To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
We summarize some of the past year's most important findings within climate change-related research. New research has improved our understanding of Earth's sensitivity to carbon dioxide, finds that permafrost thaw could release more carbon emissions than expected and that the uptake of carbon in tropical ecosystems is weakening. Adverse impacts on human society include increasing water shortages and impacts on mental health. Options for solutions emerge from rethinking economic models, rights-based litigation, strengthened governance systems and a new social contract. The disruption caused by COVID-19 could be seized as an opportunity for positive change, directing economic stimulus towards sustainable investments.
A synthesis is made of ten fields within climate science where there have been significant advances since mid-2019, through an expert elicitation process with broad disciplinary scope. Findings include: (1) a better understanding of equilibrium climate sensitivity; (2) abrupt thaw as an accelerator of carbon release from permafrost; (3) changes to global and regional land carbon sinks; (4) impacts of climate change on water crises, including equity perspectives; (5) adverse effects on mental health from climate change; (6) immediate effects on climate of the COVID-19 pandemic and requirements for recovery packages to deliver on the Paris Agreement; (7) suggested long-term changes to governance and a social contract to address climate change, learning from the current pandemic, (8) updated positive cost–benefit ratio and new perspectives on the potential for green growth in the short- and long-term perspective; (9) urban electrification as a strategy to move towards low-carbon energy systems and (10) rights-based litigation as an increasingly important method to address climate change, with recent clarifications on the legal standing and representation of future generations.
Social media summary
Stronger permafrost thaw, COVID-19 effects and growing mental health impacts among highlights of latest climate science.
Subclinical atherosclerosis in childhood can be evaluated by carotid intima-media thickness, which is considered a surrogate marker for atherosclerotic disease in adulthood. The aims of this study were to evaluate carotid intima-media thickness and, to investigate associated factors.
Cross-sectional study with children and adolescents with congenital heart disease (CHD). Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics were assessed. Subclinical atherosclerosis was evaluated by carotid intima-media thickness. Cardiovascular risk factors, such as physical activity, screen time, passive smoke, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, waist circumference, dietary intake, lipid parameters, glycaemia, and C-reactive protein, were also assessed. Factors associated with carotid intima-media thickness were analysed using multiple logistic regression.
The mean carotid intima-media thickness was 0.518 mm and 46.7% had subclinical atherosclerosis (carotid intima-media thickness ≥ 97th percentile). After adjusting for confounding factors, cyanotic CHD (odds ratio: 0.40; 95% confidence interval: 0.20; 0.78), cardiac surgery (odds ratio: 3.17; 95% confidence interval: 1.35; 7.48), and be hospitalised to treat infections (odds ratio: 1.92; 95% confidence interval: 1.04; 3.54) were associated with subclinical atherosclerosis.
Clinical characteristics related to CHD were associated with subclinical atherosclerosis. This finding suggests that the presence of CHD itself is a risk factor for subclinical atherosclerosis. Therefore, the screen and control of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors should be made early and intensively to prevent atherosclerosis.
The Triassic–Jurassic Upper Karoo Group of the Mid-Zambezi Basin (MZB; Zimbabwe) includes a thick succession of terrestrial sediments with high palaeontological potential that has been neglected since the 1970s. Here, we review the Upper Karoo Group stratigraphy, present detailed sedimentological work and identify new vertebrate-bearing sites at several measured sections along the southern shore of Lake Kariba. These fossil-bearing sites fall within the Pebbly Arkose and Forest Sandstone formations, and are the first to be recorded from the region since the discovery of Vulcanodon karibaensis nearly 50 years ago. The unique and diverse assemblage of aquatic and terrestrial fauna reported includes phytosaurs, metoposaurid amphibians, lungfish, non-dinosaurian archosauromorphs and non-sauropod sauropodomorph dinosaurs. This improvement of Upper Karoo Group biostratigraphy is important in refining its temporal resolution, and impacts both regional and global studies. Finally, the new fossil sites demonstrate the palaeontological importance of the MZB and its role in providing a holistic understanding of early Mesozoic ecosystems in southern Gondwana.
