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The associations of red/processed meat consumption and cancer-related health outcomes have been well discussed. The umbrella review aimed to summarise the associations of red/processed meat consumption and various non-cancer-related outcomes in humans. We systematically searched the systematic reviews and meta-analyses of associations between red/processed meat intake and health outcomes from PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library databases. The umbrella review has been registered in PROSPERO (CRD 42021218568). A total of 40 meta-analyses were included. High consumption of red meat, particularly processed meat, was associated with a higher risk of all-cause mortality, CVD and metabolic outcomes. Dose–response analysis revealed that an additional 100 g/d red meat intake was positively associated with a 17 % increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), 15 % increased risk of CHD, 14 % of hypertension and 12 % of stroke. The highest dose–response/50 g increase in processed meat consumption at 95 % confident levels was 1·37, 95 % CI (1·22, 1·55) for T2DM, 1·27, 95 % CI (1·09, 1·49) for CHD, 1·17, 95 % CI (1·02, 1·34) for stroke, 1·15, 95 % CI (1·11, 1·19) for all-cause mortality and 1·08, 95 % CI (1·02, 1·14) for heart failure. In addition, red/processed meat intake was associated with several other health-related outcomes. Red and processed meat consumption seems to be more harmful than beneficial to human health in this umbrella review. It is necessary to take the impacts of red/processed meat consumption on non-cancer-related outcomes into consideration when developing new dietary guidelines, which will be of great public health importance. However, more additional randomised controlled trials are warranted to clarify the causality.
Instrument delivery is critical part in vascular intervention surgery. Due to the soft-body structure of instruments, the relationship between manipulation commands and instrument motion is non-linear, making instrument delivery challenging and time-consuming. Reinforcement learning has the potential to learn manipulation skills and automate instrument delivery with enhanced success rates and reduced workload of physicians. However, due to the sample inefficiency when using high-dimensional images, existing reinforcement learning algorithms are limited on realistic vascular robotic systems. To alleviate this problem, this paper proposes discrete soft actor-critic with auto-encoder (DSAC-AE) that augments SAC-discrete with an auxiliary reconstruction task. The algorithm is applied with distributed sample collection and parameter update in a robot-assisted preclinical environment. Experimental results indicate that guidewire delivery can be automatically implemented after 50k sampling steps in less than 15 h, demonstrating the proposed algorithm has the great potential to learn manipulation skill for vascular robotic systems.
Effective searching for target objects in indoor scenes is essential for household robots to perform daily tasks. With the establishment of a precise map, the robot can navigate to a fixed static target. However, it is difficult for mobile robots to find movable objects like cups. To address this problem, we establish an object search framework that combines navigation map, semantic map, and scene graph. The robot updates the scene graph to achieve a long-term target search. Considering the different start positions of the robots, we weigh the distance the robot walks and the probability of finding objects to achieve global path planning. The robot can continuously update the scene graph in a dynamic environment to memorize the position relation of objects in the scene. This method has been realized in both simulation and real-world environments. The experimental results show the feasibility and effectiveness of this method.
Baseline data on local status of threatened species are often limited, and alternative information sources such as local ecological knowledge (LEK) have potential to provide conservation insights but require critical evaluation. We assess the usefulness of LEK to generate conservation evidence for the Hainan Peacock-pheasant Polyplectron katsumatae, a poorly known threatened island galliform. Interview surveys in rural communities across eight forested landscapes on Hainan provided a new dataset of sightings of Peacock-pheasants and other galliforms. Fewer respondents had seen Peacock-pheasants compared to other species across most landscapes, although Peacock-pheasant sightings showed significant across-landscape variation, with substantially more total and recent sightings from Yinggeling National Nature Reserve. However, validation of interview data with camera trapping data from Houmiling Provincial Nature Reserve, a landscape with few reported sightings, suggests a more optimistic possible status for Peacock-pheasants, which were detected as frequently as Red Junglefowl Gallus gallus and Silver Pheasant Lophura nycthemera during systematic camera trap placement. Hainan Peacock-pheasant sighting rates might be influenced by various factors (e.g. restricted local access to forests), with absolute abundance possibly greater than expected from limited sightings. Conversely, relative across-landscape abundance patterns from LEK are likely to be valid, as similar detection biases exist across surveyed landscapes.
