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A compact ultra-wideband (UWB) monopole antenna with reconfigurable band-notch characteristics is demonstrated in this paper. It is comprised of a modified rectangular patch and a defected ground plane. The band-notch property in the WiMAX and WLAN bands is achieved by etching an open-ended slot on the radiating patch and an inverted U-shaped slot on the ground plane, respectively. To obtain the reconfigurable band-notch performance, two PIN diodes are inserted in the slots, and then the notch-band can be switched by changing the states of the PIN diodes. The antenna has a compact size of 0.47 λ1 × 0.27 λ1. The simulated and measured results indicate that the antenna can operate at a UWB mode, two single band-notch modes, and a dual band-notch mode. Moreover, stable radiation patterns are obtained.
This study aimed to determine whether increased carotenoids intake was associated with reduced risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We performed a cross-sectional analysis using data from Tongji Maternal and Child Health Cohort study. The dietary carotenoids intake of 1978 pregnant women was assessed using a researcher-administered FFQ before undertaking an oral glucose tolerance test at 24–28 weeks. Multivariate logistic and linear regression analyses were used to obtain the effect estimates. Participants in the highest quartile of lycopene intake showed a lower risk of GDM (OR 0·50; 95 % CI 0·29, 0·86; Pfor trend = 0·007) compared with those in the lowest quartile; each 1 mg increase in lycopene consumption was associated with a 5 % (95 % CI 0·91, 0·99; Pfor trend = 0·020) decrease in GDM risk. No significant association was found between α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein/zeaxanthin intake and GDM risk. Multiple linear regression analysis suggested an inverse association between lycopene intake and fasting blood glucose (FBG) (Pfor trend < 0·001); each 1 mg increase in lycopene intake was associated with 0·005 (95 % CI 0·002, 0·007; Pfor trend < 0·001) mmol/l decrease in FBG. Interaction analysis indicated consistent effect on each age or pre-BMI subgroup; however, a stronger protective effect of lycopene intake against GDM was observed among primigravid women (OR 0·20; 95 % CI 0·07, 0·55 in the highest v. the lowest quartile of intake; Pfor interaction = 0·036). In conclusion, dietary lycopene intake was mainly assumed via reducing FBG to decrease GDM risk, and the protection was relatively increased among primigravid women.
The association of soft drink consumption with mental problems in Asian adolescents has not been reported. The present study aimed to investigate the association of soft drink consumption and symptoms of anxiety and depression in adolescents in China.
A cross-sectional study to investigate the association of intake of soft drinks and sugars from soft drinks with symptoms of anxiety and depression measured by the two-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-2) and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-2), respectively.
A comprehensive university in Changsha, China.
Newly enrolled college students in 2017.
In total, 8226 students completed the investigation and 8085 students with no systemic disorders were finally analysed. Students consuming soft drinks ≥7 times/week had significantly higher (mean difference; 95 % CI) GAD-2 (0·15; 0·07, 0·23) and PHQ-2 (0·27; 0·19, 0·35) scores compared with those barely consuming soft drinks, adjusted for demographic and behavioural factors. Those consuming >25 g sugar/d from soft drinks had significantly higher GAD-2 (0·11; 0·04, 0·18) and PHQ-2 (0·22; 0·15, 0·29) scores compared with non-consumers. The mediation effect of obesity in the associations was not clinically significant.
Adolescents consuming soft drinks ≥7 times/week, or >25 g sugar/d from soft drinks, had significantly higher levels of anxiety and depression. Dietary suggestion is needed to prevent anxiety and depression in adolescents.
Recently, we introduced an epoxy group to mebendazole by a reaction with epichlorohydrin and obtained two isoforms, mebendazole C1 (M-C1) and mebendazole C2 (M-C2). The in vitro effects of mebendazole derivatives at different concentrations on Echinococcus multilocularis protoscoleces and metacestodes as well as cytotoxicity in rat hepatoma (RH) cells were examined. The results demonstrated that the solubility of the two derivatives was greatly improved compared to mebendazole. The mortality of protoscoleces in vitro reached to 70–80% after 7 days of exposure to mebendazole or M-C2, and M-C2 showed higher parasiticidal effects than mebendazole (P > 0.05). The parasiticidal effect of M-C1 was low, even at a concentration of 30 µm. The percentage of damaged metacestodes that were treated with mebendazole and M-C2 in vitro at different concentrations were similar, and M-C1 exhibited insignificant effects on metacestodes. Significant morphological changes on protoscoleces and metacestodes were observed after treatment with mebendazole and M-C2. In addition, the introduction of an epoxy group to mebendazole also reduced its cytotoxicity in RH cells. Our results demonstrate that the introduction of an epoxy group not only improved the solubility of mebendazole, but also increased its parasiticidal effects on E. multilocularis and reduced its cytotoxicity in RH cells.
