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The Global Alzheimer’s Platform Foundation® (GAP) is a patient-centric, non-profit organization founded in 2015. GAP is dedicated to speeding the delivery of innovative therapies to persons with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) or Parkinson’s disease (PD) by reducing the duration and cost while improving the effectiveness of AD and PD clinical trials. GAP’s growing network of high-performing AD and PD sites (GAP-Net) allows sponsors to complete clinical trials on a single, optimized trial site platform. GAP-Net sites activate 30% faster than non-GAP sites by leveraging trial services including a central institutional review board. GAP-Net sites experience up to a 24% faster screening rate, higher randomization rates, and fewer low/no randomizations per site compared with sites without the support of GAP Participant Services (GPS). GAP also sponsors the Bio-Hermes trial , designed to evaluate digital and blood-based biomarkers that are projected to accelerate enrollment and lower screen fail costs in clinical trials. Finally, GAP is extending its network globally as part of its mission to accelerate and improve the effectiveness of AD and PD clinical trials.
Severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmissions among healthcare workers and hospitalized patients are challenging to confirm. Investigation of infected persons often reveals multiple potential risk factors for viral acquisition. We combined exposure investigation with genomic analysis confirming 2 hospital-based clusters. Prolonged close contact with unmasked, unrecognized infectious, individuals was a common risk.
We analyzed the impact of a 7-day recurring asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 testing protocol for all patients hospitalized at a large academic center. Overall, 40 new cases were identified, and 1 of 3 occurred after 14 days of hospitalization. Recurring testing can identify unrecognized infections, especially during periods of elevated community transmission.
In a multicenter cohort of 963 adults hospitalized due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), 5% had a proven hospital-acquired infection (HAI) and 21% had a proven, probable, or possible HAI. Risk factors for proven or probable HAIs included intensive care unit admission, dexamethasone use, severe COVID-19, heart failure, and antibiotic exposure upon admission.
We have derived absolute proper motions of stars in the Galactic bulge region combining the VVV InfraRed Astrometric Catalogue (VIRAC) and Gaia. We use the proper motions to study the kinematic structure of the bulge both integrated along the line-of-sight and in magnitude intervals using red clump stars as standard candles. In parallel we compare to a made-to-measure barred dynamical model, folding in the VIRAC selection function, to understand and interpret the structures that we observe. The barred dynamical model, which contains a boxy/peanut bulge, and has a pattern speed of 37.5 kms−1 kpc−1, is able to reproduce all structures impressively well.
We present new results on the Galactic bar/bulge transverse velocity structure using Gaia and the VISTA Variables in Via Lactea (VVV) survey. Gaia is complemented in high extinction regions by the multi-epoch infrared VVV observations for which derived relative proper motions can be tied to Gaia’s absolute frame. We extract kinematic maps (both 2D and 3D) of the Galactic bar/bulge, from which we measure the pattern speed of the bar using a novel technique. We focus on the evidence of an X-shaped bulge from the kinematic maps.
The target article suggests inter-individual variability is a weakness of microbiota-gut-brain (MGB) research, but we discuss why it is actually a strength. We comment on how accounting for individual differences can help researchers systematically understand the observed variance in microbiota composition, interpret null findings, and potentially improve the efficacy of therapeutic treatments in future clinical microbiome research.
The north-west European population of Bewick’s Swan Cygnus columbianus bewickii declined by 38% between 1995 and 2010 and is listed as ‘Endangered’ on the European Red List of birds. Here, we combined information on food resources within the landscape with long-term data on swan numbers, habitat use, behaviour and two complementary measures of body condition, to examine whether changes in food type and availability have influenced the Bewick’s Swan’s use of their main wintering site in the UK, the Ouse Washes and surrounding fens. Maximum number of Bewick’s Swans rose from 620 in winter 1958/59 to a high of 7,491 in winter 2004/05, before falling to 1,073 birds in winter 2013/14. Between winters 1958/59 and 2014/15 the Ouse Washes supported between 0.5 and 37.9 % of the total population wintering in north-west Europe (mean ± 95 % CI = 18.1 ± 2.4 %). Swans fed on agricultural crops, shifting from post-harvest remains of root crops (e.g. sugar beet and potatoes) in November and December to winter-sown cereals (e.g. wheat) in January and February. Inter-annual variation in the area cultivated for these crops did not result in changes in the peak numbers of swans occurring on the Ouse Washes. Behavioural and body condition data indicated that food supplies on the Ouse Washes and surrounding fens remain adequate to allow the birds to gain and maintain good body condition throughout winter with no increase in foraging effort. Our findings suggest that the recent decline in numbers of Bewick’s Swans at this internationally important site was not linked to inadequate food resources.
Background: Extreme appraisals of internal states correlate with and prospectively predict mood symptoms in adults, and discriminate individuals with bipolar disorder from individuals with unipolar depression and non-clinical controls. Aims: These findings required replication in adolescents. This study sought to investigate the relationships between appraisals of internal states, mood symptoms and risk for bipolar disorder in an adolescent sample. Method: A non-clinical sample (n = 98) of adolescents completed measures of mood symptoms, appraisals, and mania risk, alongside covariates. Results: Appraisals of internal states were associated with analogue bipolar symptoms, independently of impulsivity and responses to positive affect. Positive appraisals of activated mood states were uniquely associated with hypomania, whilst negative appraisals were uniquely associated with depression and irritability symptoms. Individuals who appraised activated states as both extremely positive and extremely negative were more likely to score at high or moderate risk for future mania. Conclusions: This study is the first to demonstrate associations between appraisals of internal states, analogue mood symptoms and mania risk in adolescents. Clinical implications are discussed.
