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To examine the quality of life (QOL) of parents of children with a specific mental disorder (any age).
Relevant articles were searched using different databases. Articles were included that compared the QOL of parents with mentally-ill children to parents of healthy controls or norm values or provided the required data for this comparison. A meta-analysis was conducted to obtain an overall mean effect size estimate. Additional analyses were performed to assess publication bias and moderation.
Twenty-six out of 10 548 articles met the pre-defined inclusion criteria. Most of these studies focused on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder or autism spectrum disorder, used clinical samples that mainly included males and young children and studied the QOL of mothers. The meta-analysis revealed that parents of mentally-ill children are experiencing a clinically relevant reduction in their QOL relative to parents of healthy children and norm values (g = −0.66).
The compromised QOL of parents of mentally-ill children needs to be considered and addressed by health professionals who are in contact with them. The paper provides insights into existing research gaps and suggests improvements for subsequent work.
Three-dimensional (3D) printing technology is a promising method for bone tissue engineering applications. For enhanced bone regeneration, it is important to have printable ink materials with appealing properties such as construct interconnectivity, mechanical strength, controlled degradation rates, and the presence of bioactive materials. In this respect, we develop a composite ink composed of polycaprolactone (PCL), poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA), and hydroxyapatite particles (HAps) and 3D print it into porous constructs. In vitro study revealed that composite constructs had higher mechanical properties, surface roughness, quicker degradation profile, and cellular behaviors compared to PCL counterparts. Furthermore, in vivo results showed that 3D-printed composite constructs had a positive influence on bone regeneration due to the presence of newly formed mineralized bone tissue and blood vessel formation. Therefore, 3D printable ink made of PCL/PLGA/HAp can be a highly useful material for 3D printing of bone tissue constructs.
A new species, Gentiana arunii D.Maity, S.K.Dey, J.Ghosh & Midday, from alpine pasture in Sikkim Himalaya is described and illustrated, and placed in Gentiana section Chondrophyllae Bunge. The new species is compared morphologically with two related taxa, Gentiana glabriuscula T.N.Ho and Gentiana pluviarum W.W.Sm. subsp. subtilis (Harry Sm.) T.N.Ho.
Blazar OJ287 exhibits large thermal flares at least twice every 12 years. The times of these flares have been predicted successfully using the model of a quasi-Keplerian eccentric black hole binary where the secondary impacts the accretion disk of the primary, creating the thermal flares. New measurements of the historical light curve have been combined with the observations of the 2015 November/December flare to identify the impact record since year 1886, and to constrain the orbit of the binary. The orbital solution shows that the binary period, now 12.062 years, is decreasing at the rate of 36 days per century. This corresponds to an energy loss to gravitational waves that is 6.5 ± 4 % less than the rate predicted by the standard quadrupolar gravitational wave (GW) emission. We show that the difference is due to higher order gravitational radiation reaction terms that include the dominant order tail contributions.
Magnetic core shell nanoparticles (NPs) have potential for applications in magnetic random access memory, spintronic devices, and drug delivery systems. Our investigations are focused on the synthesis of inverted core shell nanoparticles and characterization of their structural and magnetic properties. By using our hydrothermal nanophase epitaxy technique, we are able to synthesize well-ordered α-Cr2O3@α-MxCr2-xO3 (M = Co, Ni, Mn, Fe) inverted core-shell nanoparticles. This typically results in the formation of novel phases of MxCr2-xO3 shells having ferromagnetic/ferrimagnetic (FM/FiM) spin ordering and an antiferromagnetic (AFM) Cr2O3 core structure. The combined results from XRD and high-resolution TEM (HRTEM) provide evidence of the presence of corundum phase both in the shell and in the core regions. HRTEM results also show a sharp interface exhibiting epitaxial atomic registry of shell atoms over highly ordered core atoms whereas TEM-EDX analyses show that the M atoms reside predominantly in the shell regions. The XPS analyses of the NPs indicate the M transition metals incorporated in the shell are in the +2 oxidation state. Magnetic measurements show well developed hysteresis loops: The field cooled hysteresis loops reveal horizontal shifts in the applied field axis and vertical shifts in the magnetization axis, relative to the zero-field cooled hysteresis loops. This provides direct evidence for the exchange bias effect between the AFM α-Cr2O3 core and the FM/FiM α-MxCr2-xO3 shell. The XPS data are consistent with oxygen vacancy formation in order to maintain charge neutrality upon substitution of the M2+ ion for the Cr3+ ion in the α-MxCr2-xO3 shell. The FM/FiM ordering in the shell may at least partially result from the F-center exchange coupling between the oxygen-vacancy induced bound magnetic polaron and nearby cations.