The turbulent kinetic energy and energy dissipation rate in the wake of a circular cylinder are examined at a Reynolds number of 1000. The turbulence characteristics are quantified using direct numerical simulation, which provides a comprehensive dataset that is almost impossible to acquire from physical experiments. The energy dissipation rate is decomposed into the components due to the mean flow, the coherent primary vortices and the remainder. It is found that the remainder component, which develops only in a three-dimensional turbulent wake and resides mainly in the regions of vortices, accounts for 95 % and 97 % of the total dissipation rate for 10 and 20 cylinder diameters downstream of the cylinder, respectively (while the remainder accounts for 62 % and 83 % of the total turbulent kinetic energy). Based on the remainder component, the validity of local isotropy, local axisymmetry, local homogeneity and homogeneity in the y–z plane for the turbulent dissipation in the wake is examined. The analysis reveals that the turbulent dissipation is largely locally homogeneous, but not locally isotropic or axisymmetric, even after the annihilation of the primary vortex street. In addition, the performances of the four corresponding surrogates to the true dissipation rate are evaluated. Owing to the general validity of local homogeneity, the surrogates of local homogeneity and homogeneity in the y–z plane perform well. Although local axisymmetry does not hold, the corresponding surrogate performs well, because errors from different terms largely cancel out. However, the surrogate of local isotropy generally underestimates the true dissipation rate.
The subduction model of the Neo-Tethys during the Early Cretaceous has always been a controversial topic, and the scarcity of Early Cretaceous magmatic rocks in the southern part of the Gangdese batholith is the main cause of this debate. To address this issue, this article presents new zircon U–Pb chronology, zircon Hf isotope, whole-rock geochemistry and Sr–Nd isotope data for the Early Cretaceous quartz diorite dykes with adakite affinity in Liuqiong, Gongga. Zircon U–Pb dating of three samples yielded ages of c. 141–137 Ma, indicating that the Liuqiong quartz diorite was emplaced in the Early Cretaceous. The whole-rock geochemical analysis shows that the Liuqiong quartz diorite is enriched in large-ion lithophile elements (LILEs) and light rare-earth elements (LREEs) and is depleted in high-field-strength elements (HFSEs), which are related to slab subduction. Additionally, the Liuqiong quartz diorite has high SiO2, Al2O3 and Sr contents, high Sr/Y ratios and low heavy rare-earth element (HREE) and Y contents, which are compatible with typical adakite signatures. The initial 87Sr/86Sr values of the Liuqiong adakite range from 0.705617 to 0.705853, and the whole-rock ϵNd(t) values vary between +5.78 and +6.24. The zircon ϵHf(t) values vary from +11.5 to +16.4. Our results show that the Liuqiong adakite magma was derived from partial melting of the Neo-Tethyan oceanic plate (mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) + sediment + fluid), with some degree of subsequent peridotite interaction within the overlying mantle wedge. Combining regional data, we favour the interpretation that the Neo-Tethyan oceanic crust was subducted at a low angle beneath the Gangdese during the Early Cretaceous.
Accumulating evidence suggests that supplementation of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω−3 PUFAs) was associated with reduction in risk of major cardiovascular events. This meta-analysis was to systematically evaluate whether daily supplementation and accumulated intake of ω−3 PUFAs is associated with improved left ventricular (LV) remodeling in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Articles were obtained from Pubmed, Clinical key and Web of Science from inception to January 1 in 2021, and a total of 12 trials involving 2162 participants were eligible for inclusion. The sources of study heterogeneity were explained by I2 statistic and subgroup analysis. Compared with placebo groups, ω−3 PUFAs supplementation improved LV ejection fraction (LVEF) (11 trials, 2112 participants, WMD=2.52, 95%CI 1.25 to 3.80, I2=87.8%) and decreased LV end-systolic volume (LVESV) (5 studies, 905 participants, WMD=−3.22, 95%CI −3.67 to −2.77, I2=0.0%) by using the continuous variables analysis. Notably, the high accumulated ω−3 PUFAs dosage groups (≥600g) presented a prominent improvement in LVEF, while the low and middle accumulated dosage (≤300g and 300-600g) showed no effects on LVEF. In addition, ω−3 PUFAs supplementation decreased the levels of pro-inflammatory mediators including tumor necrosis factor−α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and hypersensitive-c-reactive protein (Hs-CRP). Therefore, the present meta-analysis demonstrated that ω−3 PUFAs consumption was associated with a substantial improvement of LV function and remodeling in patients subjected to CHF. The accumulated dosage of ω-3 PUFAs intake is vital for its cardiac protective role.