Background: Transmission of carbapenemase-producing organisms (CPO) threatens patient safety in healthcare facilities. As a result of a 2011 outbreak of blaKPC+ Klebsiella pneumoniae, the NIH Clinical Center (NIHCC) has prioritized early detection and isolation of CPO carriers, using point-prevalence surveys and targeted high-risk ward surveillance since 2011 and admission surveillance since 2013. We describe our experience over 6 years of admission surveillance. Methods: The NIHCC is a 200-bed research hospital that provides care for a highly immunocompromised patient population. From September 2013 to September 2019, perirectal swabs were ordered automatically for all patients on admission to nonbehavioral health wards. Swabs were ordered twice weekly for ICU patients, weekly in other high-risk wards, and monthly for hospital-wide point prevalence (excluding behavioral health). Patients hospitalized in the United States in the previous week or abroad in the previous 6 months were considered high risk for carriage and isolated pending results from 2 swabs. Most swabs (n = 37,526) were cultured onto HardyCHROM CRE. If gram-negative bacilli (GNB) were present, a molecular screen for carbapenemases was performed on a sweep of cultured material (day 1) pending organism isolation. GNB were identified by MALDI-TOF MS. Prior to June 2019, isolates were screened by blaKPC/blaNDM PCR. Starting in June 2019, Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were screened using the phenotypic modified carbapenem inactivation method (mCIM), reflexing to the GeneXpert CARBA-R molecular assay if positive; other GNB were tested directly with CARBA-R. Selected GNB underwent susceptibility testing (Sensititre). Whole-genome sequencing was used to assess relatedness among CPO isolates. Swabs from high-risk patients were tested directly by blaKPC PCR (n = 699) until August 2019 (most in parallel with culture) and thereafter by CARBA-R (n = 13). Results: Among 54,188 orders for perirectal swabs, 38,238 were collected from 14,497 patients (compliance 71%). Among 33 CPO-colonized patients identified from September 2013 through September 2019, 15 were identified on admission, 6 were identified in point-prevalence surveys, 8 were identified from high-risk ward surveillance, and 4 were identified from clinical cultures. Sequencing demonstrated no relatedness among CPO isolates. Although only 1.4% of patients sampled on admission were colonized with CPO, those meeting high-risk criteria were 21 times as likely to be colonized. Conclusion: Admission surveillance for CPO identified a low rate of colonization, but it detected nearly half of known CPO-colonized NIHCC patients over the past 6 years. Modest compliance with swab collection leaves room for improvement and likely results in missed instances of colonization. Although we cannot determine its effectiveness, we view our strategy as one of several key safety measures for our highly vulnerable patient population.
By the end of their first year, infants can interpret many different types of complex dynamic visual events, such as caused-motion, chasing, and goal-directed action. Infants of this age are also in the early stages of vocabulary development, producing their first words at around 12 months. The present work examined whether there are meaningful individual differences in infants’ ability to represent dynamic causal events in visual scenes, and whether these differences influence vocabulary development. As part of the longitudinal Language 0–5 Project, 78 10-month-old infants were tested on their ability to interpret three dynamic motion events, involving (a) caused-motion, (b) chasing behaviour, and (c) goal-directed movement. Planned analyses found that infants showed evidence of understanding the first two event types, but not the third. Looking behaviour in each task was not meaningfully related to vocabulary development, nor were there any correlations between the tasks. The results of additional exploratory analyses and simulations suggested that the infants’ understanding of each event may not be predictive of their vocabulary development, and that looking times in these tasks may not be reliably capturing any meaningful individual differences in their knowledge. This raises questions about how to convert experimental group designs to individual differences measures, and how to interpret infant looking time behaviour.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences in the metabolic profile and body composition of monozygotic (MZ) twins concordant and discordant for the practice of physical exercise. The sample consisted of 92 MZ twins (72.5% female and 27.5% male, mean age 25.4 ± 5.69 years), registered with the Brazilian Registry of Twins, residing in Natal, Brazil. Data collection was carried out between the years 2016 and 2018. On day 1, subjects underwent a whole-body fitness evaluation, including measures of weight, height, body composition by Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry and the Cardiorespiratory Exercise Test. On day 2, 10 ml blood samples were collected (overnight fasting) to determine the lipid profile and fasting glucose. The sample was separated into three groups: Active Concordant twins (Concordant A, n = 44 subjects), Inactive Concordant twins (Concordant I, n = 22 subjects) and Discordant pairs for Physical Exercise (Discordant PE, n = 26 subjects). The results demonstrated a difference between the discordant twins for exercise and also between the active versus sedentary groups, indicating a causal effect of exercise on the fat percentage, maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max) and second ventilatory threshold variables. Between groups, a difference was also observed between the groups in ventilatory threshold, very low-density lipoprotein and triglycerides. We concluded that, regardless of genetics, the practice of physical exercise was sufficient to generate alterations in body composition and VO2max in MZ twins, but not in the lipid profile or fasting glucose.
