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Knowledge of the crop-weed interference on weed biology along with yield penalties can be used for the development of integrated weed management (IWM) tactics. Nevertheless, little is known about the beneficial effects of soybean density, an important aspect of IWM, on late Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson) establishment time. Two field experiments were conducted in 2014 and 2015 to investigate how various soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]densities with A. palmeri establishment timings in weeks after crop emergence (WAE) affect height, biomass and seed production of the weed but also crop yield in drill-seeded soybean. Soybean density had a significant impact on dry weight and seed production of A. palmeri that established within the first two weeks of crop emergence, but not for establishment timings of the weed four weeks and later in relation to crop emergence. Differential performance of A. palmeri gender was observed regarding greater biomass production of female than male plants under crop presence merits further investigation. Grain yield reductions were recorded at earlier A. palmeri establishment timings (i.e. 0 and 1 WAE) compared to 8 WAE establishment timing in 2014 and 2015. High soybean densities resulted in greater soybean yields compared to low soybean density, but no grain yield benefits were observed between medium and high soybean densities. Crop budget analysis revealed the benefits of moderate seeding rate (i.e. 250, 000 seeds ha-1) increases in comparison to lower (i.e. 125,000 seeds ha-1) or high (i.e. 400,000 seeds ha-1) on crop revenue, net income returns and breakeven price. Earlier A. palmeri establishment timings (i.e. 0, 1 and 2 WAE) resulted in lower crop revenue and net income returns compared to later establishment timings of the weed.
The following commentary on Jang and Choi’s chapter Issues and New Directions in Personality Disorder (PD) Genetics (This Volume) echoes their call to harness advances in PD assessment rather than rely on politically derived "top down" nosologies. We first discuss how recent work in the joint hierarchical structure of PD traits and psychopathology, as well as, personality dynamics (i.e., how personality manifests in different situations) likely offer fruitful avenues for exploring the more nuanced role of genetics in the development and maintenance of PD. Second, we highlight the need to better understand the role of environment in PD genetics and discuss emerging models (e.g., common pathway model). Third, we stress the need for more research and larger samples in order to arrive at stronger conclusions. Fourth, we consider how advances in gene-environment research can help to determine targets for PD prevention and treatment.
To sustainably improve cleaning of high-touch surfaces (HTSs) in acute-care hospitals using a multimodal approach to education, reduction of barriers to cleaning, and culture change for environmental services workers.
The study was conducted in 2 academic acute-care hospitals, 2 community hospitals, and an academic pediatric and women’s hospital.
Frontline environmental services workers.
A 5-module educational program, using principles of adult learning theory, was developed and presented to environmental services workers. Audience response system (ARS), videos, demonstrations, role playing, and graphics were used to illustrate concepts of and the rationale for infection prevention strategies. Topics included hand hygiene, isolation precautions, personal protective equipment (PPE), cleaning protocols, and strategies to overcome barriers. Program evaluation included ARS questions, written evaluations, and objective assessments of occupied patient room cleaning. Changes in hospital-onset C. difficile infection (CDI) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) bacteremia were evaluated.
On average, 357 environmental service workers participated in each module. Most (93%) rated the presentations as ‘excellent’ or ‘very good’ and agreed that they were useful (95%), reported that they were more comfortable donning/doffing PPE (91%) and performing hand hygiene (96%) and better understood the importance of disinfecting HTSs (96%) after the program. The frequency of cleaning individual HTSs in occupied rooms increased from 26% to 62% (P < .001) following the intervention. Improvement was sustained 1-year post intervention (P < .001). A significant decrease in CDI was associated with the program.
A novel program that addressed environmental services workers’ knowledge gaps, challenges, and barriers was well received and appeared to result in learning, behavior change, and sustained improvements in cleaning.
Herbicides registered in vegetable soybean often fail to control waterhemp. The objective of this research was to quantify vegetable soybean tolerance to preemergence herbicides for early-season waterhemp control, including flumioxazin applied alone PRE or in mixture with chlorimuron, metribuzin, or pyroxasulfone at use rates in grain-type soybean. Crop tolerance to the herbicides was tested in field trials with 20 vegetable soybean cultivars and four grain-type cultivars through 4 wk after treatment (WAT). Flumioxazin-based treatments were equally safe, resulting in only minor, transitory crop response (<5% injury 2 WAT) and no effect on crop emergence or early season growth. Flumioxazin mixtures provided greater than 99% control of waterhemp 4 WAT, as evidenced by reduced weed density from 29.7 plants m−2 in the nontreated control to no waterhemp. Flumioxazin applied alone or in tank mixture with chlorimuron, metribuzin, or pyroxasulfone were as safe in vegetable soybean as previously reported in grain-type soybean. Registration of these products in vegetable soybean would provide the industry with additional options for managing waterhemp.