The Eastern Depression in the Bayanhaote Basin in western Inner Mongolia has experienced multi-stage Meso-Cenozoic tectonic events and possesses considerable exploration potential. However, structural deformation patterns, sequences and the genesis of oil-bearing structures in the basin are still poorly understood. In this study, based on high-quality 2D seismic data and drilling and well-logging data, we elucidate the activities and structural styles of faults, the tectonic evolution and the distribution characteristics of styles, as well as assessing potential petroleum traps in the Eastern Depression. Five types of faults that were active at different stages of the Meso-Cenozoic faults have been recognized: long-lived normal faults active since the late Middle Jurassic; reverse faults and strike-slip faults active in the late Late Jurassic; normal faults active in the Early Cretaceous; normal faults active in the Oligocene; and negative inverted faults active in the Early Cretaceous and Oligocene. These faults constituted 12 geometric styles in NE-trending belts at various stratigraphic levels, and were formed by compression, strike-slip, extension and inversion. The temporal development of structural styles promoted the formation and reconstruction and finalization of structural traps, while regional unconformities and open reverse and strike-slip faults provided migration pathways for petroleum to fill the traps. In general, potential traps that formed by compressional movement and strike-slip movement in the late Late Jurassic are primarily faulted anticlines. Those traps developed in Carboniferous rocks and are located in the southwestern region of the Eastern Depression, being controlled by NNE-NE-striking reverse and transpressive faults.
This article reports three children who presented with negative pressure pulmonary oedema before or after removal of the airway foreign bodies. Of them, two cases were type I negative pressure pulmonary oedema and one case was type II negative pressure pulmonary oedema following foreign body removal from the airways. Pathogenesis and location differences between type I and type II negative pressure pulmonary oedema caused by airway foreign body obstruction, as well as diagnosis and treatment modalities of the negative pressure pulmonary oedema were discussed.
This study aimed to determine the risk factors for chronic diseases and to identify the potential influencing mechanisms from the perspectives of lifestyle and dietary factors. The findings could provide updated and innovative evidence for the prevention and control of chronic diseases.
A cross-sectional study.
1005 adults from Yangpu district of Shanghai participated in the study, and responded to questions on dietary habits, lifestyle and health status.
Residents suffering from chronic diseases accounted for about 34·99 % of the respondents. Logistic regression analysis showed that age, diet quality, amount of exercise and tea drinking were related to chronic diseases. Age > 60 and overeating (Diet Balance Index total score > 0) had negative additive interaction on the occurrence of chronic disease, while overexercise (Physical Activity Index > 17·1) and tea drinking had negative multiplicative interaction and negative additive interaction on the occurrence of chronic disease. Diet quality, physical activity and tea drinking were incomplete mediators of the relationship between types of medical insurance residents participating in and chronic diseases.
The residents in Yangpu District of Shanghai have a high prevalence of chronic diseases. Strengthening access of residents to health education and interventions to prevent chronic diseases and cultivating healthy eating and exercise habits of residents are crucial. The nutritional environment of the elderly population should be considered, and the reimbursement level of different types of medical insurance should be designed reasonably to improve the accessibility of medical and health services and reduce the risk of chronic diseases.
As a neuroprogressive illness, depression is accompanied by brain structural abnormality that extends to many brain regions. However, the progressive structural alteration pattern remains unknown.
