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Nasal irrigation is commonly performed in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis after functional endoscopic sinus surgery. This study systematically assessed the clinical efficacy of nasal irrigation from the medical literature.
The PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases were searched using a comprehensive strategy, limited to English-language articles, published from October 1971 to March 2017, and comprising human subjects.
A total of 824 trials were identified, 5 of which, involving 331 participants, were included in this systematic review. After selection, only three trials were eligible for inclusion in a meta-analysis. Nasal irrigation using normal saline and various solutions was found to be effective in reducing symptom scores and endoscopic scores for chronic rhinosinusitis patients after functional endoscopic sinus surgery. Comparison of outcome measures, such as eosinophil count reduction, revealed that various solutions are more effective than normal saline alone; however, no statistical significance was found in terms of reduced symptom or endoscopic scores.
Based on the current limited evidence, nasal irrigation is an effective therapy for chronic rhinosinusitis patients after functional endoscopic sinus surgery. However, when comparing various solutions with normal saline, no significant difference was found in symptom scores or endoscopic scores.
Diarrhea is a common cause of morbidity and mortality and the incidence of diarrhea in the world has changed little over the past four decades. To assess the prevalence of and healthcare practices for diarrhea, a cross-sectional study was conducted in Pudong, Shanghai, China. In October 2014, a total of 5324 community residents were interviewed. Respondents were asked if they had experienced diarrhea (defined as ⩾3 passages of watery, loose, bloody, or mucoid stools within a 24-h period) in the previous month prior to the interview. The monthly prevalence of diarrhea was 4·1% (95% CI: 3·3–4·8), corresponding to an incidence rate of 0·54 episodes per person-year. The proportion of individuals with diarrhea who sought healthcare was 21·2% (95% CI: 13·4–29·0). Diarrhea continues to impose a considerable burden on the community and healthcare system in Pudong. Young age and travel were identified as predictors of increased diarrhea occurrence.
To investigate different strategies for displaying the hypopharynx and oesophageal entrance during laryngoscopy for hypopharyngeal cancer.
Patients and methods:
A total of 113 patients with hypopharyngeal cancer underwent laryngoscopy prior to surgery. The hypopharynx was displayed by: (1) pulling the anterior cervical skin; (2) having the patient perform the Valsalva balloon-blowing manoeuvre; and (3) injecting oxygen through the biopsy channel to expose the oesophageal entrance. The effect of these methods on visualisation of primary tumour size and extent was assessed.
During pronunciation of the letter ‘e', the hypopharynx was displayed in only 33 patients (29.2 per cent); with anterior cervical skin traction plus the balloon-blowing manoeuvre, the hypopharynx was displayed in 106 patients (93.8 per cent; p < 0.001). The combined strategy was superior especially when judging the extent of posterior pharyngeal wall and postcricoid invasion. Oesophageal entrance involvement was visible in 33 patients upon injecting oxygen through the laryngoscopic biopsy channel, and in 25 patients during radiological examination; laryngoscopy was superior to radiological examination in determining the extent of oesophageal entrance invasion (p = 0.003).
Adequate laryngoscopic display of the hypopharynx could increase the accuracy of pre-treatment hypopharyngeal cancer staging.
To investigate the characteristics of the laryngeal mucosal microvascular network in suspected laryngeal cancer patients, using narrow band imaging, and to evaluate the value of narrow band imaging endoscopy in the early diagnosis of laryngeal precancerous and cancerous lesions.
Patients and methods:
Eighty-five consecutive patients with suspected precancerous or cancerous laryngeal lesions were enrolled in the study. Endoscopic narrow band imaging findings were classified into five types (I to V) according to the features of the mucosal intraepithelial papillary capillary loops assessed.
A total of 104 lesions (45 malignancies and 59 nonmalignancies) was detected under white light and narrow band imaging modes. The sensitivity and specificity of narrow band imaging in detecting malignant lesions were 88.9 and 93.2 per cent, respectively. The intraepithelial papillary capillary loop classification, as determined by narrow band imaging, was closely associated with the laryngeal lesions' histological findings. Type I to IV lesions were considered nonmalignant and type V lesions malignant. For type Va lesions, the sensitivity and specificity of narrow band imaging in detecting severe dysplasia or carcinoma in situ were 100 and 79.5 per cent, respectively. In patients with type Vb and Vc lesions, the sensitivity and specificity of narrow band imaging in detecting invasive carcinoma were 83.8 and 100 per cent, respectively.
