To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The prognosis of patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the external auditory canal and middle ear has been improved by advances in skull base surgery and multidrug chemoradiotherapy during the last two decades.
Ninety-five patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the external auditory canal and middle ear who were treated between 1998 and 2017 were enrolled. The number of patients with tumour stages T1, T2, T3 and T4 was 15, 22, 24 and 34, respectively. Oncological outcomes and prognostic factors were retrospectively investigated.
Among patients with T4 disease, invasion of the brain (p = 0.024), carotid artery (p = 0.049) and/or jugular vein (p = 0.040) were significant predictors of poor prognosis. The five-year overall survival rate of patients with at least one of these factors (T4b) was significantly lower than that of patients without these factors (T4a) (25.5 vs 65.5 per cent, p = 0.049).
It is proposed that stage T4 be subclassified into T4a and T4b according to the prognostic factors.
Although there is growing evidence suggesting that eating patterns are important determinants of health status, comprehensive information on patterning of eating behaviours is almost lacking. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to describe eating patterns in Japan.
Information on actual eating behaviours was collected using 2-d dietary record in each season over a year (total 8 d). Eating occasions were defined as any discrete intake occasion (with a discrete start clock time and name) except for eating occasions consisting of water only, which were excluded.
A nationwide sample of 4032 Japanese aged 1–79 years.
The mean value of eating frequency of meals (i.e. breakfast, lunch and dinner), snacks and total eating occasions was 2·94, 1·74 and 4·68 times/d, respectively. The mean clock time for the start of breakfast, lunch and dinner was 07.24, 12.29 and 19.15 h, respectively. The mean time spent consuming breakfast, lunch, dinner and snacks was 19, 25, 34 and 27 min/d, respectively. On average, variability (i.e. average of absolute difference from mean) of meal frequency was small compared with that of snack frequency and total eating frequency. Both mean variability of clock time for the start of eating (<1 h) and mean variability of time spent on meals (<10 min/d) were also small. Conversely, mean variability of time spent on snacks was large (>18 min/d).
The present findings serve as both a reference and an indication for future research on patterning of eating behaviours.
FFQ, the primary method of dietary assessment in large-scale nutritional epidemiological studies, preclude an informed evaluation of the timing of dietary intake and meal-specific dietary intake. In this study, we developed the Meal-based Diet History Questionnaire (MDHQ), a self-administered questionnaire designed for estimating food and nutrient intakes for each meal type separately. The development was done based on a 16-d dietary record obtained from 242 Japanese adults. The MDHQ consisted of the three different parts, with a total of 196 items. Part 1 of the MDHQ asks about consumption frequency of generic food groups (n 24) for each meal type: breakfast, morning snack, lunch, afternoon snack, dinner and night snack. Part 2 of the MDHQ asks about relative consumption frequency of sub-food groups within one of the generic food groups which are asked in Part 1. Combining information derived from Parts 1 and 2 enables us to increase the number of foods we can estimate efficiently but within a limited number of questions. Part 3 of the MDHQ asks about general eating behaviours, which are intended to use in a variety of ways during dietary intake calculation. A series of calculation algorithms for food groups, energy and nutrients was also prepared. Given that the MDHQ was empirically developed based on comprehensive information on actual food consumption, this innovative tool may be promising for future epidemiological research on meal patterns and time of day of dietary intake, or chrono-nutrition research. A rigorous evaluation of validity of the MDHQ is warranted.
To characterise different meal types by examining the contribution of specific meals to the total intakes and the nutritional quality of each meal.
A cross-sectional analysis was conducted based on dietary data collected using 4-d dietary record. Diet quality was assessed by the Healthy Eating Index-2015 and Nutrient-Rich Food Index 9.3.
Adults aged 20–81 years (n 639).
Diet quality was, on average, highest for dinner, followed, in order, by lunch, breakfast and snacks. Breakfast, lunch, dinner and snacks, on average, accounted for 21 %, 32 %, 40 % and 11 % of total energy intake, respectively. For many nutrients, the percentage contribution to total intake did not vary within each meal, broadly in line with that for energy: 18–24 % for breakfast, 26–35 % for lunch, 35–49 % for dinner and 4–15 % for snacks. However, intakes of many foods largely depended on one meal type. The foods mainly eaten at dinner were potatoes, pulses, total vegetables, fish, meat and alcoholic beverages (52–70 %), in contrast to noodles (58 %) at lunch and bread (71 %) and dairy products (50 %) at breakfast. The foods mainly eaten at snacks were confectioneries (79 %) and sugar-sweetened beverages (52 %). Conversely, rice and eggs were more evenly distributed across three main meals (19–41 % and 30–38 %, respectively), while fruit and non-energetic beverages were more evenly distributed across all meal types (17–30 % and 19–35 %, respectively).