To elaborate the progressive structural alteration of depression according to illness duration, we recruited 195 never-treated first-episode patients with depression and 130 healthy controls (HCs) undergoing T1-weighted MRI scans. Voxel-based morphometry method was adopted to measure gray matter volume (GMV) for each participant. Patients were first divided into three stages according to the length of illness duration, then we explored stage-specific GMV alterations and the causal effect relationship between them using causal structural covariance network (CaSCN) analysis.
Overall, patients with depression presented stage-specific GMV alterations compared with HCs. Regions including the hippocampus, the thalamus and the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) presented GMV alteration at onset of illness. Then as the illness advanced, others regions began to present GMV alterations. These results suggested that GMV alteration originated from the hippocampus, the thalamus and vmPFC then expanded to other brain regions. The results of CaSCN analysis revealed that the hippocampus and the vmPFC corporately exerted causal effect on regions such as nucleus accumbens, the precuneus and the cerebellum. In addition, GMV alteration in the hippocampus was also potentially causally related to that in the dorsolateral frontal gyrus.
Consistent with the neuroprogressive hypothesis, our results reveal progressive morphological alteration originating from the vmPFC and the hippocampus and further elucidate possible details about disease progression of depression.
Nutritional Risk Screening index is a standard tool to assess nutritional risk, but epidemiological data are scarce on controlling nutritional status (CONUT) as a prognostic marker in acute haemorrhagic stroke (AHS). We aimed to explore whether the CONUT may predict a 3-month functional outcome in AHS. In total, 349 Chinese patients with incident AHS were consecutively recruited, and their malnutrition risks were determined using a high CONUT score of ≥ 2. The cohort patients were divided into high-CONUT (≥ 2) and low-CONUT (< 2) groups, and primary outcomes were a poor functional prognosis defined as the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of ≥ 3 at post-discharge for 3 months. Odds ratios (OR) with 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for the poor functional prognosis at post-discharge were estimated by using a logistic analysis with additional adjustments for unbalanced variables between the high-CONUT and low-CONUT groups. A total of 328 patients (60·38 ± 12·83 years; 66·77 % male) completed the mRS assessment at post-discharge for 3 months, with 172 patients at malnutrition risk at admission and 104 patients with a poor prognosis. The levels of total cholesterol and total lymphocyte counts were significantly lower in high-CONUT patients than low-CONUT patients (P = 0·012 and < 0·001, respectively). At 3-month post discharge, there was a greater risk for the poor outcome in the high-CONUT compared with the low-CONUT patients at admission (OR: 2·32, 95 % CI: 1·28, 4·17). High-CONUT scores independently predict a 3-month poor prognosis in AHS, which helps to identify those who need additional nutritional managements.
This study was designed to investigate the effects of dietary starch structure on muscle protein synthesis and gastrointestinal amino acid (AA) transport and metabolism of goats. Twenty-seven Xiangdong black female goats (average body weight = 9·00 ± 1·12 kg) were randomly assigned to three treatments, i.e., fed a T1 (normal maize 100 %, high amylose maize 0 %), T2 (normal maize 50 %, high amylose maize 50 %) and T3 (normal maize 0 %, high amylose maize 100 %) diet for 35 d. All AA in the ileal mucosa were decreased linearly as amylose:amylopectin increased in diets (P < 0·05). The plasma valine (linear, P = 0·03), leucine (linear, P = 0·04) and total AA content (linear, P = 0·03) increased linearly with the increase in the ratio of amylose in the diet. The relative mRNA levels of solute carrier family 38 member 1 (linear, P = 0·01), solute carrier family 3 member 2 (linear, P = 0·02) and solute carrier family 38 member 9 (linear, P = 0·02) in the ileum increased linearly with the increase in the ratio of amylose in the diet. With the increase in the ratio of amylose:amylopectin in the diet, the mRNA levels of acetyl-CoA dehydrogenase B (linear, P = 0·04), branched-chain amino acid transferase 1 (linear, P = 0·02) and branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase complex B (linear, P = 0·01) in the ileum decreased linearly. Our results revealed that the protein abundances of phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin (p-mTOR) (P < 0·001), phosphorylated 4E-binding protein 1 (P < 0·001) and phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 kinases 1 (P < 0·001) of T2 and T3 were significantly higher than that of T1. In general, a diet with a high amylose ratio could reduce the consumption of AA in the intestine, allowing more AA to enter the blood to maintain higher muscle protein synthesis through the mTOR pathway.