Conventional and highly sophisticated analytical methods (Cyria et al., 1989; Massar et al., 2012a) were used to analyze micro-structural and micro-analytical aspects of the blood of snake head fish, Channa gachua, exposed to municipal wastes and city garbage. Red (RBC) and white blood cell (WBC) counts and hemhemoglobin content were found to be higher in pollution affected fish as compared with control. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the occurrence of abnormal erythrocytes such as crenated cells, echinocytes, lobopodial projections, membrane internalization, spherocytes, ruptured cells, contracted cells, depression, and uneven elongation of erythrocyte membranes in fish inhabiting the polluted sites. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) revealed the presence of silicon and lead in the RBCs of pollution affected fish. Significance of the study includes the highly sophisticated analytical approach, which revealed the aforementioned micro-structural abnormalities.
Functional and mental health impairments that adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) experience may be exacerbated by regular substance use and co-morbidity with substance use disorders (SUD). This may be especially true during young adulthood, which represents a critical stage of life associated with increased substance use and associated problems. However, previous studies investigating the association between ADHD and substance use and SUD have demonstrated inconsistent results, probably due to methodological limitations (e.g., small and non-representative samples). Thus, the relationship of ADHD with substance use and related disorders remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between ADHD and both the use of licit and illicit substances and the presence of SUD in a large, representative sample of young men.
The sample included 5677 Swiss men (mean age 20 ± 1.23 years) who participated in the Cohort Study on Substance Use Risk Factors (C-SURF). ADHD was assessed using the adult ADHD Self Report Screener (ASRS). The association between ADHD and substance use and SUD was assessed for alcohol, nicotine, cannabis and other illicit drugs, while controlling for socio-demographic variables and co-morbid psychiatric disorders (i.e., major depression (MD) and anti-social personality disorder (ASPD)).
Men with ADHD were more likely to report having used nicotine, cannabis and other illicit drugs at some time in their life, but not alcohol. ADHD was positively associated with early initiation of alcohol, nicotine and cannabis use, the risky use of these substances, and the presence of alcohol use disorders, and nicotine and cannabis dependence. Additionally, our analyses revealed that these patterns are also highly associated with ASPD. After adjusting for this disorder, the association between ADHD and licit and illicit substance use and the presence of SUDs was reduced, but remained significant.
Our findings suggest that adult ADHD is significantly associated with a propensity to experiment with licit and illicit substances, especially at earlier ages, to exhibit risky substance use patterns, and to subsequently develop SUDs. Preventive strategies that include early intervention and addressing co-morbidity with ASPD may be crucial to reducing substance use and the development of pathological substance use patterns in young men affected by ADHD and, thus, helping to prevent further illness burden later in life.
Histoplasma capsulatum was sampled in lungs from 87 migratory Tadarida brasiliensis bats captured in Mexico (n=66) and Argentina (n=21). The fungus was screened by nested-PCR using a sensitive and specific Hcp100 gene fragment. This molecular marker was detected in 81·6% [95% confidence interval (CI) 73·4–89·7] of all bats, representing 71 amplified bat lung DNA samples. Data showed a T. brasiliensis infection rate of 78·8% (95% CI 68·9–88·7) in bats captured in Mexico and of 90·4% (95% CI 75·2–100) in those captured in Argentina. Similarity with the H. capsulatum sequence of a reference strain (G-217B) was observed in 71 Hcp100 sequences, which supports the fungal findings. Based on the neighbour-joining and maximum parsimony Hcp100 sequence analyses, a high level of similarity was found in most Mexican and all Argentinean bat lung samples. Despite the fact that 81·6% of the infections were molecularly evidenced, only three H. capsulatum isolates were cultured from all samples tested, suggesting a low fungal burden in lung tissues that did not favour fungal isolation. This study also highlighted the importance of using different tools for the understanding of histoplasmosis epidemiology, since it supports the presence of H. capsulatum in T. brasiliensis migratory bats from Mexico and Argentina, thus contributing new evidence to the knowledge of the environmental distribution of this fungus in the Americas.