This paper reports on an atomic-scale investigation into the β′ precipitates and the long-period stacking ordered phase (LPSO) in Mg–5Y–2.5Ni–0.5Zr (at.%) alloy, using Cs-corrected high angle annular dark field-scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM). The results displayed that the 18R-type and 14H-type LPSO phases coexisted in the as-cast and the solid solution states, and the 18R-type and 14H-type LPSO structures were thermal stable. After aging treatment, the aging peak hardness reached 138 HV at 225 °C for 48 h. The significant increase in hardness was attributed to the formation of the metastable β′ phase. The lattice parameters of a and b axes for β′ phases are a = 0.65 nm, b = 2.20 nm, and c = 0.52 nm by HAADF-STEM. The interaction between the LPSO phase and the β′ can be found. The atomic-scale interactions between the LPSO and β′ phases are divided into two parts: under-aging and peak-aging conditions between the building blocks.
Maternal dietary patterns and macronutrients intake have been shown to affect the development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), but the findings are inconsistent. We aimed to identify maternal dietary patterns and examine their associations with GDM risk, and to evaluate the contributions of macronutrients intake to these associations. We included 2755 Chinese pregnant women from the Tongji Maternal and Child Health Cohort. Dietary intakes were assessed using a validated semi-quantitative FFQ 2 weeks before the diagnosis of GDM. GDM (n 248) was diagnosed based on the results of a 75-g, 2-h oral glucose tolerance test at 24–28 weeks gestation. We derived five different dietary patterns from a principal component analysis. The results showed that high fish–meat–eggs scores, which were positively related to protein intake and inversely related to carbohydrate intake, were associated with a higher risk of GDM (adjusted OR for quartile 4 v. quartile 1: 1·83; 95 % CI 1·21, 2·79; Ptrend=0·007) and higher plasma glucose levels. In contrast, high rice–wheat–fruits scores, which were positively related to carbohydrate intake and inversely related to protein intake, were associated with lower risk of GDM (adjusted OR for quartile 3 v. quartile 1: 0·54; 95 % CI 0·36, 0·83; Ptrend=0·010) and lower plasma glucose levels. In addition, dietary protein and carbohydrate intake significantly contributed to the associations between dietary patterns and GDM risk or glucose levels. These findings suggest that a dietary pattern characterised by high protein and low carbohydrate intake in pregnancy was associated with a higher risk of GDM, which may provide important clues for dietary guidance during pregnancy to prevent GDM.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has developed an approach to ventilator-associated events (VAE) surveillance. Using these methods, this study was performed to investigate VAE incidences and to test whether VAEs are associated with poorer outcomes in China.
A 4-month, prospective multicenter surveillance study between April and July 2013.
Our study included 15 adult intensive care units (ICUs) of 15 hospitals in China.
Patients admitted to ICUs during the study period
Patients on mechanical ventilation (MV) were monitored for VAEs: ventilator-associated conditions (VACs), infection-related ventilator-associated complications (IVACs), and possible or probable ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Patients with and without VACs were compared with regard to duration of MV, ICU length of stay (LOS), overall hospital LOS, and mortality rate.
During the study period, 2,356 of the 5,256 patients admitted to ICUs received MV for 8,438 ventilator days. Of these patients, 636 were on MV >2 days. VACs were identified in 94 cases (4.0%; 11.1 cases per 1,000 ventilator days), including 31 patients with IVACs and 16 with possible VAP but none with probable VAP. Compared with patients without VACs, patients with VACs had longer ICU LOS (by 6.2 days), longer duration on MV (by 7.7 days), and higher hospital mortality rate (50.0% vs 27.3%). The mortality rate attributable to VACs was 11.7%. Compared with those with VACs alone, patients with IVACs had longer duration on MV and increased ICU LOS but no higher mortality rates.