Because the ARMA–GARCH model can generate data with some important properties such as skewness, heavy tails, and volatility persistence, it has become a benchmark model in analyzing financial and economic data. The commonly employed quasi maximum likelihood estimation (QMLE) requires a finite fourth moment for both errors and the sequence itself to ensure a normal limit. The self-weighted quasi maximum exponential likelihood estimation (SWQMELE) reduces the moment constraints by assuming that the errors and their absolute values have median zero and mean one, respectively. Therefore, it is necessary to test zero median of errors before applying the SWQMELE, as changing zero mean to zero median destroys the ARMA–GARCH structure. This paper develops an efficient empirical likelihood test without estimating the GARCH model but using the GARCH structure to reduce the moment effect. A simulation study confirms the effectiveness of the proposed test. The data analysis shows that some financial returns do not have zero median of errors, which cautions the use of the SWQMELE.
Over recent decades, Chinese giant salamanders Andrias spp. have declined dramatically across much of their range. Overexploitation and habitat degradation have been widely cited as the cause of these declines. To investigate the relative contribution of each of these factors in driving the declines, we carried out standardized ecological and questionnaire surveys at 98 sites across the range of giant salamanders in China. We did not find any statistically significant differences between water parameters (temperature, dissolved oxygen, ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, salinity, alkalinity, hardness and flow rate) recorded at sites where giant salamanders were detected by survey teams and/or had been recently seen by local respondents, and sites where they were not detected and/or from which they had recently been extirpated. Additionally, we found direct and indirect evidence that the extraction of giant salamanders from the wild is ongoing, including within protected areas. Our results support the hypothesis that the decline of giant salamanders across China has been primarily driven by overexploitation. Data on water parameters may be informative for the establishment of conservation breeding programmes, an initiative recommended for the conservation of these species.
Neuropsychiatric disorders are major causes of the global burden of diseases, frequently co-occurring with multiple co-morbidities, especially obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and its various risk factors in the metabolic syndrome. While the determining factors of neuropsychiatric disorders are complex, recent studies have shown that there is a strong link between diet, metabolic state and neuropsychiatric disorders, including anxiety and depression. There is no doubt that rodent models are of great value for preclinical research. Therefore, this article focuses on a rodent model of chronic consumption of high-fat diet (HFD), and/or the addition of a certain amount of cholesterol or sugar, meanwhile, summarising the pattern of diet that induces anxiety/depressive-like behaviour and the underlying mechanism. We highlight how dietary and metabolic risk influence neuropsychiatric behaviour in animals. Changes in dietary patterns, especially HFD, can induce anxiety- or depression-like behaviours, which may vary by diet exposure period, sex, age, species and genetic background of the animals used. Furthermore, dietary patterns significantly aggravate anxiety/depression-like behaviour in animal models of neuropsychiatric disorders. The mechanisms by which diet induces anxiety/depressive-like behaviour may involve neuroinflammation, neurotransmitters/neuromodulators, neurotrophins and the gut–brain axis. Future research should be focused on elucidating the mechanism and identifying the contribution of diet and diet-induced metabolic risk to neuropsychiatric disorders, which can form the basis for future clinical dietary intervention strategies for neuropsychiatric disorders.
Modern electron microscopy permits scientists to study the fine detail of cells and tissues, using both two-dimensional and three-dimensional imaging modalities. However, achieving optimal preservation of ultrastructure for a variety of biological samples remains a challenge. Here, we describe practical methods to preserve the fine structure of mouse skeletal muscle and sciatic nerve and to obtain high-resolution images of mitochondria in cultured cells, flow-sorted T-cells, and mouse urothelium. We also propose an effective and economical workflow for three-dimensional electron microscopy in the context of a microscopy core facility.