Rumination, or dwelling repeatedly on negative thoughts about the past, can prolong depression and make it worse. When treating clients with depression, it can be important to consider the behavioural, cognitive and emotional impact of rumination on their life. Previous research has examined adult experience of rumination, but the current study was the first to examine how young people with depression experience rumination. Seven young people with depression were interviewed about the cognitive content of their rumination episodes, the associated feelings, and any behavioural start and stop triggers. Interview transcripts were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). Participants reported experiencing rumination as a disorientating cognitive battle, in which they felt under attack. The process elicited sadness predominantly, but also anger and anxiety, with mood and rumination often maintaining each other. Interpersonal interaction played a key role in starting and stopping rumination episodes. CBT-based interventions specifically targeting the ruminative process may be important for young people with depression, particularly interventions which consider the impact of family members or other systemic factors on rumination behaviour.
The adoption of the Sanctuary Model within Churches of Christ Care Pathways, an Australian non-government organisation in the child protection sector, has influenced a fundamental attitudinal shift towards enhanced wellbeing for clients, employees and carers alike. By drawing on the four pillars of Sanctuary, which incorporate theoretical and practical strategies, a safe environment can be created to heal trauma on an individual, organisational and community level, with the view towards a future of growth, change and resilience. The four pillars; Theory, SELF (Safety, Emotion Management, Loss and Future), the Seven Commitments and the Tools, support healing from trauma, and bring about organisational change. Examples from Pathways Residential Care and Fostering Services are used to illustrate the way in which the Sanctuary Model has enhanced safety within this out-of-home care community.
This article describes a form of agricultural labor intensification common in the postwar Soviet Union that shares some important similarities to Clifford Geertz's notion of agricultural involution, first devised to describe Javanese wet rice agriculture. Using the examples of hog farming and cotton production, this paper describes the phenomenon of postwar agricultural involution, and explores its limits and possibilities. The most important divergence from Geertz's original model is that in the Soviet cases, agricultural involution did not attain any form of environmental equilibrium; in fact, because of agricultural involution, the Soviet Union was forced to confront the environmental limits of agricultural intensification. The concept of agricultural involution provides a way of thinking about the relative flexibility or rigidity of agroecological health in the face of labor intensification. This quality—how much additional labor and how many extra humans an agricultural ecosystem is able to support—is critical in evaluating how robust or fragile a landscape is.
We use Raman scattering to study the spatially-resolved strain and stress in a complex zinc blende GaAs/GaP heterostructured nanowire which contains both axial and radial interfaces. The nanowires are grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition in the  direction with Au nano particles as catalysts, High spatial resolution Raman scans along the nanowires show the GaAs/GaP interface is clearly identifiable. We interpret the phonon energy shifts in each material as one approaches the interface.
Recently, Fickenscher et al.  have shown that, in a core-multi-shell structure where a GaAs quantum well is embedded into an AlGaAs shell wrapped around a  oriented GaAs nanowire, the electron and hole ground states are strongly confined to the corners of the hexagonally symmetric quantum well. Thus this confinement defines quantum wires which run along the length of the nanowires along its corners. Here we review single nanowire photoluminescence measurements which show the significant confinement energy of the excitons. For well widths larger than 5 nm, optical transitions between electron and hole excited states can be seen in excitation spectra, while for widths less than 5 nm only the ground state optical transitions are observed. For well widths smaller than 5 nm, high resolution spatially resolved photoluminescence measurements show directly the appearance of localized states. Single nanowire spectra from the 4 nm QWT sample display ultranarrow emission lines on the high energy side of the luminescence band. Spatially-resolved PL images show that these quantum dots are localized randomly along the length of the wire.
It has long been recognised that the Neolithic spread across Europe via two separate routes, one along the Mediterranean coasts, the other following the axis of the major rivers. But did these two streams have a common point of origin in south-west Asia, at least with regard to the principal plant and animals species that were involved? This study of barley DNA shows that the domesticated barley grown in Neolithic Europe falls into three separate types (groups A, B and C), each of which may have had a separate centre of origin in south-west Asia. Barley was relatively rarely cultivated by the early Linearbandkeramik farmers of Central and Northern Europe, but became more common during the fifth and fourth millennia BC. The analysis reported here indicates that a genetic variety of barley more suitable for northern growing conditions was introduced from south-west Asia at this period. It also suggests that the barley grown in south-eastern Europe at the very beginning of the Neolithic may have arrived there by different routes from two separate centres of domestication in south-west Asia. The multiple domestications that this pattern reveals imply that domestication may have been more a co-evolutionary process between plants and people than an intentional human action.
We study the photocurrent from photoexcited charged carriers excited with lasers of energy both above and below the energy gap in CdS nanostructures. We observe non-linear photocurrents in CdS nanosheet devices in the metal-semiconductor-metal configuration with Schottky contacts for sub-band gap excitations. Analysis of two-photon absorption dominated photocurrents reveals a nonlinear coefficient of β = 2 cm/GW for these nanosheet devices, which is comparable to those of bulk CdS. We demonstrate the use of the photocurrent polarization measurements to determine the orientation of atoms in the nanosheet.