In China, surveillance of VACs and IVACs is able to identify MV patients with poorer outcomes. However, surveillance of possible and probable VAP can be problematic.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2015;36(12):1388–1395
Red-emitting phosphor of Ca0.8Zn0.2TiO3:0.2 mol% Pr3+ was synthesized by the hydrothermal method with urea as a mineralizer. The crystalline structure, micromorphology, and luminescent properties of the resultant phosphor were investigated. Results show that elevated calcination temperature does not change the shape of particles that are hollow spheres with a shell thickness of 210–480 nm, and smaller particles are in the middle of the larger ones. The emission intensity at 612 nm originated from 1D2 → 3H4 transition of Pr3+ ions increases with the elevated calcination temperature due to a higher crystallinity. Excitation curves consist of two strong broad bands centered at about 330 and 380 nm and a weaker broad band range from 450 to 500 nm. The sample prepared by the hydrothermal method has better luminescent properties than that of its counterpart prepared by the solid-state method, especially the improvement of near-UV region (380 nm) excitation intensity.
Pyramidal elements are often used to connect tetrahedral and hexahedral elements in the finite element method. In this paper we derive three new higher order numerical cubature formulae for pyramidal elements.
We investigate performance effects for China's listed firms when there is a change in the controlling shareholder. These changes include ownership transfers from one state entity to another state entity and from a state entity to a private entity. We find positive performance effects when control is passed to a private entity. In contrast, when the transfer is made to another branch of the state, there is little change in performance. The stock market responds positively to a change in control, with the largest effect observed for private transfers. Our results suggest the Chinese government should continue to sell down its share ownership in listed firms as the transfer of control to private owners enhances corporate profitability and efficiency. Moreover, to help ownership reform, China should encourage an active market for corporate control.
Crystalline C-N films composed of α- and β-C3N4, as well as other C-N phases, have been synthesized via bias-assisted hot-filament chemical vapor deposition using a gas mixture of nitrogen and methane. Scanning electron microscopy(SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to characterize the films. Lattice constants of the α- and β-C3N4 phases obtained coincide very well with the theoretical values. In addition to these phases, two new C-N phases in the films have been identified by TEM and XRD; one having a tetragonal structure with a = 5.65 Å, c = 2.75Å, and the second having a monoclinic structure with a = 5.065 Å, b= 11.5 Å, c = 2.801 Å and β = 96°. Their stoichiometric values and atomic arrangements have not yet been identified. Furthermore, variation in growth parameters, for example methane concentration, bias voltage, etc., can yield preferred growth of different C-N phases.
Human papillomavirus(HPV) type 16 is the most prevalent viral type and its E6 and E7 early genes might play a key role in the carcinogenesis of cervical cancer in Chinese women. In order to elucidate the role of HPV-16 in the development of genital cancer, the present study was designed to transfect NIH3T3 cells with HPV-16 whole early genes and its E6, E7 genes separately. Besides the ordinary calcium phosphate/DNA coprecipitation technique, a newly designed recombinant retrovirus containing HPV-16 genes were used to infect cells for transfer the aim genes as shown in Fig.1.1). The cells transformed by recombinant retrovirus containing whole early gene and its E6-E7 respectively appeared more refractive, round shaped with rapid growth and loss of contact inhibition. Hundreds of cell colonies presented in cells transformed by the recombinant retrovirus after selected culture for one week, compared with the routine method, only a few colonies till 3 weeks. By using such a genomic engineering technique,the transforming activities have been shown to be most efficient. 2). The tumorigenicity of transformed cells: Transformed cells HZIP16-3T3 and HZIP16K-3T3, as well as negative controlled cells, NIH3T3 and pZIP-3T3 which was infected by recombinant retrovirus containing no HPV-16 gene, were transplanted into nude mice respectively. Tumours were formed in all mice within 15 days after inoculation of transformed cells (Fig.2). Whereas, no tumour was found in all controlled animals as long as 50 days. 3).
There are more supports for the view that human papillomavirus (HPV) infection might be an etiological factor in the development of cervical cancer when the association of persistent condylomata is considered. Biopsies from 318 cases with squamous cell carcinoma of uterine cervix, 48 with cervical and vulvar condylomata, 14 with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), 34 with chronic cervicitis and 24 normal cervical epithelium were collected from 5 geographic regions of China with different cervical cancer mortalities. All specimens were prepared for Dot blot, Southern blot and in situ DNA-DNA hybridizations by using HPV-11, 16, 18 DNA labelled with 32P and 3H as probes to detect viral homologous sequences in samples. Among them, 32 cases with cervical cancer, 27 with condyloma and 10 normal cervical epitheliums were randomly chosen for comparative EM observation. The results showed that: 1), 192 out of 318 (60.4%) cases of cervical cancer were positive for HPV-16 DNA probe (Table I)
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