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In “Risky choice framing: Task versions and a comparison of prospect theory and fuzzy-trace theory”, Kühberger and Tanner (2010) examined the impacts of removing stated zero/non-zero complements of risky options on the gain/loss framing effect. They also tested two rival theoretical explanations for this effect: prospect theory and fuzzy-trace theory. The present study aimed to examine the reliability and robustness of the evidence provided by Kühberger and Tanner by precise replication in Study 1. The original findings were reported for conditions in which the probability of the risky option was fixed, and the expected value of the two alternatives was approximately equivalent. The present study also aimed to examine the generality of their findings under additional conditions in which large, medium and small probabilities of the risky option were assigned, and the expected value of the certain or risky options differed. The main findings of Kühberger and Tanner (2010) were successfully replicated and confirmed under the original and additional conditions. The implications of these findings are discussed.
Everyone faces uncertainty on a daily basis. Two kinds of probability expressions, verbal and numerical, have been used to characterize the uncertainty that we face. Because our cognitive concept of living things differs from that of non-living things, and distinguishing cognitive concepts might have linguistic markers, we designed four studies to test whether people use different probability expressions when faced with animate or inanimate uncertainty. We found that verbal probability is the preferred way to express animate uncertainty, whereas numerical probability is the preferred way to express inanimate uncertainty. The “verbal-animate” and “numerical-inanimate” associations were robust enough to persist when tested with forced-choice response patterns regardless of the information (e.g., equally likely outcomes, frequencies, or personal beliefs) used to construct probabilities of events. When the response pattern was changed to free-responses, the associations were evident unless the subjects were asked to write their own probability predictions for vague uncertainty. Given that the world around us consists of both animate (i.e., living) and inanimate (i.e., non-living) things, “verbal-animate” and “numerical-inanimate” associations may play a major role in risk communication and may otherwise be useful for practitioners and consultants.
According to the positive time-discounting assumption of intertemporal decision-making, people prefer to undergo negative events in the future rather than in the present. However, negative discounting has been identified in the intertemporal choice and loss domains, which refers to people’s preference to experience negative events earlier rather than later. Studies have validated and supported the "anticipated dread" as an explanation for negative discounting. This study again explored the effect of anticipated dread on intertemporal choice using content analysis; that is, having participants identify anticipated dread among reasons for negative discounting. This study also validated the effect of anticipated dread on negative discounting by manipulating anticipated dread. This study adds empirical and direct evidence for the role of anticipated dread in negative discounting.
Intertemporal choices involve tradeoffs between outcomes that occur at different times. Most of the research has used pure gains tasks and the discount rates yielding from those tasks to explain and predict real-world behaviors and consequences. However, real decisions are often more complex and involve mixed outcomes (e.g., sooner-gain and later-loss or sooner-loss and later-gain). No study has used mixed gain-loss intertemporal tradeoff tasks to explain and predict real-world behaviors and consequences, and studies involving such tasks are also scarce. Considering that tasks involving a combination of gains and losses may yield different discount rates and that existing pure gains tasks do not explain or predict real-world outcomes well, this study conducted two experiments to compare the discount rates of mixed gain-loss intertemporal tradeoffs with those of pure gains or pure losses (Experiment 1) and to examine whether these tasks predicted different real-world behaviors and consequences (Experiment 2). Experiment 1 suggests that the discount rate ordering of the four tasks was, from highest to lowest, pure gains, sooner-loss and later-gain, pure losses, and sooner-gain and later-loss. Experiment 2 indicates that the evidence supporting the claim that the discount rates of the four tasks were related to different real-world behaviors and consequences was insufficient.
Bias Blind Spot (BBS) is the phenomenon that people tend to perceive themselves as less susceptible to biases than others. In three pre-registered experiments (overall N = 969), we replicated two experiments of the first demonstration of the phenomenon by Pronin et al. (2002). We found support of the BBS hypotheses, with effects in line with findings in the original study: Participants rated themselves as less susceptible to biases than others (d = –1.00 [–1.33, –0.67]). Deviating from the original, we found an unexpected effect that participants rated themselves as having fewer shortcomings (d = –0.34 [–0.46, –0.23]), though there was support for the target’s main premise that BBS was stronger for biases than for shortcomings (d = –0.43 [–0.56, –0.29]). Extending the replications, we found that beliefs in own free will were positively associated with BBS (r ∼ 0.17–0.22) and that beliefs in both own and general free will were positively associated with self-other asymmetry related to personal shortcomings (r ∼ 0.16–0.24). Materials, datasets, and code are available on https://osf.io/3df5s/.
Despite increasing knowledge on the neuroimaging patterns of eating disorder (ED) symptoms in non-clinical populations, studies using whole-brain machine learning to identify connectome-based neuromarkers of ED symptomatology are absent. This study examined the association of connectivity within and between large-scale functional networks with specific symptomatic behaviors and cognitions using connectome-based predictive modeling (CPM).
