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Guanxi is one of the most popular topics in Chinese and Western scholarship concerning social ties in China. However, several problems in research on guanxi persist, and multiple debates are still ongoing without much consensus in sight. This study has two goals. First, we offer a systematic review of the current literature on guanxi, especially by differentiating guan dyads from xi networks. This reconceptualization of guanxi enables us to clarify the concept of guanxi by differentiating its two dimensions. Second, based on this literature review, we propose a redirection of future research on guanxi such that guan dyads and xi networks are not examined in isolation; rather, their holistic and dynamic interaction is the most fruitful avenue for future research, especially the four mechanisms of their interaction. The proposed reconceptualization and redirection are our two contributions to the literature.
To retrospectively study the primary laryngeal lymphoma cases in China reported in Chinese-language literature.
Chinese-language literature was searched for papers on primary laryngeal lymphoma published in the last 25 years.
The selected papers comprised a total of 115 cases. The male-to-female ratio was 3.4:1. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was the exclusive pathological type. The estimated 3-year, 5-year and 10-year survival rates were 70.9 ± 6.4 per cent, 63.4 ± 7.6 per cent and 56.4 ± 9.5 per cent respectively, as determined by Kaplan–Meier analysis. B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients had a better prognosis than T-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients (p = 0.032). Patients with lymph node involvement at diagnosis had a poorer prognosis (p < 0.01).
Primary laryngeal lymphoma is a rare disease with no specific clinical features. More than one biopsy might be needed to obtain the correct diagnosis. Proper treatment could lead to promising outcomes. The T-cell subtype and lymph node involvement at diagnosis might indicate worse prognosis.
Phase retrieval is necessary for propagation-based phase-contrast imaging (PB-PCI). Arhatari established a model for predicting the impact of the sample-to-detector distance and the system noise on the phase retrieval performance. We have extended Arhatari's model to account for the parameters of excessive source size, finite detector resolution, and geometrical magnification for more practical cases. However, there exist interaction effects among these parameters resulting in difficulty of predicting the phase retrieval performance. In this study, we found that optimizing the trade-off among these parameters for phase retrieval is consistent with the improvement of edge enhancement to noise ratio (EE/N) in the “forward problem” of the PB-PCI. Hence, we engaged in establishing a relationship between EE/N and phase retrieval performance in terms of the “forward problem” and “inverse problem” of the PB-PCI, respectively. Our results showed that, at fixed detector resolution, phase retrieval from the phase-contrast projections at the same EE/N level resulted in the consistent phase retrieval performance. Therefore, the performance of phase retrieval can be predicted based on the EE/N level and be quantitatively optimized by increasing EE/N.
Many components in diet have regulated oxidative stress, inflammatory reaction and even balance estrogen levels. Because these factors are closely associated with depressive symptoms in postmenopausal women, it is considered that dietary factors are able to prevent and control depressive symptoms. On the other hand, dietary pattern that considers the correlations and synergies between foods and nutrients, is expected to have a greater impact on disease risk. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether dietary patterns are associated with depressive symptoms in Chinese postmenopausal women.
A cross-sectional study of 2051 postmenopausal women (mean age: 58.8±7.4 years) was conducted in Tianjin, China. Dietary consumption was assessed by a valid self-administered food frequency questionnaire. Principal component analysis was used to derive three major dietary patterns: “healthy”, “sweets” and “Traditional Tianjin” from 88 food items. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, and cut-off point of 48 indicating serious depressive symptoms. The associations between quartile of dietary patterns and depressive symptoms were assessed by using multiple logistic regression analysis.
The multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of having depressive symptoms for increasing quartile of dietary patterns were as follows: “healthy”, 1.00, 0.79(0.49–1.28), 0.62(0.37–1.04), and 0.57(0.33–0.97); “sweets”,1.00, 0.75(0.42–1.3), 1.08(0.64–1.81) and 1.66(1.03–2.71); “Traditional Tianjin”, 1.00, 1.02(0.58–1.79), 0.96 (0.54–1.71) and 2.53(1.58–4.16), respectively.