The aim of this guidance paper of the European Psychiatric Association is to provide evidence-based recommendations on the early detection of a clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis in patients with mental problems. To this aim, we conducted a meta-analysis of studies reporting on conversion rates to psychosis in non-overlapping samples meeting any at least any one of the main CHR criteria: ultra-high risk (UHR) and/or basic symptoms criteria. Further, effects of potential moderators (different UHR criteria definitions, single UHR criteria and age) on conversion rates were examined. Conversion rates in the identified 42 samples with altogether more than 4000 CHR patients who had mainly been identified by UHR criteria and/or the basic symptom criterion ‘cognitive disturbances’ (COGDIS) showed considerable heterogeneity. While UHR criteria and COGDIS were related to similar conversion rates until 2-year follow-up, conversion rates of COGDIS were significantly higher thereafter. Differences in onset and frequency requirements of symptomatic UHR criteria or in their different consideration of functional decline, substance use and co-morbidity did not seem to impact on conversion rates. The ‘genetic risk and functional decline’ UHR criterion was rarely met and only showed an insignificant pooled sample effect. However, age significantly affected UHR conversion rates with lower rates in children and adolescents. Although more research into potential sources of heterogeneity in conversion rates is needed to facilitate improvement of CHR criteria, six evidence-based recommendations for an early detection of psychosis were developed as a basis for the EPA guidance on early intervention in CHR states.
To examine the link between symptoms of hyperactivity-inattention and conduct disorder in childhood, and the initiation of tobacco and cannabis use, controlling for other behavioral symptoms, temperament and environmental risk factors.
The sample (N = 1107 participants, aged 4 to 18 years at baseline) was recruited from the population-based longitudinal Gazel Youth study with a follow-up assessment 8 years later. Psychopathology, temperament, environmental variables, and initiation of tobacco and cannabis use were self-reported. Event time analyses were performed to assess the effects of childhood disruptive symptoms on age at first use of tobacco and cannabis.
Proportional hazard models revealed that participants with high levels of childhood symptoms of both hyperactivity-inattention and conduct disorder were at highest risk of early tobacco initiation (in males: hazard ratio [HR] = 2.05; confidence interval [CI]: 1.24–3.38; in females: HR = 2.01; CI: 1.31–3.09), and, in males, of early cannabis initiation (HR = 1.95; CI: 1.04–3.64). Temperament, through activity in both males and females and negative emotionality in females, was also associated to early substance use initiation.
Children who simultaneously have high levels of symptoms of hyperactivity-inattention and conduct disorder are at increased risk for early substance initiation. These associations may guide childhood health professionals to consider the liability for early substance initiation in high-risk groups.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Conduct Disorder (CD) are associated with Risk Behaviors (RB) such as substance-related problems, suicidal behaviors and sex risk behaviors. However, some issues remain controversials: is ADHD an independent risk factor for RB? Is CD a confounding factor of the relationship between ADHD and RB?
To assess the link between childhood hyperactivity-inattention symptoms and subsequent RB, controlling for other risk factors among which conduct disorder symptoms.
We have conducted multivariate analyses from a French community-based sample (N = 1107) belonging to the youth GAZEL cohort. The sample was first assessed at ages 4 to 18, and then assessed 8 years later. Child psychopathology and RB patterns were evaluated through parent and adolescent self-reports.