These findings provide the background information on each meal type in Japanese and may help inform the development of meal-based guidelines and public health messages.
Epidemiological evidence on the association between eating frequency and overall diet quality does not represent a consistent picture. This cross-sectional study examined the associations of meal frequency and snack frequency with diet quality, using different definitions of meals and snacks. Based on 4-d weighed dietary record data obtained from 639 Japanese adults aged 20–81 years, all eating occasions were divided into meals or snacks based on either the participant-identified or time-of-day definitions. Diet quality was assessed by the Healthy Eating Index-2015 (HEI-2015) and Nutrient-Rich Food Index 9.3 (NRF9.3). One additional meal per d increased the HEI-2015 total score by 3·6 and 1·3 points based on the participant-identified and time-of-day definitions, respectively. A higher meal frequency was also associated with higher values of some of the HEI-2015 component scores (total vegetables, greens and beans, and total protein foods), irrespective of how meals were defined. Additionally, one additional participant-identified snack per d increased the HEI-2015 total score by 0·7 points. The frequency of participant-identified snacks also showed positive associations with some of the HEI-2015 component scores (total fruits, whole fruits, total vegetables, greens and beans, dairy products, and Na). However, the frequency of time-of-day defined snacks was not associated with the total scores of HEI-2015, although there were some associations for its components. Similar findings were obtained when the NRF9.3 was used. In conclusion, higher meal frequency was consistently associated with higher diet quality, while associations between snack frequency and diet quality varied depending on the definition of snacks.
Liver dysfunction, associated with morbidity and mortality, is common in patients with CHD. We investigate risk factors for and outcomes of hyperbilirubinaemia in neonates and infants after cardiac surgery.
Materials and methods:
In a retrospective analysis of neonates and infants undergoing cardiac surgery at our institution between January 2013 and December 2017, we identified those with post-operative conjugated hyperbilirubinaemia. We tested various demographic and surgical risk factors, and use of post-operative interventions, for an association with conjugated hyperbilirubinaemia. We also tested hyperbilirubinaemia for association with post-operative mortality and prolonged length of stay.
We identified 242 post-operative admissions, of which 45 (19%) had conjugated hyperbilirubinaemia. The average conjugated bilirubin level in this group was 2.0 mg/dl versus 0.3 mg/dl for peers without hyperbilirubinaemia. The post-operative use of both extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (OR 4.97, 95% CI 1.89–13.5, p = 0.001) and total parenteral nutrition (OR 2.98, 95% CI 1.34–7.17, p = 0.010) was associated with conjugated hyperbilirubinaemia. No demographic variable analysed was found to be a risk factor. Hyperbilirubinaemia was associated with higher odds of mortality (OR 3.74, 95% CI 2.69–13.8, p = 0.005) and prolonged length of stay (OR 2.87, 95% CI 2.02–7.97, p = 0.005), which were independent of other risk factors.
We identified the post-operative use of total parenteral nutrition and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as risk factors for hyperbilirubinaemia. These patients were more likely to experience morbidity and mortality than control peers. As such, bilirubin may be marker for elevated risk of poor post-operative outcomes and should be more frequently measured after cardiac surgery.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between affect and short-term life satisfaction (LS) taking into account the dimension of activation for positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) and the balance of PA and NA.
The study included 398 students (184 men and 214 women) who completed six questionnaires three of which were used for another study. The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule was utilized for assessing activated PA and NA. Two subscales of the Multiple Mood Scale were used to measure deactivated PA and NA, and the Short-term Life Satisfaction Scale for LS. Correlation analyses and hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted to mainly examine the relationships between affect balance (PA-NA and PA/NA) and LS.
The results of correlation analyses showed that LS was positively associated with affect balance in both activated and deactivated dimension. Additionally, the hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed a significant interaction between activated PA and NA, which indicated that the relationship between activated PA and LS in women was strengthened when the level of activated NA was relatively lower.
The findings in this study suggested that students who have stronger PA compared to NA might feel high LS in both activated and deactivated dimension. Moreover, it was suggested that the profitable effect of activated PA on LS in women would be larger when their activated NA was relatively weakened.
We examined the effects of affect and emotional suppression (ES) on short-term life satisfaction (LS). In doing so, we considered the dimension of activation for positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA).