The present study demonstrated that a healthy dietary pattern was inversely associated with depressive symptoms. On the contrary, greater adherence to sweets and Traditional Tianjin dietary patterns were associated with a higher prevalence of depressive symptoms.
Both inadequate and excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) have been shown to increase the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, but the risk profiles of GWG rate are unclear. We aimed to examine the associations between GWG rate in the second/third trimester and a spectrum of pregnancy outcomes. This study consisted of 14 219 Chinese rural nulliparous women who participated in a randomised controlled trial of prenatal micronutrient supplementation during 2006–2009. The outcomes included stillbirth, neonatal and infant death, preterm birth, macrosomia, low birth weight (LBW) and large and small for gestational age (LGA and SGA, respectively). GWG rate was divided into quintiles within each BMI category. Compared with women in the middle quintile, those in the lowest quintile had higher risks of neonatal death (adjusted OR 2·27; 95 % CI 1·03, 5·02), infant death (adjusted OR 1·85; 95 % CI 1·02, 3·37) and early preterm birth (adjusted OR 2·33; 95 % CI 1·13, 4·77), while those in the highest quintile had higher risks of overall preterm birth (adjusted OR 1·28; 95 % CI 1·04, 1·59), late preterm birth (adjusted OR 1·25; 95 % CI 1·00, 1·56), LBW (adjusted OR 1·48; 95 % CI 1·02, 2·15), macrosomia (adjusted OR 1·89; 95 % CI 1·46, 2·45) and LGA (adjusted OR 1·56; 95 % CI 1·31, 1·85). In conclusion, very low and very high GWG rates in the second/third trimester appear to be associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes in Chinese nulliparous women, indicating that an appropriate GWG rate during pregnancy is necessary for neonatal health.
Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.), Echinococcus multilocularis and Echinococcus canadensis are the common causes of human echinococcosis in China. An accurate species identification tool for human echinococcosis is needed as the treatments and prognosis are different among species. The present work demonstrates a method for the simultaneous detection of these three Echinococcus species based on multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR). Specific primers of this mPCR were designed based on the mitochondrial genes and determined by extensive tests. The method can successfully detect either separated or mixed target species, and generate expected amplicons of distinct size for each species. Sensitivity of the method was tested by serially diluted DNA, showing a detection threshold as less as 0.32 pg for both E. granulosus s.s. and E. canadensis, and 1.6 pg for E. multilocularis. Specificity assessed against 18 other parasites was found to be 100% except weakly cross-react with E. shiquicus. The assay was additionally applied to 69 echinococcosis patients and 38 healthy persons, confirming the high reliability of the method. Thus, the mPCR described here has high application potential for clinical identification purposes, and can further provide a useful tool for evaluation of serology and imaging method.
Computerized cognitive remediation therapy (CCRT) is generally effective for the cognitive deficits of schizophrenia. However, there is much uncertainty about what factors mediate or moderate effectiveness and are therefore important to personalize treatment and boost its effects.
In total, 311 Chinese inpatients with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV schizophrenia were randomized to receive CCRT or Active control for 12 weeks with four to five sessions per week. All participants were assessed at baseline, post-treatment and 3-month follow-up. The outcomes were cognition, clinical symptoms and functional outcomes.
There was a significant benefit in the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) total score for CCRT (F1,258 = 5.62; p = 0.02; effect size was 0.27, 95% confidence interval 0.04–0.49). There were no specific moderators of CCRT improvements. However, across both groups, Wisconsin Card Sort Test improvement mediated a positive effect on functional capacity and Digit Span benefit mediated decreases in positive symptoms. In exploratory analyses younger and older participants showed cognitive improvements but on different tests (younger on Symbol Coding Test, while older on the Spatial Span Test). Only the older age group showed MSCEIT benefits at post-treatment. In addition, cognition at baseline negatively correlated with cognitive improvement and those whose MCCB baseline total score was around 31 seem to derive the most benefit.
CCRT can improve the cognitive function of patients with schizophrenia. Changes in cognitive outcomes also contributed to improvements in functional outcomes either directly or solely in the context of CCRT. Age and the basic cognitive level of the participants seem to affect the cognitive benefits from CCRT.