We present a workflow to track icebergs in proglacial fjords using oblique time-lapse photos and the Lucas-Kanade optical flow algorithm. We employ the workflow at LeConte Bay, Alaska, where we ran five time-lapse cameras between April 2016 and September 2017, capturing more than 400 000 photos at frame rates of 0.5–4.0 min−1. Hourly to daily average velocity fields in map coordinates illustrate dynamic currents in the bay, with dominant downfjord velocities (exceeding 0.5 m s−1 intermittently) and several eddies. Comparisons with simultaneous Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) measurements yield best agreement for the uppermost ADCP levels (~ 12 m and above), in line with prevalent small icebergs that trace near-surface currents. Tracking results from multiple cameras compare favorably, although cameras with lower frame rates (0.5 min−1) tend to underestimate high flow speeds. Tests to determine requisite temporal and spatial image resolution confirm the importance of high image frame rates, while spatial resolution is of secondary importance. Application of our procedure to other fjords will be successful if iceberg concentrations are high enough and if the camera frame rates are sufficiently rapid (at least 1 min−1 for conditions similar to LeConte Bay).
Journals use social media to increase the awareness of their publications. Infographics show research findings in a concise and visually appealing manner, well suited for dissemination on social media platforms. We hypothesized that infographic abstracts promoted on social media would increase the dissemination and online readership of the parent research articles.
Twenty-four articles were chosen from the six issues of CJEM published between July 2016 and June 2017 and randomized to infographic or control groups. All articles were disseminated through the journal’s social media accounts (Twitter and Facebook). Control articles were promoted using a screen capture image of each article’s abstract on the journal’s social media accounts. Infographic articles were promoted similarly using a visual infographic. Infographics were also published and promoted on the CanadiEM.org’s website and social media channels. Abstract views, full-text views, and the change in Altmetric score were compared between groups using unpaired two-tailed t-tests.
There were no significant differences in the groups at baseline. Abstract views (mean, 95% CI) were higher in the infographics (379, 287-471) than the control group (176, 136-215, p<0.001). Mean change in Altmetric scores was higher in the infographics (26, 18-34) than in the control group (3, 2-4, p<0.0001). There was no difference in full-text views between the infographics (50, 0-101) and control groups (25, 18-32).
The promotion of CJEM articles using infographics on social media and the CanadiEM.org website increased Altmetric scores and abstract views. Infographics may have a role in increasing awareness of medical literature.
Edamame [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] differs from grain-type soybean in several aspects, one being that edamame seeds are 65% to 100% larger than grain-type soybean seed. Crop seed size has implications for weed management in grain-type soybean; however, the extent to which this observation holds true for edamame is unknown. Because weed interference continues to be a barrier to domestic edamame production, the objective was to quantify the effect of edamame seed size on the crop’s ability to tolerate weed interference (CT) and the crop’s ability to suppress weeds (WSA). Five edamame cultivars plus one grain-type cultivar were each sorted to create “small” and “large” seed size classes. Seed lots were included in a split–split plot design, whereby an additional experimental factor was presence or absence of velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti Medik.). Crop and weed emergence and growth were monitored through 8 wk after emergence (WAE). Crop plants from large seed had higher tolerance to A. theophrasti than plants from small seed, as evidenced by crop height, area, and biomass. Edamame seed size had little effect on WSA; however, crop cultivars differentially reduced A. theophrasti leaf area and biomass at 4 and 8 WAE. While both seed size and edamame cultivar influence early-season crop competitive ability, the magnitude of these factors on CT and WSA underscores the importance of considering them not as stand-alone tactics but rather as useful additions to a more comprehensive integrated weed management system.
In the UK, 11.8% of expectant mothers undergo an elective caesarean section (ELCS) representing 92 000 births per annum. It is not known to what extent this procedure has an impact on mental well-being in the longer term.
To determine the prevalence and postpartum progression of anxiety and depression symptoms in women undergoing ELCS in Wales.
Prevalence of depression and anxiety were determined in women at University Hospital Wales (2015–16; n = 308) through completion of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS; ≥13) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI; ≥40) questionnaires 1 day prior to ELCS, and three postpartum time points for 1 year. Maternal characteristics were determined from questionnaires and, where possible, confirmed from National Health Service maternity records.