CPM with ten-fold cross-validation was carried out to probe functional networks that were predictive of ED-associated symptomatology, including body image concerns, binge eating, and compensatory behaviors, within the discovery sample of 660 participants. The predictive ability of the identified networks was validated using an independent sample of 821 participants.
The connectivity predictive of body image concerns was identified within and between networks implicated in cognitive control (frontoparietal and medial frontal), reward sensitivity (subcortical), and visual perception (visual). Crucially, the set of connections in the positive network related to body image concerns identified in one sample was generalized to predict body image concerns in an independent sample, suggesting the replicability of this effect.
These findings point to the feasibility of using the functional connectome to predict ED symptomatology in the general population and provide the first evidence that functional interplay among distributed networks predicts body shape/weight concerns.
In this paper, sliding panels are used to increase the bending stiffness of the classic corrugated flexible skin, and the corresponding application procedure for aircraft structures is developed. After the conceptual design of the corrugated flexible skin with sliding panels is proposed, the analytical models to calculate the equivalent tensile and bending properties are investigated. At the same time, its flexibility in the corrugation direction and the load-bearing capacity (is proportional to the bending stiffness) in the direction perpendicular to corrugation are studied by numerical simulation and experiment. The application procedure is established based on geometric analysis and strain definition, and according to this procedure, the corrugated flexible skin with sliding panels is applied to the drooping leading edge to eliminate the gap on the upper skin. The results show that the corrugated flexible skin with sliding panels has more bending stiffness than the classic corrugated flexible skin in the direction perpendicular to corrugation while maintaining the deform ability in the corrugation direction, and the application procedure is effective and can be applied to other parts of the aircraft structure.
The relationship of a diet low in fibre with mortality has not been evaluated. This study aims to assess the burden of non-communicable chronic diseases (NCD) attributable to a diet low in fibre globally from 1990 to 2019.
All data were from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study 2019, in which the mortality, disability-adjusted life-years (DALY) and years lived with disability (YLD) were estimated with Bayesian geospatial regression using data at global, regional and country level acquired from an extensively systematic review.
All data sourced from the GBD Study 2019.
All age groups for both sexes.
The age-standardised mortality rates (ASMR) declined in most GBD regions; however, in Southern sub-Saharan Africa, the ASMR increased from 4·07 (95 % uncertainty interval (UI) (2·08, 6·34)) to 4·60 (95 % UI (2·59, 6·90)), and in Central sub-Saharan Africa, the ASMR increased from 7·46 (95 % UI (3·64, 11·90)) to 9·34 (95 % UI (4·69, 15·25)). Uptrends were observed in the age-standardised YLD rates attributable to a diet low in fibre in a number of GBD regions. The burden caused by diabetes mellitus increased in Central Asia, Southern sub-Saharan Africa and Eastern Europe.
The burdens of disease attributable to a diet low in fibre in Southern sub-Saharan Africa and Central sub-Saharan Africa and the age-standardised YLD rates in a number of GBD regions increased from 1990 to 2019. Therefore, greater efforts are needed to reduce the disease burden caused by a diet low in fibre.
Copy number variation (CNV) is a very common type of gene variation with high frequency. In recent years, CNV has been paid more attention in various fields, especially in livestock and poultry breeding, which has promoted the progress of breeding. WW domain binding protein 1-like (WBP1L) is a protein coding gene, which plays an important role in cattle populations, and its function has been extensively studied, but it is not clear whether the copy number of the gene can affect the growth and development of cattle populations. In this study, CNV of WBP1L gene was detected in 732 cattle of seven breeds (Qinchuan cattle, QC; Pinan cattle, PN; Yuengling cattle, YL; Xianan cattle, XN; Jiaxian cattle, JX; natural Guyuan cattle, NGY; Jian cattle, JA). In addition, the relationship between CNV and growth phenotype of cattle was studied. The experimental data indicate that the copy number of WBP1L was obviously correlated with heart girth of PN cattle (**P < 0.01), rump length (RL) and body weight (BW) of PN cattle (*P < 0.05), withers height (WH), RL, body length, chest depth and BW of JX cattle (*P < 0.05), WH of NGY cattle (*P < 0.05) and WH of JA cattle (*P < 0.05). It was proved that CNV of WBP1L gene could be used as molecular marker locus for genetic breeding of the above four cattle breeds.