Glyphodes pyloalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralididae) is a common pest in sericulture and has developed resistance to different insecticides. However, the mechanisms involved in insecticide resistance of G. pyloalis are poorly understood. Here, we present the first whole-transcriptome analysis of differential expression genes in insecticide-resistant and susceptible G. pyloalis. Clustering and enrichment analysis of DEGs revealed several biological pathways and enriched Gene Ontology terms were related to detoxification or insecticide resistance. Genes involved in insecticide metabolic processes, including cytochrome P450, glutathione S-transferases and carboxylesterase, were identified in the larval midgut of G. pyloalis. Among them, CYP324A19, CYP304F17, CYP6AW1, CYP6AB10, GSTs5, and AChE-like were significantly increased after propoxur treatment, while CYP324A19, CCE001c, and AChE-like were significantly induced by phoxim, suggesting that these genes were involved in insecticide metabolism. Furthermore, the sequence variation analysis identified 21 single nucleotide polymorphisms within CYP9A20, CYP6AB47, and CYP6AW1. Our findings reveal many candidate genes related to insecticide resistance of G. pyloalis. These results provide novel insights into insecticide resistance and facilitate the development of insecticides with greater specificity to G. pyloalis.
This study aimed to determine whether increased carotenoids intake was associated with reduced risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We performed a cross-sectional analysis using data from Tongji Maternal and Child Health Cohort study. The dietary carotenoids intake of 1978 pregnant women was assessed using a researcher-administered FFQ before undertaking an oral glucose tolerance test at 24–28 weeks. Multivariate logistic and linear regression analyses were used to obtain the effect estimates. Participants in the highest quartile of lycopene intake showed a lower risk of GDM (OR 0·50; 95 % CI 0·29, 0·86; Pfor trend = 0·007) compared with those in the lowest quartile; each 1 mg increase in lycopene consumption was associated with a 5 % (95 % CI 0·91, 0·99; Pfor trend = 0·020) decrease in GDM risk. No significant association was found between α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein/zeaxanthin intake and GDM risk. Multiple linear regression analysis suggested an inverse association between lycopene intake and fasting blood glucose (FBG) (Pfor trend < 0·001); each 1 mg increase in lycopene intake was associated with 0·005 (95 % CI 0·002, 0·007; Pfor trend < 0·001) mmol/l decrease in FBG. Interaction analysis indicated consistent effect on each age or pre-BMI subgroup; however, a stronger protective effect of lycopene intake against GDM was observed among primigravid women (OR 0·20; 95 % CI 0·07, 0·55 in the highest v. the lowest quartile of intake; Pfor interaction = 0·036). In conclusion, dietary lycopene intake was mainly assumed via reducing FBG to decrease GDM risk, and the protection was relatively increased among primigravid women.
Power source plays an important role in keeping normal functions of biodegradable electronic devices. In this paper, we proposed a fabrication method of biodegradable supercapacitor (BSC), which can provide energy for portable and implantable medical electronics. The BSC has a sandwich-like symmetric structure, which was assembled layer by layer. The electrochemical performances of BSC were measured, including the cyclic voltammetry test, galvanostatic charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Titanium foil was used as a template to generate microstructure for polylactic acid (PLA) supporting substrate. The microstructure provided strong adhesion force for iron film in sputtering process. The nanoporous zinc oxide layer was prepared by evaporation-driven self-assembly technology on iron film. The nanoporous structure was in favour of ionic storage in charging-discharging process. About 60% of capacitance retention was achieved after 3000 times of cycling test. After connecting three BSC in series, a green LED pattern was lighted up immediately, indicating that the energy was stored in BSC device successfully. After immersing the BSC in DMEM, the BSC can be totally degraded gradually. This work provided a feasible scheme for developing biodegradable energy storage device, it also gave a possible avenue for powering biodegradable electronic devices.