Using these criteria the prevalence of reported depression symptoms was 14.3% (95% CI 10.9–18.3) 1 day prior to ELCS, 8.0% (95% CI 4.2–12.5) within 1 week, 8.7% (95% CI 4.2–13.8) at 10 weeks and 12.4% (95% CI 6.4–18.4) 1 year postpartum. Prevalence of reported anxiety symptoms was 27.3% (95% CI 22.5–32.4), 21.7% (95% CI 15.8–28.0), 25.3% (95% CI 18.5–32.7) and 35.1% (95% CI 26.3–44.2) at these same stages. Prenatal anxiety was not resolved after ELCS more than 1 year after delivery.
Women undergoing ELCS experience prolonged anxiety postpartum that merits focused clinical attention.
This study is the first assessment of the entire soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr] collection of the United State Department of Agriculture National Plant Germplasm System (USDA) reporting quantitative and population genomic parameters. It also provides a new insight into soybean germplasm structure. Germplasm studies enable plant breeders to incorporate novel genetic resources into breeding pipelines to improve valuable agronomic traits. We conducted comprehensive analyses on the 19,652 soybean accessions in the USDA-ARS germplasm collection, genotyped with the SoySNP50 K iSelect BeadChip SNP array, to elucidate the quantitative properties of existing subpopulations inferred through hierarchical clustering performed with Ward's D agglomeration method and Nei's standard genetic distance. We found the effective population size to be approximately 106 individuals based on the linkage disequilibrium of unlinked loci. The cladogram indicated the existence of eight major clusters. Each cluster displays particular properties with regard to major quantitative traits. Among those, cluster 3 represents the tropical and semi-tropical genetic material, cluster 5 displays large seeds and may represent food-grade germplasm, and cluster 7 represents the undomesticated material in the germplasm collection. The average FST among clusters was 0.22 and a total of 914 SNPs were exclusive to specific clusters. Our classification and characterization of the germplasm collection into major clusters provides valuable information about the genetic resources available to soybean breeders and researchers.
The potential role of fall-seeded cover crops for weed management in edamame [soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is unknown. Field experiments were conducted over three edamame growing seasons to (1) determine the extent to which cover crop–residue management systems influence edamame emergence while selectively suppressing weed density and biomass, and (2) determine whether cultivars differed in emergence in cover crop–residue management systems. Cover crop treatments included a winter-killed oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus L.), two canola (Brassica napus L.) treatments (early-killed and late-killed), two cereal rye (Secale cereale L.) treatments (early-killed and late-killed), and a bare-soil control. Two spring timings of a cover crop burndown application created the early-killed and late-killed treatments for canola and cereal rye. Twelve soybean cultivars were tested, including 11 edamame cultivars differing in seed size and a grain-type soybean control. Spring residue biomass in cover crop treatments ranged from 438 kg ha−1 for winter-killed radish to 9,003 kg ha−1 for late-killed cereal rye. Cultivars responded similarly to cover crop treatments, and with the exception of late-killed cereal rye, cover crop treatments resulted in similar crop emergence as the bare-soil control. While all cover crop treatments reduced weed biomass 6 wk after planting compared with the bare soil, winter-killed radish and both canola treatments increased weed density. Early-killed cereal rye has potential for weed management in edamame, as evidenced by the fact that the treatment did not interfere with planting or crop establishment, yet reduced weed density 20% and suppressed early-season weed growth 85%.
In this study, in situ and erratic samples from George V Coast (East Antarctica) and southern Eyre Peninsula (Australia) have been used to characterize the microstructural, pressure–temperature and geochronological record of upper amphibolite and granulite facies polymetamorphism in the Mawson Continent to provide insight into the spatial distribution of reworking and the subice geology of the Mawson Continent. Monazite U-Pb data shows that in situ samples from the George V Coast record exclusively 2450–2400 Ma ages, whereas most erratic samples from glacial moraines at Cape Denison and the Red Banks Charnockite record only 1720–1690 Ma ages, consistent with known ages of the Sleaford and Kimban events, respectively. Phase equilibria forward modelling reveals considerable overlap of the thermal character of these two events. Samples with unimodal 1720–1690 Ma Kimban ages reflect either formation after the Sleaford event or complete metamorphic overprinting. Rocks recording only 2450–2400 Ma ages were unaffected by the younger Kimban event, perhaps as a result of unreactive rock compositions inherited from the Sleaford event. Our results suggest the subice geology of the Mawson Continent is a pre-Sleaford-aged terrane with a cover sequence reworked during the Kimban event.