Sapovirus, a member of the family Caliciviridae, is one of the major causative agents of viral gastroenteritis affecting all age groups. A total of 3232 faecal specimens collected from infants and children with gastroenteritis in five different regions of Japan during 2003–2009 were examined for sapovirus by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction. Sapoviruses were detected in 131 (4·05%) patients with the peak observed mainly in the cold season (November–March) in Japan during 2003–2009. During the last 6 years, sapovirus GI/1 was the predominant strain in Japan followed by GIV, GII/3, GII/6, GII/2, GII/12 and GI, respectively.
Ferroelectric Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 or PZT (52/48) thin-films (0.5 μm) were integrated onto Pt passivated Si wafers (3–4 inches) by polymeric solgel processing followed by rapid thermal annealing. Dense and crack-free perovskite microstructures were obtained by densification of the amorphous gel-matrix prior to crystallization. The films exhibited submicron grains (0.2–0.6 μm) with a columnar growth habit. High field measurements on thin-films determined Pr, Psp, and Ec in the ranges of 29–32 μC/cm2. 44–58 μC/cm2, and 50–60 kV/cm, respectively, and ferroelectric switching times below 3 ns.
The nanostructure evolution of PZT, PT and T thin films has been studied by high-resolution electron microscopy (HREM) supported by other techniques such as thermal analysis, thermal mass spectrometric analysis and X-ray diffraction analysis. The evolution follows a common progression from amorphous film, to the development of condensed regions that develop crystalline order, to the final polycrystalline oxide thin film. If the precursor gel contains lead, the film develops fluctuating surface “blisters” that evolve to an oxide final product as well. Minor structural and compositional differences exist across the final oxide thin film.
The crystallographic and morphological aspect associated with the formation of γ hydride phase (fct) from the β phase in β abilized Zr-20%Nb alloy has been reported. In this paper the βto γ transformation has been considered in the terms of the phenomenological theory of martensitic crystallography in order to predict the crystallographic features of the γ hydride in the β to γ transformation. The prediction made in the present analysis has been found to match very closely to the experimentally observed habit plane. The possibility of the α to γ transition through the formation of a transient β configuration has been examined.
Various kinds of phase transformations, viz., spinodal decomposition, omega transformation, precipitation reactions and martensitic transformation can be induced in ternary (Zr3Al) -Nb alloys in conditions far removed from equilibrium. Transformation sequences in alloys containing 3% niobium are described and rationalized in terms of some basic tendencies such as phase separation and chemical ordering in the β (bcc) phase and displacive omega and β to α (hcp) transformations. Microstructures of rapidly solidified alloy showed a distribution of cuboidal (D88 phase) particles in the β matrix. The periodic arrangement of these particles along the <100>β directions was indicative of a spinodal transformation which preceded their formation. The β → D88 transformation could be accomplished by the superimposition of three processes, namely, chemical ordering, lattice collapse akin to ω transformation and vacancy ordering. During isothermal aging the D88 phase transformed into the B82 phase. The observed lattice correspondence and transformation morphology suggested that the D88 to B82 structural change involved the replacement of structural vacancies in the former by zirconium atoms without any reconstitution of the lattice. The evolution of the equilibrium Zr3Al (L12 structure) phase during prolonged aging were also studied.
The concept of water productivity (WP) or ‘more crop per drop’ has been revived recently in international water debates. Its application has notably been extended from single crops to mixed farming systems, integrating both crops and livestock, with the wider objective of reducing poverty. Using evidence from the Ganga Basin, India, we discuss the relevance of this concept as a tool to guide interventions for livelihood improvement and poverty alleviation. We argue that WP studies would benefit from greater attention to the role of capitals, inequities and institutions. Firstly, it is crucial to acknowledge the heterogeneity of capitals and capabilities of farmers to make changes in their farming systems and practices and avoid one-fix-all interventions. Identifying pre-existing inequities in water access within and among communities will support better targeting of poor communities. WP interventions can either reinforce or reduce inter-household inequities within communities. We stress the need for assessment of institutional impacts of WP interventions on water access and development.
We use a one-dimensional quasi-neutral fluid model to study the formation of an electrostatic shock associated with the lower-hybrid mode propagating almost perpendicularly to the magnetic field that exists in the auroral zone of the magnetosphere containing cold downward-streaming electrons, cold upward-streaming ions and beam electrons. We examine the effects of finite electron-beam temperature by describing the beam electrons with fluid equations. We then show how exact time-stationary shock solutions may be found when quasi-neutrality is considered.