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We spend much of our time consuming stories across different types of media, often becoming deeply engaged or transported into these stories. However, there has been almost no research into whether processing a story in one’s non-native language influences our level of transportation. We analyzed three existing datasets in order to compare engagement with English-language stories for those who reported English as their first language and those who reported English as their second language. Stories were presented as text (Study 1), audio (Study 2), and short films (Study 3). Across all studies, equivalent levels of narrative transportation between language groups were found, even after accounting for age and years of English fluency. These results are in contrast to some previous proposals that emotional reactions are attenuated during non-native language processing, despite equivalent levels of comprehension. Our evidence indicates that individuals processing a narrative in their second language feel just as transported into the story as those processing the same narrative in their native language.
Herbicide resistance is ‘wicked’ in nature; therefore, results of the many educational efforts to encourage diversification of weed control practices in the United States have been mixed. It is clear that we do not sufficiently understand the totality of the grassroots obstacles, concerns, challenges, and specific solutions needed for varied crop production systems. Weed management issues and solutions vary with such variables as management styles, regions, cropping systems, and available or affordable technologies. Therefore, to help the weed science community better understand the needs and ideas of those directly dealing with herbicide resistance, seven half-day regional listening sessions were held across the United States between December 2016 and April 2017 with groups of diverse stakeholders on the issues and potential solutions for herbicide resistance management. The major goals of the sessions were to gain an understanding of stakeholders and their goals and concerns related to herbicide resistance management, to become familiar with regional differences, and to identify decision maker needs to address herbicide resistance. The messages shared by listening-session participants could be summarized by six themes: we need new herbicides; there is no need for more regulation; there is a need for more education, especially for others who were not present; diversity is hard; the agricultural economy makes it difficult to make changes; and we are aware of herbicide resistance but are managing it. The authors concluded that more work is needed to bring a community-wide, interdisciplinary approach to understanding the complexity of managing weeds within the context of the whole farm operation and for communicating the need to address herbicide resistance.
Seven half-day regional listening sessions were held between December 2016 and April 2017 with groups of diverse stakeholders on the issues and potential solutions for herbicide-resistance management. The objective of the listening sessions was to connect with stakeholders and hear their challenges and recommendations for addressing herbicide resistance. The coordinating team hired Strategic Conservation Solutions, LLC, to facilitate all the sessions. They and the coordinating team used in-person meetings, teleconferences, and email to communicate and coordinate the activities leading up to each regional listening session. The agenda was the same across all sessions and included small-group discussions followed by reporting to the full group for discussion. The planning process was the same across all the sessions, although the selection of venue, time of day, and stakeholder participants differed to accommodate the differences among regions. The listening-session format required a great deal of work and flexibility on the part of the coordinating team and regional coordinators. Overall, the participant evaluations from the sessions were positive, with participants expressing appreciation that they were asked for their thoughts on the subject of herbicide resistance. This paper details the methods and processes used to conduct these regional listening sessions and provides an assessment of the strengths and limitations of those processes.
The appeal of ketamine – in promptly ameliorating depressive symptoms even in those with non-response – has led to a dramatic increase in its off-label use. Initial promising results await robust corroboration and key questions remain, particularly concerning its long-term administration. It is, therefore, timely to review the opinions of mood disorder experts worldwide pertaining to ketamine's potential as an option for treating depression and provide a synthesis of perspectives – derived from evidence and clinical experience – and to consider strategies for future investigations.