Whether monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins differ from each other in a variety of phenotypes is important for genetic twin modeling and for inferences made from twin studies in general. We analyzed whether there were differences in individual, maternal and paternal education between MZ and DZ twins in a large pooled dataset. Information was gathered on individual education for 218,362 adult twins from 27 twin cohorts (53% females; 39% MZ twins), and on maternal and paternal education for 147,315 and 143,056 twins respectively, from 28 twin cohorts (52% females; 38% MZ twins). Together, we had information on individual or parental education from 42 twin cohorts representing 19 countries. The original education classifications were transformed to education years and analyzed using linear regression models. Overall, MZ males had 0.26 (95% CI [0.21, 0.31]) years and MZ females 0.17 (95% CI [0.12, 0.21]) years longer education than DZ twins. The zygosity difference became smaller in more recent birth cohorts for both males and females. Parental education was somewhat longer for fathers of DZ twins in cohorts born in 1990–1999 (0.16 years, 95% CI [0.08, 0.25]) and 2000 or later (0.11 years, 95% CI [0.00, 0.22]), compared with fathers of MZ twins. The results show that the years of both individual and parental education are largely similar in MZ and DZ twins. We suggest that the socio-economic differences between MZ and DZ twins are so small that inferences based upon genetic modeling of twin data are not affected.
In 2015 and 2016, the Canadian Journal of Emergency Medicine (CJEM) Social Media (SoMe) Team collaborated with established medical websites to promote CJEM articles using podcasts and infographics while tracking dissemination and readership.
CJEM publications in the “Original Research” and “State of the Art” sections were selected by the SoMe Team for podcast and infographic promotion based on their perceived interest to emergency physicians. A control group was composed retrospectively of articles from the 2015 and 2016 issues with the highest Altmetric score that received standard Facebook and Twitter promotions. Studies on SoMe topics were excluded. Dissemination was quantified by January 1, 2017 Altmetric scores. Readership was measured by abstract and full-text views over a 3-month period. The number needed to view (NNV) was calculated by dividing abstract views by full-text views.
Twenty-nine of 88 articles that met inclusion were included in the podcast (6), infographic (11), and control (12) groups. Descriptive statistics (mean, 95% confidence interval) were calculated for podcast (Altmetric: 61, 42-80; Abstract: 1795, 1135-2455; Full-text: 431, 0-1031), infographic (Altmetric: 31.5, 19-43; Abstract: 590, 361-819; Full-text: 65, 33-98), and control (Altmetric: 12, 8-15; Abstract: 257, 159-354; Full-Text: 73, 38-109) articles. The NNV was 4.2 for podcast, 9.0 for infographic, and 3.5 for control articles.
Limitations included selection bias, the influence of SoMe promotion on the Altmetric scores, and a lack of generalizability to other journals.
Collaboration with established SoMe websites using podcasts and infographics was associated with increased Altmetric scores and abstract views but not full-text article views.
It has been suggested that offspring of parents with bipolar disorder are at increased risk for disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD), but the specificity of this association has not been established.
We examined the specificity of DMDD to family history by comparing offspring of parents with (a) bipolar disorder, (b) major depressive disorder and (c) a control group with no mood disorders.
We established lifetime diagnosis of DMDD using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Aged Children for DSM-5 in 180 youth aged 6–18 years, including 58 offspring of parents with bipolar disorder, 82 offspring of parents with major depressive disorder and 40 control offspring.
Diagnostic criteria for DMDD were met in none of the offspring of parents with bipolar disorder, 6 of the offspring of parents with major depressive disorder and none of the control offspring. DMDD diagnosis was significantly associated with family history of major depressive disorder.
Our results suggest that DMDD is not specifically associated with a family history of bipolar disorder and may be associated with parental depression.
If registered for use on vegetable soybean, pyroxasulfone would expand the options for weed management systems in the crop. In order to determine the potential crop injury risk of pyroxasulfone on vegetable soybean, the objective of this work was to quantify vegetable soybean tolerance to pyroxasulfone applied PRE and EPOST. Twenty-one vegetable soybean and two grain-type soybean cultivars were treated with pyroxasulfone at 417 gaiha−1 (twice the recommended field use rate) PRE, EPOST, or not treated. Plant population density was unaffected by pyroxasulfone. Only low levels (<10%) of crop injury were observed within a few weeks after PRE and EPOST treatments. Soybean cultivars were not differentially affected by pyroxasulfone, as evidenced by the lack of interactions between cultivar and treatment for any crop response variable. The low amount of risk of crop injury associated with pyroxasulfone is no different for vegetable soybean cultivars grown in the US for commercial production than grain-type soybean.