The final sample included the data collected from 398 students (184 men and 214 women). The mean ages were 19.15 yrs for men and 19.84 yrs for women. Participants answered six questionnaires two of which were used for another study. The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule was utilized for assessing activated PA and NA, two subscales of the Multiple Mood Scale to measure deactivated PA and NA, respectively, one subscale of the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire for gauzing ES, and the Short-term Life Satisfaction Scale for LS. All of them were Japanese versions, answered on the past week.
Results showed that LS was positively associated with PA and negatively with NA, but that its positive association was stronger in activated PA than deactivated PA while its negative association was stronger in deactivated NA than activated NA. The interaction between deactivated NA and ES was significant in men, whose post-hoc tests suggested that deactivated NA was more negatively associated with LS when ES was higher.
This study suggested that activated and deactivated affect differ in their relations to life satisfaction. Moreover, it is likely that the detrimental effect of NA on life satisfaction is larger when the expression of NA is more strongly suppressed.
We examined the effects of affect and emotional suppression (ES) on short-term life satisfaction (LS) and depression. In doing so, we considered the dimension of activation for positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA).
The final sample included the data collected from 496 undergraduate and graduate students (240 men and 256 women). Participants answered seven questionnaires for assessing activated PA and NA, ES of PA and NA, short-term LS, and depression, three of which were used for another study. All of them were Japanese versions, answered on the past week.
Results from hierarchical regression analyses showed that LS was positively associated with PA and negatively with NA, but that its positive association was stronger in activated PA than deactivated PA while its negative association was stronger in deactivated NA than activated NA. Similar findings were obtained for depression. The significant interactions suggested:
(1) higher scores of ES of PA weaken the positive association between activated PA and LS in both sexes;
(2) higher scores of ES of NA strengthen the negative association between activated NA and LS in men and weaken the association in women; and
(3) the positive association between activated NA and depression is weakened by higher scores of ES of NA in women.
This study suggested that activated and deactivated affect differ in their relations to life satisfaction and depression. Moreover, it is likely that although ES of PA and NA influences health, its effects would be different between men and women.
Japanese universities are required to improve both international and Japanese students' mental health, because the number of international students increases annually. Moreover, mental health data for graduate school students in Japan are lacking. Therefore, the present study attempted to examine differences in graduate school students' mental health according to major, grade, and nationality.
A total of 587 students from a Japanese university, which only offers graduate school education, completed the Japanese version of Kessler 6 (K6) as part of their regular health assessments; 542 students agreed to the use of their data for research purposes.
The K6 scores were analyzed using a 3-way (major × grade × nationality) between-subjects ANOVA, and a significant second-order interaction (F(6, 518) = 2.68, p < .05) was observed. As a subsequent 2-way (major × nationality) ANOVA, performed according to grade, only showed an interaction for first-grade master's degree students (M1; F(2, 167) = 7.88, p < .01), comparisons between Japanese and international students were made according to major. For one major, Japanese students' K6 scores tended to be higher relative to those observed in international students (t(36) = 1.98, p < .10). In contrast, international students' K6 scores for another major were significantly higher than were those of Japanese students (t(86) = 3.31, p < .01).
Japanese and international M1 students' K6 scores differed significantly. University staff should take these differences into account and examine ways to support students.
The present study attempted to examine the barriers and the facilitators to the use of mental health services by Japanese university students in order to enhance early detection of and intervention for mental disorders.
A total of 138 students from four universities in Japan participated in this study and completed the survey. They were asked to show if they were reluctant to consult a mental health professional and the reasons thereof (barriers). Additionally, they described when they would visit a mental health professional (facilitators).
About half (48.5%) of the students showed reluctance to visit a mental health professional. The barriers (in descending order of frequency) were'I don't want to consult other people (I feel ashamed),''I don't need it (It's enough),''I am unsure the consultation will be effective,' and'I am afraid of what others will think of me'. On the other hand, the facilitators were,'when my condition is severe,''when people close to me recommend me to do so,''when the atmosphere around the institution is good,''when I can't consult people close to me,' and'when the professional is someone I know'.
Some barriers and facilitators for consulting mental health professionals were found. Mental health professionals have to consider these factors in their daily clinical practices.