For spectrally negative Lévy processes, we prove several fluctuation results involving a general draw-down time, which is a downward exit time from a dynamic level that depends on the running maximum of the process. In particular, we find expressions of the Laplace transforms for the two-sided exit problems involving the draw-down time. We also find the Laplace transforms for the hitting time and creeping time over the running-maximum related draw-down level, respectively, and obtain an expression for a draw-down associated potential measure. The results are expressed in terms of scale functions for the spectrally negative Lévy processes.
A bottom-feed omni-directional CP (circularly polarized) antenna array is proposed in this letter. The antenna array is composed of four elements (two printed ZPS (zero-phase-shift) line loops and two half-wavelength dipoles). The four elements are fed with the same phase and amplitude. The ZPS line loops provide the horizontal polarization while the dipoles provide the vertical polarization. Therefore, omni-directional circular polarization is formed in the far field. The feeding network consists of a 1–4 T-shaped power divider formed by parallel strip lines. In order to balance the amplitude of the feeding coaxial cable, the structure is used in the bottom to transfer parallel strip line to micro-strip line. Besides, the loops and the dipoles are placed on the different side of the network to guarantee the omni-directional radiation property. The measured impedance bandwidth of the fabricated antenna is 0.13 GHz (2.40–2.53 GHz) and the measured maximum CP gain at 2.45 GHz is 4.8 dBic.
Cordierite foams were prepared by thermo-foaming of alumina–microsilica–talc powder dispersions in molten D-glucose anhydrous followed by reaction sintering at 1400 °C, which exhibited an interconnected cellular morphology and three-dimensional porous cell walls. The cordierite foam had a porosity of up to 96%, and its corresponding thermal conductivity was as low as 0.057 W/(m·K). The foam structures showed a great promise for gas filtration and gas catalytic support. The formation of interconnected cellular morphology, the variations of cell wall thickness, and cell size were explained from the perspective of viscosity and weak points in this paper. The linear shrinkage of cordierite foams having a density of 0.102–0.226 g/cm3 was in the range of 13.0–6.9%. And the compressive strength (0.05–0.28 MPa) was determined by the large cell size (1.1–1.3 mm), ultra-high porosity (91–96%), and characteristic of cordierite.
The dust cycle plays an important role in the long-term evolution of the climate and environment. In this paper, an improved climate model including aerosol processes was used to carry out a set of sensitivity experiments and comparative analyses of the effects of high-latitude ice-sheet extent and abnormal dust erosion, as well as Earth’s orbital parameters and atmospheric greenhouse gas content, on dust activities during the last glacial maximum. The comparative analysis found that incorporating the abnormal surface erosion factor alone could increase dust emissions by 2.77-fold and 3.77-fold of the present-day global and Asian dust emissions, respectively. The high-latitude ice-sheet factor caused global dust emissions to increase by 1.25-fold that of the present day. Sensitivity experiments showed that increased surface erosion in Asia during the last glacial maximum made the greatest contribution to the increased dust emissions in Asia, followed by the high-latitude ice-sheet factor, while the contributions of the greenhouse gas content and orbital parameters were relatively weak. Strong dust emissions during the glacial period were therefore not only dependent on the development of the high-latitude ice sheets but were strongly associated with the underlying surface characteristics of local dust source regions.
In this paper, a novel multilayer substrate integrated dual-mode dielectric resonator (DR) filter is proposed. The square dual-mode DR is made of the high permittivity substrate by removing the undesired portions and the surface coppers so that the relatively high unloaded quality factor of the dominate TM11 pair can be obtained which compared to these fully dielectric-filled substrate integrated waveguides. Meanwhile, it can be easily integrated in an equivalent cavity implemented by multilayer printed circuit boards for filter design, showcasing low in-band loss, light weight, and compact size. For demonstration, a multilayer substrate integrated DR bandpass filter centered at X-band is designed and measured. Good agreement between the simulated and measured results can be observed, and the measured insertion loss at the passband center frequency (8.38 GHz) is 1.1 dB.