Fall-planted cover crops offer many benefits including weed suppressive residues in spring sown crops when controlled and left on the soil surface. However, vegetable growers have been slow to adopt direct-seeding (no-till) into cover crop residues. Field studies were conducted in 2009 and 2010 near Paterson, WA and Urbana, IL to evaluate mortality of rye and common vetch (WA) hairy vetch (IL) cover crops, weed density and biomass, and snap bean growth and yield following four cover crop control methods utilizing a roller–crimper. Rye had higher mortality than common and hairy vetch by roller-crimping, and carfentrazone applied after roller crimping only slightly increased vetch mortality. Heavy residues of rye and escaped vetch were difficult to plant into, often resulting in lower snap bean populations. Rye and hairy vetch residues suppressed final weed biomass, while common vetch reduced weed biomass 1 of 2 years. Escaped plants of both vetch species became a weed. Snap bean yields were inconsistent and often lower following cover crops compared with a fallow treatment. Being able to completely control cover crops and to plant, manage escaped weeds and mechanically harvest in the presence of heavy residues are challenges that deter vegetable growers from readily adopting these systems.
Euclid is a Europe-led cosmology space mission dedicated to a visible and near infrared survey of the entire extra-galactic sky. Its purpose is to deepen our knowledge of the dark content of our Universe. After an overview of the Euclid mission and science, this contribution describes how the community is getting organized to face the data analysis challenges, both in software development and in operational data processing matters. It ends with a more specific account of some of the main contributions of the Swiss Science Data Center (SDC-CH).
Atrazine has been the most widely used herbicide in North American
processing sweet corn for decades; however, increased restrictions in recent
years have reduced or eliminated atrazine use in certain production areas.
The objective of this study was to identify the best stakeholder-derived
weed management alternatives to atrazine in processing sweet corn. In field
trials throughout the major production areas of processing sweet corn,
including three states over 4 yr, 12 atrazine-free weed management
treatments were compared to three standard atrazine-containing treatments
and a weed-free check. Treatments varied with respect to herbicide mode of
action, herbicide application timing, and interrow cultivation. All
treatments included a PRE application of dimethenamid. No single weed
species occurred across all sites; however, weeds observed in two or more
sites included common lambsquarters, giant ragweed, morningglory species,
velvetleaf, and wild-proso millet. Standard treatments containing both
atrazine and mesotrione POST provided the most efficacious weed control
among treatments and resulted in crop yields comparable to the weed-free
check, thus demonstrating the value of atrazine in sweet corn production
systems. Timely interrow cultivation in atrazine-free treatments did not
consistently improve weed control. Only two atrazine-free treatments
consistently resulted in weed control and crop yield comparable to standard
treatments with atrazine POST: treatments with tembotrione POST either with
or without interrow cultivation. Additional atrazine-free treatments with
topramezone applied POST worked well in Oregon where small-seeded weed
species were prevalent. This work demonstrates that certain atrazine-free
weed management systems, based on input from the sweet corn growers and
processors who would adopt this technology, are comparable in performance to
standard atrazine-containing weed management systems.
Approximately half of the variation in wellbeing measures overlaps with variation in personality traits. Studies of non-human primate pedigrees and human twins suggest that this is due to common genetic influences. We tested whether personality polygenic scores for the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) domains and for item response theory (IRT) derived extraversion and neuroticism scores predict variance in wellbeing measures. Polygenic scores were based on published genome-wide association (GWA) results in over 17,000 individuals for the NEO-FFI and in over 63,000 for the IRT extraversion and neuroticism traits. The NEO-FFI polygenic scores were used to predict life satisfaction in 7 cohorts, positive affect in 12 cohorts, and general wellbeing in 1 cohort (maximal N = 46,508). Meta-analysis of these results showed no significant association between NEO-FFI personality polygenic scores and the wellbeing measures. IRT extraversion and neuroticism polygenic scores were used to predict life satisfaction and positive affect in almost 37,000 individuals from UK Biobank. Significant positive associations (effect sizes <0.05%) were observed between the extraversion polygenic score and wellbeing measures, and a negative association was observed between the polygenic neuroticism score and life satisfaction. Furthermore, using GWA data, genetic correlations of -0.49 and -0.55 were estimated between neuroticism with life satisfaction and positive affect, respectively. The moderate genetic correlation between neuroticism and wellbeing is in line with twin research showing that genetic influences on wellbeing are also shared with other independent personality domains.