Four representatives of the genus Lecithaster and one representative of the genus Hysterolecithoides were found during investigation of the trematode fauna of fish species in Vietnamese, Japanese and eastern coastal waters of the Russian Far East. Based on morphometric data, adult trematodes from Vietnamese Strongylura strongylura and Russian Acanthogobius flavimanus were identified as Lecithaster confusus, trematodes from Vietnamese Hemirhamphus marginatus as L. sayori and from osmerid fishes as L. salmonis. Further, a single specimen of Lecithaster sp. and representatives of Hysterolecithoides epinepheli were found in Vietnamese Siganus fuscescens. Morphological and molecular data, including 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) V4 fragment, 28S rDNA D1-D3 fragment, internal transcribed spacers (ITS) and a mitochondrial COI gene fragment were analysed for Lecithaster spp. The results revealed that L. sayori and L. salmonis are not synonyms of L. stellatus and L. gibbosus, respectively, but that Hysterolecithoides frontilatus and H. guangdongensis are junior synonyms of H. epinepheli. The 28S-rDNA-based phylogenetic tree of Hemiuroidea showed a distinct position for the genus Lecithaster with internal differentiation into three subclades, including L. confusus, L. sayori and Lecithaster sp. within the first subclade, L. mugilis and L. sudzuhensis within the second subclade and L. salmonis and L. gibbosus within the third subclade. Bayesian phylogenetic reconstructions of Hemiuroidea showed four clades for members of Hemiuridae and Lecithasteridae. The first clade consisted of Hemiuridae representatives and the second clade represented the genus Lecithaster. The third clade included genera Aponurus and Lecithophyllum (Lecithasteridae) and the fourth clade combined members of lecithasterid Quadrifoliovariinae and Hysterolecithinae and hemiurid Opisthadeninae and Bunocotylidae with high statistical support.
Data on the combination of foods consumed simultaneously at specific eating occasions are scarce, primarily due to a lack of assessment tools. We applied a recently developed meal coding system to multiple-day dietary intake data for assessing its ability to estimate food and nutrient intakes and characterise meal-based dietary patterns in the Japanese context. A total of 242 Japanese adults completed sixteen non-consecutive-day weighed dietary records, including 14 734 eating occasions (3788 breakfasts, 3823 lunches, 3856 dinners and 3267 snacks). Common food group combinations were identified by meal type to identify a range of generic meals. Dietary intake was calculated on the basis of not only the standard food composition database but also the substituted generic meal database. In total, eighty generic meals (twenty-three breakfasts, twenty-one lunches, twenty-four dinners and twelve snacks) were identified. The Spearman correlation coefficients between food group intakes calculated based on the standard food composition database and the substituted generic meal database ranged from 0·26 to 0·85 (median 0·69). The corresponding correlations for nutrient intakes ranged from 0·17 to 0·82 (median 0·61). A total of eleven meal patterns were established using principal components analysis, and these accounted for 39·1 % of total meal variance. Considerable variation in patterns was seen in meal type inclusion and choice of staple foods (bread, rice and noodles) and drinks, and also in meal constituents. In conclusion, this study demonstrated the usefulness of a meal coding system for assessing habitual diet, providing a scientific basis towards the development of simple meal-based dietary assessment tools.
The adsorption and desorption of cesium onto layered minerals, zeolite and geochemical reference samples were studied. 0.5 g of bentonite and mica were able to adsorb 71.2 and 51.5 mg of cesium, respectively, from 50 mL of deionized water containing 200 mg/L of cesium under neutral pH condition. These amounts of cesium adsorption were greater than those reported for vermiculites (8.9 and 5.6 mg, respectively). Additionally, the cesium adsorption on mica and vermiculite remained essentially unchanged under seawater conditions, but it decreased drastically on zeolite. The cesium desorption from the layered minerals was promoted by the addition of ammonium ions, namely trioctylmethylammonium chloride and zephiramine. These ammonium ions desorb cesium from the interlayers of the minerals without destroying the mineral structure. The cesium desorption procedure using quaternary ammonium ions would be extremely useful for decontamination of soil containing the layered minerals with adsorbed radioactive cesium.
Studies in many Western countries have consistently shown that monetary diet cost is positively associated with diet quality, but this may not necessarily be the case in Japan. This cross-sectional study examined the nutritional correlates of monetary diet cost among 3963 young (all 18 years old), 3800 middle-aged (mean age 48 years) and 2211 older (mean age 74 years) Japanese women. Dietary intakes were assessed using a comprehensive self-administered diet history questionnaire for young and middle-aged women and a brief self-administered diet history questionnaire for older women. Monetary diet cost was estimated using retail food prices. Total vegetables, fish and shellfish, green and black tea, white rice, meat, fruit and alcoholic beverages contributed most (79–89 %) to inter-individual variation in monetary diet cost. Multiple regression analyses showed that monetary diet cost was negatively associated with carbohydrate intake, but positively with intakes of all other nutrients examined (including not only dietary fibre and key vitamins and minerals but also saturated fat and Na) in all generations. For food group intakes, irrespective of age, monetary diet cost was associated inversely with white rice and bread but positively with pulses, potatoes, fruit, total vegetables, fruit and vegetable juice, green and black tea, fish and shellfish, and meat. In conclusion, in all three generations of Japanese women and contrary to Western populations, monetary diet cost was positively associated with not only healthy dietary components (including fruits, vegetables, fish and shellfish, dietary fibre, and key vitamins and minerals), but also less healthy components (including saturated fat and Na).