In males, results show an effect of hyperactivity-inattention symptoms on more severe RB such as regular cannabis use, illicit drug experimentation and suicidal behaviors (adjusted OR = 2 to 5, all Ps significants). In females, they show an effect of hyperactivity-inattention symptoms on regular tobacco use (adjusted OR = 2, P < .05). The risk of RB initiation was increased in youths with high levels of conduct disorder symptoms, particularly in combination with simultaneously high levels of hyperactivity-inattention symptoms (adjusted OR = 2, P < .05).
This work enhances the knowledge of a link between disruptive behaviors in childhood and subsequent risk behaviors. It underscores the importance of a better acknowledgement of these disorders, in order to better identify and treat them to prevent negative long-term outcomes.
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterised by repetitive behaviour/interests, an impairment in reciprocal social interaction and communication. This implies the inadequate appreciation of socio-emotional cues and leads to a default in the responses to other people's emotions.
Deficits in empathy have been described for individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD).
We aim to investigate the described deficits in empathy in a group of people with ASD on a behavioural and a neuronal level.
We assessed neuronal activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during three different empathy tasks (“emotion-recognition”, “perspective-taking” and “affective-responsiveness”) of 12 adults with ASD and a matched group of healthy controls.
Subjects with ASD did not have differences in affective responsiveness compared to healthy controls, but in emotion recognition and perspective taking. The reaction time was significantly longer in patients with ASD in all tasks. People with ASD showed a different pattern of brain activation in cortico-limbic areas during the empathy tasks compared to controls
Our findings of individuals with ASD having problems in emotions-recognition and in perspective taking are supported by previous results. These impairments are reflected by a different pattern of neuronal activation in several brain areas of individuals with ASD compared to controls. Although there are no differences in affective responsiveness in the ASD group a marked difference can be seen in the brain activation during this task. These findings might open up new avenues of intervention for individuals with ASD and their often described problems with empathy.
Relatively few studies have assessed the prevalence, correlates, and independent impact on quality of life (QoL) of trichotillomania (TTM) in large samples.
Consecutive participants (N = 7639) were recruited from a cross-sectional web-based study. Sociodemographic data were collected and several validated self-reported mental health measures were completed (Minnesota Impulsive Disorders Interview, Hypomania checklist, Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, Early Trauma Inventory Self Report–Short Form, and the Symptom Checklist-90–Revised Inventory). Health-related QoL was assessed with the World Health Organization QoL abbreviated scale (WHOQOL-Bref). Multivariable models adjusted associations to potential confounders.
The sample was predominantly composed of young females (71.3%; mean age: 27.2 ± 7.9 years). The prevalence of probable TTM was 1.4% (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.2-1.7), and was more common among females. Participants with probable TTM had a greater likelihood of having co-occurring probable depression (adjusted odds ratio [ORadj] = 1.744; 95% CI: 1.187-2.560), tobacco (ORadj = 2.250; 95% CI: 1.191-4.250), and alcohol (ORadj = 1.751; 95% CI: 1.169-2.621) use disorders. Probable TTM was also independently associated with suicidal ideation (ORadj = 1.917; 95% CI: 1.224-3.003) and exposure to childhood sexual abuse (ORadj = 1.221; 95% CI: 1.098-1.358). In addition, a positive screen for TTM had more impaired physical and mental QoL.
TTM was associated with a positive screen for several psychiatric comorbidities as well as impaired physical and psychological QoL. Efforts towards the recognition and treatment of TTM across psycho-dermatology services are warranted.
Human genomics is a translational field spanning research, clinical care, public health, and direct-to-consumer testing. However, law differs across these domains on issues including liability, consent, promoting quality of analysis and interpretation, and safeguarding privacy. Genomic activities crossing domains can thus encounter confusion and conflicts among these approaches. This paper suggests how to resolve these conflicts while protecting the rights and interests of individuals sequenced. Translational genomics requires this more translational approach to law.
The primary objective of this study was to determine if second generation antipsychotic (SGA) administration was associated with lower aggressiveness scores compared to first generation (FGA) in schizophrenia (SZ). The secondary objective was to determine if antidepressants, mood stabilizers and benzodiazepines administration were respectively associated with lower aggressiveness scores compared to patients who were not administered these medications.