On August 25, 2017, Hurricane Harvey made landfall near Corpus Christi, Texas. The ensuing unprecedented flooding throughout the Texas coastal region affected millions of individuals.1 The statewide response in Texas included the sheltering of thousands of individuals at considerable distances from their homes. The Dallas area established large-scale general population sheltering as the number of evacuees to the area began to amass. Historically, the Dallas area is one familiar with “mega-sheltering,” beginning with the response to Hurricane Katrina in 2005.2 Through continued efforts and development, the Dallas area had been readying a plan for the largest general population shelter in Texas. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2019;13:33–37)
A short-pulse, long-wavelength radio-echo sounder has successfully measured the ice depth on the South Cascade Glacier. Depths up to 250 m were determined with resolution of about 5%. Bottom returns were clear and almost never ambiguous. Their accuracy was confirmed by comparison with hot-point drilling results. The secret for successful sounding in temperate glaciers is the use of a sufficiently low center frequency. Five megahertz was most successful. Tests at 15 MHz indicated an increase in coherent clutter which rendered the bottom return observable only with prior knowledge of its location. The cause of the clutter is probably water-filled voids in the ice which behave as Rayleigh scatterers.
The sounding system consists of an avalanche-transistor transmitter, which delivers a pulse to an acute-angle crossed-wire antenna. The pulse is shaped and given its center-frequency characteristics by the resonant properties of the antenna. The transmitting and receiving antennas are identical, consisting of wires and lumped resistors. The resistors reduce antennas ringing, thereby maintaining as short a pulse as possible. The receiver consists of an oscilloscope and a Polaroid camera. No preamplification is required for depths up to 250 m, but may be necessary for deeper glaciers.
Mass-balance measurements have been renewed on two small ice caps on north-eastern Ellesmere Island. Original stake networks were established in 1972 and 1976. Since then, both ice caps have experienced significant mass losses averaging –70 to –140 kg m−2 a−1. They have also decreased in area. The equilibrium line in this area has averaged around 1150 m for the last decade or so. The ice caps are remnants of former climatic conditions and are out of equilibrium with contemporary climate.
Meteorological observations on and around a small, exposed plateau ice cap on north-eastern Ellesmere Island, N.W.T., Canada, were carried out in the northern summers of 1982 and 1983. The objective was to assess the effect of the ice cap on local climate as the melt season progressed. In 1982, seasonal net radiation totals were lowest on the ice cap and greatest at the site farthest from the ice cap. The ice-cap site received only 35% of net radiation totals on the surrounding tundra. This reflects a gradient in albedo; albedo changed most markedly away from the ice cap as the summer progressed. A thermal gradient was observed along a transect perpendicular to the ice-cap edge; this gradient was greatest at low levels (15 cm) and was maximized under cloud-free conditions. The “cooling effect” of the ice cap was less at the start of the ablation season than later. Low-level inversions occurred more frequently over the ice cap than over the snow-free tundra. Overall, melting degree days on the ice cap were only 40–65% of those on the adjacent tundra. A model of interactions between the atmosphere and a snow and ice cover, or a snow-free tundra/felsenmeer surface is proposed. Observations indicate that the ice cap has a cooling effect on the lower atmosphere relative to the adjacent snow-free tundra; this effect is absent when snow cover is extensive (as in 1983).
Over the past twenty-five years numerous studies have addressed the theme of sacrifice in Virgil's Aeneid. In 1993 the second chapter (‘Sacrifice and Substitution’) of Philip Hardie's The Epic Successors of Virgil broadened the scope of the topic to include post-Virgilian epic as well, but since then little attention has been paid to sacrifice in the case of at least one of Virgil's epic successors, Silius Italicus. The aim of the present paper is to narrow this gap in the existing literature by examining the evidence for a particular form of sacrifice, a kind of ‘self-sacrifice’ known as the deuotio, in the Punica. Although Silius' epic ideally requires a more thorough and comprehensive study of sacrifice than what is offered here, it is nevertheless hoped that the present study may lead to further inquiry into this aspect of the poem and may help, more generally, to disabuse readers of the notion that its poet is uninterested in or un-knowledgeable about matters of a religious nature.