High dietary energy density (ED) has been associated with weight gain. However, little is known about the long-term effects of ED on weight changes among free-living subjects, particularly in Japanese and other Asian populations. In this study, we assessed dietary habits and weight changes in participants (5778 males and 7440 females, 35–69 years old) of the Takayama study. ED was estimated using a validated FFQ at baseline only. Information on body weight (BW) was obtained by self-administered questionnaires at baseline and follow-up. Mean BW difference in 9·8 years was 17 (se 4221) g for men and −210 (se 3889) g for women. In men, ED was positively associated with BW at follow-up after controlling for age, BW, height, physical activity score, alcohol consumption, energy intake, years of education at the baseline and change of smoking status during the follow-up. On average, men in the highest quartile of ED (>5·322 kJ/g (>1·272 kcal/g)) gained 138 (se 111) g, whereas men in the lowest ED (<1·057) lost 22 (se 111) g (Pfor trend=0·01). The association between ED and BW gain was stronger in men with normal weight. In women, the association between ED and weight change was not statistically significant. In conclusion, contrary to some studies that report an association between ED and weight gain in the overweight only, our data suggest that high-ED diets may be associated with weight gain in the lean population as well, at least in male subjects.
Insufficient nutrition during the perinatal period causes structural alterations in humans and experimental animals, leading to increased vulnerability to diseases in later life. Japanese quail, Coturnix japonica, in which partial (8–10%) egg white was withdrawn (EwW) from eggs before incubation had lower birth weights than controls (CTs). EwW birds also had reduced hatching rates, smaller glomeruli and lower embryo weight. In EwW embryos, the surface condensate area containing mesenchymal cells was larger, suggesting that delayed but active nephrogenesis takes place. In mature EwW quail, the number of glomeruli in the cortical region (mm2) was significantly lower (CT 34.7±1.4, EwW 21.0±1.2); capillary loops showed focal ballooning, and mesangial areas were distinctly expanded. Immunoreactive cell junction proteins, N-cadherin and podocin, and slit diaphragms were clearly seen. With aging, the mesangial area and glomerular size continued to increase and were significantly larger in EwW quail, suggesting compensatory hypertrophy. Furthermore, apoptosis measured by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick-end labeling analysis was higher in EwWs than in CTs on embryonic day 15 and postnatal day 4 (D4). Similarly, plasma glucocorticoid (corticosterone) was higher (P<0.01) on D4 in EwW quail. These results suggest that although nephrogenic activity is high in low-nutrition quail during the perinatal period, delayed development and increased apoptosis may result in a lower number of mature nephrons. Damaged or incompletely mature mesangium may trigger glomerular injury, leading in later life to nephrosclerosis. The present study shows that birds serve as a model for ‘fetal programming,’ which appears to have evolved phylogenetically early.
The associations of dietary energy density with dietary intake and obesity have been largely unexplored in non-Western populations. The present cross-sectional study examined the associations using data from the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey, Japan. Dietary intake was assessed using a 1-d semi-weighed dietary record in 15 618 Japanese adults aged ≥20 years. Mean dietary energy density (calculated on the basis of foods only) was 5·98 (sd 1·20) kJ/g in men and 5·72 (sd 1·16) kJ/g in women. Dietary energy density was positively associated with intakes of bread, noodles (only men), meat, fats and oils, and sugar and confectionery but inversely with intakes of white rice (only men), potatoes, pulses, vegetables, fruits, and fish and shellfish. For nutrient intake, dietary energy density was positively associated with total fat and SFA but inversely associated with all other nutrients examined such as protein, carbohydrate, alcohol (only women), dietary fibre, and several vitamins and minerals, including Na. After adjustment for potential confounding factors, dietary energy density was positively associated with abdominal obesity (waist circumference ≥80 cm) in women (adjusted prevalence ratio between the extreme tertiles 1·07; 95 % CI 1·02, 1·12; Pfor trend=0·003). Dietary energy density was also positively but non-significantly associated with general obesity (BMI≥25 kg/m2) in women (Pfor trend=0·08). There were no such associations in men. In conclusion, lower energy density of the diets of Japanese adults was associated with favourable food and nutrient intake patterns, except for higher Na, and, in only women, a lower prevalence of abdominal obesity.