Three hundred and thirty-one patients with schizophrenia (n = 255) or schizoaffective disorder (n = 76) (mean age = 32.5 years, 75.5% male gender) were systematically included in the network of FondaMental Expert Center for Schizophrenia and assessed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders and validated scales for psychotic symptomatology, insight and compliance. Aggressiveness was measured by the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ) score. Ongoing psychotropic treatment was recorded.
Patients who received SGA had lower BPAQ scores than patients who did not (P = 0.01). On the contrary, patients who received benzodiazepines had higher BPAQ scores than patients who did not (P = 0.04). These results were found independently of socio-demographical variables, psychotic symptomatology, insight, compliance into treatment, daily-administered antipsychotic dose, the way of antipsychotic administration (oral vs long acting), current alcohol disorder and daily cannabis consumption.
The results of the present study are in favor of the choice of SGA in SZ patients with aggressiveness, but these results need further investigation in longitudinal studies. Given the potent side effects of benzodiazepines (especially dependency and cognitive impairment) and the results of the present study, their long-term prescription is not recommended in patients with schizophrenia and aggressive behavior.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Daily use of high-potency cannabis has been reported to carry a high risk for developing a psychotic disorder. However, the evidence is mixed on whether any pattern of cannabis use is associated with a particular symptomatology in first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients.
We analysed data from 901 FEP patients and 1235 controls recruited across six countries, as part of the European Network of National Schizophrenia Networks Studying Gene-Environment Interactions (EU-GEI) study. We used item response modelling to estimate two bifactor models, which included general and specific dimensions of psychotic symptoms in patients and psychotic experiences in controls. The associations between these dimensions and cannabis use were evaluated using linear mixed-effects models analyses.
In patients, there was a linear relationship between the positive symptom dimension and the extent of lifetime exposure to cannabis, with daily users of high-potency cannabis having the highest score (B = 0.35; 95% CI 0.14–0.56). Moreover, negative symptoms were more common among patients who never used cannabis compared with those with any pattern of use (B = −0.22; 95% CI −0.37 to −0.07). In controls, psychotic experiences were associated with current use of cannabis but not with the extent of lifetime use. Neither patients nor controls presented differences in depressive dimension related to cannabis use.
Our findings provide the first large-scale evidence that FEP patients with a history of daily use of high-potency cannabis present with more positive and less negative symptoms, compared with those who never used cannabis or used low-potency types.
We present a sediment-mixing process model of till genesis based on data from surface tills of the Saginaw lobe terrain in lower Michigan. Our research uses a spatial approach to understanding glacial landsystems and till genesis. We sampled calcareous till at 336 upland sites and at 17 sites in lacustrine sediment of the Saginaw Lake plain. The loamy tills have bimodal grain-size curves, with a fine-texture mode near the silt–clay boundary and a sand mode. Spatial grouping analysis suggests that tills can be divided into six groups, each with different textures and clay mineral compositions that vary systematically down-ice. The similarity among groups with respect to the silt–clay mode and clay mineralogy argues for a common origin for the fines—illite-rich lacustrine sediment of the Saginaw Lake plain. Fine-textured sediments were probably entrained, transported, and deposited down-ice as till, which also becomes sandier and enriched in kaolinite, reflecting increasing mixing with shallow sandstone bedrock with distance from the lacustrine clay source. Clayey tills on the flanks of the Saginaw terrain may reflect proglacial ponding against nearby uplands. A process model of progressive down-ice mixing of preexisting fine lake sediments with crushed/abraded sandstone bedrock helps to better explain till textures compared with a purely crushing/abrasion process model.