Sn–Sb alloy is an ideal candidate for lead-free solder; however, its performance has been inferior to that of Sn–Pb alloy. Here, the authors used ab initio molecular dynamics simulation to investigate the interatomic interaction in Sn–Sb-based lead-free solders. By calculating the electron density distribution, bond population, and partial density of states, the authors found that the Sn–Sb bonds are a mixture of nonlocalized metal and localized covalent bonds. The covalent bond between Sn and Sb is easy to break at higher temperatures, so Sn–Sb (6.4 wt%) had better fluidity than other studied Sn–Sb alloys. Furthermore, adding Cu or Ag into Sn–Sb alloys can decrease the strength of covalent bonds and stabilize the metal bonds, which improves the metallicity and wettability of the Sn–Sb–Cu and Sn–Sb–Cu–Ag systems when the temperature increases. These results are all in good agreement with experimental findings and have significant value for the development of new solder alloys.
A high energy electron density modulator from a high-intensity laser standing wave field is studied herein by investigating the ultrafast motion of electrons in the field. Electrons converge at the electric field antinodes, and the discrete electron density peaks modulated by the field located at the corresponding laser phases of kx = nπ, (n = 0, 1, 2, …), that is, the modulation period is 1/2 the wavelength of the individual laser. We also discussed the influence of the laser parameters such as laser intensity and waist size on the beam modulator. It is shown that a long interaction length (waist) or sufficiently high field intensity is essential for relativistic electron density modulation.
Cast tungsten carbide is widely used to reinforce iron or steel substrate surface composites to meet the demands of harsh wear environments due to its extremely high hardness and excellent wettability with molten steel. Cast tungsten carbide particle/steel matrix surface composites have demonstrated great potential development in applications under the abrasive working condition. The thermal shock test was used to investigate the fatigue behavior of the composites fabricated by vacuum evaporative pattern casting technique at different temperatures. At elevated temperatures, the fatigue behavior of the composites was influenced by the oxidation of tungsten carbide, producing WO3. Thermodynamic calculations showed that the W2C in the tungsten carbide particle was oxidized at an initial temperature of approximately 570 °C. The relationship between oxidation and thermal fatigue crack growth was investigated, and the results suggested that oxidation would become more significant with increasing thermal shock temperature. These findings provide a valuable guide for understanding and designing particle/steel substrate surface composites.
This paper presents a hybrid strategy-based coordinate controller with a novel nonlinear disturbance observer for autonomous underwater vehicle manipulator systems (UVMSs). This method can reduce the influence from external unknown disturbances, inner coupling effects and model uncertainties by using a modified disturbance observer. Considering the natural redundancy property of the UVMS, the redundancy resolution algorithm is often utilized to give desired trajectories in the vehicle–joint space. However, because of the calibration errors, assembling errors and numerical errors, these desired trajectories may not lead the end-effector to the goal point accurately. To realize accurate motion control even when small errors exist in the planning phase, a hybrid strategy is introduced to transform the controller in the joint–vehicle space to the controller in the task space. Numerical simulations based on a UVMS have been carried out to testify the effectiveness of the proposed coordinate controller and the hybrid strategy. During the simulations, unknown disturbances are exerted upon the system. The trajectory tracking and error fixing performances are discussed in comparative analyses. The controller also maintains robust characteristics in comparison with the passivity-based controller and the proposed controller but without the disturbance observer. Experiments are also carried out to test its performance.
Refinement and homogenization of primary Si particles in hypereutectic Al–Si alloys is an effective route to enhance the tensile strength and wear resistance and satisfy the industrial requirements for a wide range of applications. Herein, two kinds of semisolid hypereutectic Al–Si alloys are synthesized by using a rotating-rod-induced nucleation technology. The influence of different cooling conditions and shear rates on the apparent viscosity of molten melt of slurry are examined by self-made high-precision and high-temperature apparent viscosity test equipment. The correlation between the shear rate and the uniformity of hard phases has been investigated from the obtained results, fitting curves, and optical microscope. With the increase in the shear rate, the particles tend to become rounder and the apparent viscosity becomes lower. The enhanced shape factor resulted in more rounded grains, which further reduced the apparent viscosity. During the same cooling time, the higher cooling rate resulted in higher solid fraction, generating higher apparent viscosity. The present study provides unique insight into the filling behavior of semisolid hypereutectic Al–Si alloys and serves as a baseline for future work.