Among the six sympatric swan and goose species wintering in the Yangtze River floodplain, only Greylag Goose Anser anser and Bean Goose A. fabalis showed increasing population trends in the last 20 years. Until now, almost nothing was known about the Greylag Geese breeding on the eastern Mongolian Plateau, which we now know mostly winter in the Yangtze River floodplain. We applied GPS transmitters to 20 Greylag Geese in the Yangtze River floodplain and eastern Mongolia, providing complete tracks of their movements in summer, winter, spring and autumn (n = 6, 8, 8, 7). We overlaid these locations on GIS layers of habitat type and national-level protected areas, and modelled their habitat selection. Geese summered in Dauria Region, Huihe National Nature Reserve, and Wulagai Wetlands (from where 55% of GPS fixes were located in protected areas), wintered in Poyang Lake, Longgan Lake, and Anqing Lakes (43%), and staged around Bohai Bay, Xila Mulun River, and Wulagai Wetlands (spring, 48%; autumn, 45%). Geese mainly used natural ecosystems in summer (essentially grasslands and wetlands/water bodies), but in the other three seasons, used croplands between 17% (spring) and 46% (winter) of the time, with most of the rest of the time spent on wetlands/water bodies. Geese were frequently associated with wetlands and areas close to lakes/wetlands in all seasons, and cropland during winter and spring/autumn migration. These results suggest Greylag Geese in this biogeographical sub-population have increasingly shifted to feeding in croplands during the non-breeding season and enjoy the benefit of using protected areas throughout the year. We infer that these factors could have potentially contributed to elevated survival and reproductive success (relatively high among sampled flocks in recent years) which could explain the favourable conservation status of this population of Greylag Geese in recent years compared to other sympatric wintering goose and swan species.
The great demographic pressure brings tremendous volume of beef demand. The key to solve this problem is the growth and development of Chinese cattle. In order to find molecular markers conducive to the growth and development of Chinese cattle, sequencing was used to determine the position of copy number variations (CNVs), bioinformatics analysis was used to predict the function of ZNF146 gene, real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used for CNV genotyping and one-way analysis of variance was used for association analysis. The results showed that there exists CNV in Chr 18: 47225201-47229600 (5.0.1 version) of ZNF146 gene through the early sequencing results in the laboratory and predicted ZNF146 gene was expressed in liver, skeletal muscle and breast cells, and was amplified or overexpressed in pancreatic cancer, which promoted the development of tumour through bioinformatics. Therefore, it is predicted that ZNF146 gene affects the proliferation of muscle cells, and then affects the growth and development of cattle. Furthermore, CNV genotyping of ZNF146 gene was three types (deletion type, normal type and duplication type) by Real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR (qPCR). The association analysis results showed that ZNF146-CNV was significantly correlated with rump length of Qinchuan cattle, hucklebone width of Jiaxian red cattle and heart girth of Yunling cattle. From the above results, ZNF146-CNV had a significant effect on growth traits, which provided an important candidate molecular marker for growth and development of Chinese cattle.
The target article presented a plausible argument that females' susceptibility to threats might be self-protection for staying alive, but some evidence requires scrutiny. We need to consider (1) the biases of narrative reviews, (2) subjective life quality, and (3) the shadow side of extreme reactions to threats before concluding that females' threat-based response is a self-protection mechanism that promotes survival.
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of different levels of seminal plasma (SP) on boar sperm quality, antioxidant capacity and bacterial concentrations during liquid storage at 17°C. Boar sperm was diluted with Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS) consisting of 0, 25, 50 and 75% (v/v) of SP. Total motility, progressive motility and dynamic parameters were assessed by the computer assisted sperm analysis (CASA) system. Acrosome and plasma membrane integrity were measured by FITC-PNA/DAPI and SYBR-14/PI staining, respectively. In addition, total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were detected using commercial assay kits. Bacterial concentrations were assessed by turbidimetric assay. Our results showed that 25% SP markedly improved total motility, progressive motility, sperm dynamic parameters, acrosome integrity compared with 0, 50 and 75% SP (P < 0.05). In addition, 25% SP significantly increased T-AOC but decreased MDA content and ROS levels compared with 0, and 75% SP (P < 0.05). Moreover, 25% SP significantly decreased the bacterial concentrations in extended semen compared with 50% and 75% SP, however, which was higher than with 0% SP (P < 0.05). These results suggest that 25% SP can promote boar sperm quality through enhancing its antioxidant capacity during liquid storage.
The vortex dynamics in a stratified environment is of fundamental importance in various flow systems, however, the mechanism of successive vortex–interface interactions remains not fully understood. This study investigates synthetic jet vortex rings impinging on a water–oil interface by experiment and numerical simulation. Two cases in the laminar and transitional regimes are concerned with the Froude number (Fr) of 0.35 and 0.82, respectively. The vortex rings for the two cases follow a similar evolution with three distinct stages, including vortex free-travel, vortex–interface interaction and vortex stretching. As products of the vortex–interface interaction, the secondary vortex rings are baroclinically generated in both water and oil followed by the formation of hairpin vortices through azimuthal deformation. Distinguished from an isolated vortex–interface interaction, complex interactions occur between the primary vortex ring and hairpin vortices, which can enhance the vortex ring instability in existence of the stratification for the laminar case. However, the vortex ring instability for the transitional case can develop earlier due to nonlinear effects with increasing Reynolds number. The spatio-temporal properties of the interface deformation and interfacial waves are analysed. The maximum penetration height of vortex rings scales with Fr2 as that for the isolated situation. Particularly, the transitional case is found to produce destabilization of the interfacial waves at a further radial location. The mechanism is revealed by connecting the dynamics of the vortex and the interface, which can be attributed to the radial development of perturbances stemming from the vortex ring instability under strong vortex–interface interaction.