In the current study, phage-exposed mimotopes as targets against tegumentary leishmaniasis (TL) were selected by means of bio-panning cycles employing sera of TL patients and healthy subjects, besides the immune stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) collected from untreated and treated TL patients and healthy subjects. The clones were evaluated regarding their specific interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) production in the in vitro cultures, and selectivity and specificity values were calculated, and those presenting the best results were selected for the in vivo experiments. Two clones, namely A4 and A8, were identified and used in immunization protocols from BALB/c mice to protect against Leishmania amazonensis infection. Results showed a polarized Th1 response generated after vaccination, being based on significantly higher levels of IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-12, tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF); which were associated with lower production of specific IL-4, IL-10 and immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) antibodies. Vaccinated mice presented significant reductions in the parasite load in the infected tissue and distinct organs, when compared with controls. In conclusion, we presented a strategy to identify new mimotopes able to induce Th1 response in PBMCs from TL patients and healthy subjects, and that were successfully used to protect against L. amazonensis infection.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Discrimination within the healthcare system and physician distrust have been associated with adverse clinical outcomes for people living with HIV; however, many studies do not link these variables to biological data. We hypothesize that perceived healthcare discrimination and physician distrust associates with higher longitudinal viremia among HIV-positive women. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: A 2006 cross-sectional survey assessed healthcare-based discrimination and physician trust in 92 HIV-positive and 46 high-risk HIV-negative women from the Washington DC Women’s Interagency HIV Study (DC-WIHS). In addition, we identified HIV viral load trajectories and demographics from the HIV-positive women who contributed≥4 semi-annual visits from 1994 to 2015. Viral suppression was defined by assay detection limits (<80 to <20 copies/mL). Group-based probability trajectory analyses grouped women based on longitudinal viral load patterns, and identified 3 groups: sustained viremia (n=32) with low-viral suppression over time, intermittent viremia (n=27) with varying suppression over time, and non-viremia (n=33) with high-longitudinal viral suppression. Ordinal logistic regression models assessed trajectory group and discrimination variables, controlling for demographics, using stepwise selection with significance level of α=0.05. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Most women were African American (60%), insured at the time of visit (89%) and nonsmokers (56%). While physician trust did not differ by HIV viral trajectory group, trust was lower among HIV-negative women compared with HIV-positive women (p=0.03). Over 1 in 5 HIV-positive women reported discrimination in the healthcare system based on HIV status (21.3%). Report of discrimination based on drug/alcohol use was higher among HIV-negative participants (19.2% vs. 6.5%, p=0.01). Among women with longitudinal sustained viremia, report of discrimination based on race ethnicity (29%, p=0.004) and sexual orientation (15.6%, p=0.008) were higher than within the nonviremic and intermittent trajectory groups. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Physician trust did not associate with increased longitudinal viral suppression among HIV-positive women in Washington, DC. Lack of physician trust among high-risk HIV-negative women could have implications for uptake of prevention methods. Reports of discrimination vary between HIV-positive and HIV-negative women in the Washington, DC area. The findings of healthcare system distrust among HIV-negative women has implications outside the realm of HIV, as this lack of trust may impact risk for other disease states among similar populations of women.
We present a multi-frequency study of the intermediate spiral SAB(r)bc type galaxy NGC 6744, using available data from the Chandra X-Ray telescope, radio continuum data from the Australia Telescope Compact Array and Murchison Widefield Array, and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer infrared observations. We identify 117 X-ray sources and 280 radio sources. Of these, we find nine sources in common between the X-ray and radio catalogues, one of which is a faint central black hole with a bolometric radio luminosity similar to the Milky Way’s central black hole. We classify 5 objects as supernova remnant (SNR) candidates, 2 objects as likely SNRs, 17 as H ii regions, 1 source as an AGN; the remaining 255 radio sources are categorised as background objects and one X-ray source is classified as a foreground star. We find the star-formation rate (SFR) of NGC 6744 to be in the range 2.8–4.7 M⊙~yr − 1 signifying the galaxy is still actively forming stars. The specific SFR of NGC 6744 is greater than that of late-type spirals such as the Milky Way, but considerably less that that of a typical starburst galaxy.
A new target design is presented to model high-energy radiative accretion shocks in polars. In this paper, we present the experimental results obtained on the GEKKO XII laser facility for the POLAR project. The experimental results are compared with 2D FCI2 simulations to characterize the dynamics and the structure of plasma flow before and after the collision. The good agreement between simulations and experimental data confirms the formation of a reverse shock where cooling losses start modifying the post-shock region. With the multi-material structure of the target, a hydrodynamic collimation is exhibited and a radiative structure coupled with the reverse shock is highlighted in both experimental data and simulations. The flexibility of the laser energy produced on GEKKO XII allowed us to produce high-velocity flows and study new and interesting radiation hydrodynamic regimes between those obtained on the LULI2000 and Orion laser facilities.