While multiple studies have identified land managers’ preferences for agri-environmental schemes (AES), few approaches exist for integrating different understandings of landscape stewardship into the design of these measures. We compared and contrasted rural land managers’ attitudes toward AES and their preferences for AES design beyond 2020 across different understandings of landscape stewardship. Forty semi-structured interviews were conducted with similar proportions of small holders, medium holders and large holders in southwest Devon, UK. Overall, respondents most frequently cited concerns related to the reduced amount of funding available for entry-level and higher-level stewardship schemes in the UK since 2008, changing funding priorities, perceived overstrict compliance and lack of support for farm succession and new entrants into farming. However, there were differences in concerns across understandings of landscape stewardship, with production respondents citing that AES do not encourage food production, whereas environmental and holistic farmers citing that AES do not support the development of a local green food culture and associated social infrastructure. These differences also emerged in preferences for AES design beyond 2020. We adapted a collaborative and coordinated approach for designing AES to account for the differing interests of land managers based on their understanding of landscape stewardship. We discuss the implications of this approach for environmental policy design in the European Union and elsewhere.
Building on John Ruggie’s pioneering study of multilateralism, this paper presents an analogous study of multistakeholder governance, or multistakeholderism. Its central argument is that multistakeholderism is, as yet, a much less well-defined institutional form. Cases exhibit significant variation both in the combinations of actor classes entitled to participate and the nature of authority relations among those actors. The first section discusses multistakeholderism as an institutional form, and proposes a taxonomy of its types. This section also briefly addresses the implications of the analysis for International Relations theory. The paper then conducts a comparative analysis of multistakeholderism, applying the taxonomy to five illustrative cases. It demonstrates the degree of inter-case variation, and the range of issue-areas across which the institutional form is employed and invoked by actors. Three cases are drawn from the increasingly contentious area of Internet governance; the paper thus makes a secondary contribution to this growing literature. The paper’s most striking finding in this regard is that Internet governance often fails to live up to its multistakeholder rhetoric. Other cases include governance of securities regulation and the governance of corporate social responsibility. The paper concludes by examining the implications of our argument, and identifying areas for further research.
To investigate the attitudes to health and work of general practitioners (GPs) with training in occupational medicine (OM) compared with non-OM trained GPs, since the introduction of the fit note.
Changes to the UK sickness certification system since 2010 and the introduction of the fit note required GPs to change their focus to what patients can do, rather than what they cannot do in relation to work. In an effort to reduce the UK sickness absence burden, GPs completion of the fit note should help to keep people in work, or assist patients to return to work as quickly as possible after a period of absence.
Questionnaire data were collected via the 7th National General Practitioner Worklife Survey.
Results indicate that responses from GPs who had undertaken training in OM, and GPs having received some form of work and health training in the 12-month period before the study were associated with significantly more positive attitudes to patients’ returning to work and to the fit note. This study reveals evidence of a difference between trained and non-trained GPs in their attitude to the fit note, and to work and health generally. Further work investigating the effect of specific training in OM on the management and recognition of ill-health by GPs is recommended.
Excavation on the Thames floodplain in London revealed traces of Early Neolithic occupation and burial on a sand and gravel bar beneath alluvium. A large expanse of peat also buried by alluvium was recorded between these finds and the modern river Thames suggesting that the occupation was situated on or close to the foreshore. A single grave cut into the natural sand contained a poorly preserved crouched inhumation, possibly of a woman. The burial was accompanied by a fragment of carinated bowl, a flint knife, and other struck flints. A radiocarbon date from an oak retaining plank within the grave of 5252±28 BP (4220–3970 cal BC: KIA20157) makes this burial one of the earliest from the British Isles and the earliest known for London. A scatter of struck flint and pottery predominantly of Early Neolithic date was recovered from adjacent areas of the sand. A nearby hearth contained fragments of Early Bronze Age pottery pointing to later prehistoric activity nearby.
Charred plant remains indicate both the collection of wild plant foods and cultivated cereals in the Early Neolithic. Radiocarbon dating of the adjacent peat deposits indicated their rapid growth within the Middle Bronze Age with a marked decline in woodland cover at the start of the sequence and a rise in grassland and herb species. Cereal pollen then briefly became a significant component of the sequence before declining to more modest levels.