Due to the lack of research between the inner layers in the structure of colonic mucous and the metabolism of fatty acid in the constipation model, we aim to determine the changes in the mucous phenotype of the colonic glycocalyx and the microbial community structure following treatment with Rhubarb extract in our research. The constipation and treatment models are generated using adult male C57BL/6N mice. We perform light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to detect a Muc2-rich inner mucus layer attached to mice colon under different conditions. In addition, 16S rDNA sequencing is performed to examine the intestinal flora. According to TEM images, we demonstrate that Rhubarb can promote mucin secretion and find direct evidence of dendritic structure-linked mucus structures with its assembly into a lamellar network in a pore size distribution in the isolated colon section. Moreover, the diversity of intestinal flora has noticeable changes in constipated mice. The present study characterizes a dendritic structure and persistent cross-links have significant changes accompanied by the alteration of intestinal flora in feces in models of constipation and pretreatment with Rhubarb extract.
Nicotine 2,6-dihydroxybenzoate is a nicotine salt that can be used as the nicotine source in tobacco products. X-ray powder diffraction data, unit-cell parameters, and space group for nicotine 2,6-dihydroxybenzoate, C10H15N2⋅C7H5O4, are reported [a = 7.726(8) Å, b = 11.724(3) Å, c = 9.437(1) Å, α = 90°, β = 109.081(3)°, γ = 90°, unit-cell volume V = 802.902 Å3, Z = 2, ρcal = 1.309 g cm−3, and space group P21] at room temperature. All measured lines were indexed and were consistent with the P21 space group.
There is increasing attention on the association of socioeconomic status and individual behaviors (SES/IB) with mental health. However, the impacts of SES/IB on mental disorders are still unclear. To provide evidence for establishing feasible strategies on disease screening and prevention, we implemented Mendelian randomization (MR) design to appraise causality between SES/IB and mental disorders.
We conducted a two-sample MR study to assess the causal effects of SES and IB (dietary habits, habitual physical activity, smoking behaviors, drinking behaviors, sleeping behaviors, leisure sedentary behaviors, risky behaviors, and reproductive behaviors) on three mental disorders, including bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder and schizophrenia. A series of filtering steps were taken to select eligible genetic instruments robustly associated with each of the traits. Inverse variance weighted was used for primary analysis, with alternative MR methods including MR-Egger, weighted median, and weighted mode estimate. Complementary methods were further used to detect pleiotropic bias.
After Bonferroni correction and rigorous quality control, we identified that SES (educational attainment), smoking behaviors (smoking initiation, number of cigarettes per day), risky behaviors (adventurousness, number of sexual partners, automobile speeding propensity) and reproductive behavior (age at first birth) were causally associated with at least one of the mental disorders.
MR study provides robust evidence that SES/IB play broad impacts on mental disorders.
Identification of treatment-specific predictors of drug therapies for bipolar disorder (BD) is important because only about half of individuals respond to any specific medication. However, medication response in pediatric BD is variable and not well predicted by clinical characteristics.
A total of 121 youth with early course BD (acute manic/mixed episode) were prospectively recruited and randomized to 6 weeks of double-blind treatment with quetiapine (n = 71) or lithium (n = 50). Participants completed structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at baseline before treatment and 1 week after treatment initiation, and brain morphometric features were extracted for each individual based on MRI scans. Positive antimanic treatment response at week 6 was defined as an over 50% reduction of Young Mania Rating Scale scores from baseline. Two-stage deep learning prediction model was established to distinguish responders and non-responders based on different feature sets.
Pre-treatment morphometry and morphometric changes occurring during the first week can both independently predict treatment outcome of quetiapine and lithium with balanced accuracy over 75% (all p < 0.05). Combining brain morphometry at baseline and week 1 allows prediction with the highest balanced accuracy (quetiapine: 83.2% and lithium: 83.5%). Predictions in the quetiapine and lithium group were found to be driven by different morphometric patterns.
These findings demonstrate that pre-treatment morphometric measures and acute brain morphometric changes can serve as medication response predictors in pediatric BD. Brain morphometric features may provide promising biomarkers for developing biologically-informed treatment outcome prediction and patient stratification tools for BD treatment development.