these patients, 310 (30.2%) were subsequently rehospitalized in the year after initial hospitalization specifically due to SSI-related issues. These rehospitalizations were associated with a mean hospital stay of 7.4 ± 11.4 days and a median cost of $20,001 (interquartile range [IQR], $14,057-$30,551). A total of 517 subjects had a subsequent “all-cause” hospitalization during the year after SSI. These rehospitalizations were associated with a mean hospital stay of 6.4 ± 10.4 days and a median cost of $19,870 (IQR, $13,913-$29,728).
Readmissions during the year after SSI diagnosis accounted for 1,072 hospital admissions and cost over $25.5 million. These readmissions are costly and might be a future target for decreased reimbursement.
The Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory (DRAO) is carrying out a survey as part of an international collaboration to image the northe, at a common resolution, in emission from all major constituents of the interstellar medium; the neutral atomic gas, the molecular gas, the ionised gas, dust and relativistic plasma. For many of these constituents the angular resolution of the images (1 arcmin) will be more than a factor of 10 better than any previous studies. The aim is to produce a publicly-available database of high resolution, high-dynamic range images of the Galaxy for multi-phase studies of the physical states and processes in the interstellar medium. We will sketch the main scientific motivations as well as describe some preliminary results from the Canadian Galactic Plane Survey/Releve Canadien du Plan Galactique (CGPS/RCPG).
Fluorine-doped silicon dioxide, a dielectric material compatible with copper integration, has received considerable attention for applications requiring a k value in the 3.5 to 4.0 range. Given the influence of structure on desired properties, convenient experimental structural probes of this type of material are of widespread interest. This work focuses on Raman spectroscopic analyses of ring defects in fluorine-doped silicon dioxide films prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) as well as high density plasma methods (HDP). These measurements are complemented by ab initio computational simulations of the ring defects in these films and the impact of nearby fluorine on their stability. The impact of aging on these structures and correlations of observed trends with experimental techniques such as X-ray fluorescence are also described.
We measured the response of reverse-biased a-Si:H diodes, in the p-i-n geometry, to charged particles as a function of ionization, detector bias (V) and angle of incidence, in the ionization range of 10–300 keV/µm. In the two cases where the amount of signal was weak, namely at low biases or at low ionizations, the signal was extracted from the noise using a coincidence technique. The response was found to be roughly proportional to , at all values of dE/dx, in the bias range of 7 V to 50 V. The dependence of the charge collection efficiency on the ionization density indicates a strong plasma effect in the detector. This collection efficiency increases steeply when the ionization is decreased but no plateau has yet been reached, indicating that the plasma effect is still important at 10 keV/µm.
We demonstrate the feasibility of a Ta2O5-based metal-insulator-metal (MIM) capacitor module which is integrated into the backend-of-the-line of a 0.5 μm CMOS process flow. The demonstration utilizes 6-inch wafers, sputtered Ta2O5 films with TaN and TiN electrodes, reactive ion etch (RIE) processes for defining the capacitor stack, and a metallization scheme which uses hot Al(Cu) and W plugs and a standard forming gas anneal (N2-5% H2). Acceptable electrical properties have been achieved within these processing constraints for the integrated MIM capacitor module, including specific capacitance (C/A) and leakage current density (J) of ≥ 5 fF/μm2 and ≤ 1 pA/pF-V, respectively. In addition, we compare the fundamental properties of the Ta2O5 dielectric with literature reports and point out that leakage mechanisms must be analyzed with care due to significant dielectric relaxation in the films under certain processing/measurement conditions. For the baseline integrated films, we confirm that leakage is most consistent with a Poole-Frenkel mechanism.
In this work we study the optical and electrical behavior of ZnO:Ga, ITO and IZO films deposited on glass after sustaining different hydrogen plasma conditions and exposure times. This work was complemented by analyzing the surface morphology of the set of films, which allow us to determine the role of hydrogen plasma on the film's properties such as Hall mobility, free carrier concentration, sheet resistance, optical transmittance, figure of merit and state of the surface. Apart from that, the performances of solar cells using an intrinsic layer constituted by nanocrystalline silicon will be also presented. The data show that the electrical properties of solar cells were improved by using ZnO:Ga as front contact, allowing a high current density collection and single pin solar cells with efficiencies exceeding 11%.
This work deals with the study of the role of the film thickness and composition on the color selectivity of the collecting spectrum of glass/ZnO:Ga/p-a-Si1-xCx:H/ a-Si1-xCx:H /a-Si:H/n-a-Si:H/Al photoelectronic detectors produced in a single chamber plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) system. The cross contaminations were minimized by a rotate-cover substrate holder system. The devices can detect the blue illumination at small reverse bias and detect red illumination at large reverse bias. The role of the process parameters, especially the thickness of the p-type and intrinsic a-Si1-xCx:H, and the intrinsic a-Si:H layers on the device performances were studied in detail aiming to achieve a better detectivity.
A combination of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and in
situ tensile testing in an environmental scanning electron microscopy
(ESEM) was used to evaluate the static bulk and dynamic surface
morphologies of medical polyurethanes. TEM results showed phase-separated
hard segment and soft segment structures. Surface morphology as a function
of strain was studied using ESEM in conjunction with a tensometer.
In this study with the filarial model Litomosoides sigmodontis, we demonstrate that the worms ingest host red blood cells at a precise moment of their life-cycle, immediately after the fourth moult. The red blood cells (RBC) were identified microscopically in live worms immobilized in PBS at 4 °C, and their density assessed. Two hosts were used: Mongolian gerbils, where microfilaraemia is high, and susceptible BALB/c mice with lower microfilaraemia. Gerbils were studied at 12 time-points, between day 9 post-inoculation (the worms were young 4th stage larvae) and day 330 p.i. (worms were old adults). Only the very young adult filarial worms had red blood cells in their gut. Haematophagy was observed between days 25 and 56 p.i. and peaked between day 28 and day 30 p.i. in female worms. In males, haematophagy was less frequent and intense. Similar kinetics of haematophagy were found in BALB/c mice, but frequency and intensity tended to be lower. Haematophagy seems useful to optimize adult maturation. These observations suggest that haematophagy is an important step in the life-cycle of L. sigmodontis. This hitherto undescribed phenomenon might be characteristic of other filarial species including human parasites.
The Hausdorff–Besicovitch dimension of a set A ⊆ ℝd, denoted dim (A), relates to the structure of A in the neighbourhood of its thickest point. If A is irregular then one may wish for an index which will describe the size of A in different places. The obvious definition of the local dimension of A near x is