Narrow band imaging is a promising approach enabling in vivo differentiation of nonmalignant from malignant laryngeal lesions by evaluating the morphology of mucosal capillaries. These results suggest endoscopic narrow band imaging may be useful in the early detection of laryngeal cancer and precancerous lesions.
Miniature pigs have been recognized as valuable experimental animals in medical research. However, porcine models related to gene knockout of human diseases are not widely available. The objective of this study was to establish Mx1-Cre pigs using somatic cell nuclear transfer. In this study, we created transgenic pigs using somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Transfer of 210, 230, 250 and 215 zygotes to four surrogates produced 10 piglets. The Cre recombinase expression in transgenic pigs was studied using reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Mx1-Cre swine were shown to harbor the Cre gene in their genomic DNA using the PCR. In conclusion, Mx1-Cre transgenic piglets were successfully produced by SCNT. These transgenic swine, in conjunction with inducible systems for controlling Cre expression and function, are likely to have a profound impact on the study of human diseases.
The microstructures and their thermal behaviors of quenched Al94V4Fe2, Al90V8Fe2, Al86V8Fe6, and Al85V9Fe2Ni4 alloys were investigated by x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. The as-quenched microstructures of the four alloys consist of quasicrystal particles and a fcc-α–Al matrix. The as-quenched Al86V8Fe6 and Al85V9Fe2Ni4 alloys also contain a small volume fraction of amorphous phase. All phases observed have fine morphologies with grain sizes of less than 100 nm. With the increase in V from 4 to 8 at.% at 2 at.% Fe, the average grain size decreases from 100 to 70 nm and the melting temperature of α–Al solid solution increases from 640 to 653 °C. The alloy with 8 at.% V has a finer and more stable microstructure than that of the alloy with 4 at.% V. The Fe addition has minor effect on grain size but improves the glass-forming ability. The Ni addition significantly improves the glass-forming ability and refines the microstructure. The metastable amorphous and quasicrystalline phases transform into a stable crystalline phase during continuous heating and cooling. The stable phases in these Al–V–Fe alloys include α–Al(V, Fe), Al10V, and Al80V12.5Fe7.5.
The microstructures of β-SiC nanorods synthesized by hot-filament chemical vapor deposition were studied in detail by high-resolution electron microscopy. Two distinct types of nanorods were identified. The longer nanorods (lengths > 0.1 mm) contained globules at their tips and a relatively low density of stacking faults perpendicular to their  growth direction. It was also observed that SiC nanorods that grew along  direction contained no planar defects. Meanwhile, Ni was found to be an effective catalyst for SiC nanorod growth. The short nanorods (lengths < 50 nm), which contained no globules at their ends, can grow along , , or  direction. The growth of these nanorods was interpreted by a two-dimensional vapor–solid mechanism.
The interdiffusion in Ni80Fe20/Mo magnetic multilayers with a repeat length of 3.4 nm has been investigated using x-ray diffraction (XRD) technology. The multilayers have been fabricated by using a magnetron sputtering system. The decay with annealing time in the intensity of the first-order x-ray satellite peak arising from the composition modulation was used to determine the effective interdiffusion coefficient Dλ. As the annealing temperature is below 483 K, the interdiffusion is found to be relatively slow (Dλ < 8.88 × 10−25 m2/s). This result suggests that the Ni80Fe20/Mo multilayers have a strong resistance to the atomic interdiffusion between sublayers. The diffusivities over the temperature range 343–683 K have an Arrhenius-type temperature dependence with a pre-exponential factor D0 = (4.02 ± 1.21) × 10−22 m2/s and an activation enthalpy of about 0.26 ± 0.08 eV. The much lower activation enthalpy is attributed to the coherence strains existing in the multilayers.
Amorphization behavior was studied for the Y-Ti system, which has rather positive heat of formation being around + 22 kJ/mol, by room temperature 360 keV xenon ion mixing of YxTi100−xmultilayered films to various doses, ranging from 7×1014 to 1×1016 xe/cm2 Single and uniform amorphous phase was obtained in a narrow composition region, i.e. x=65 to 75, after ion mixing to the relevant doses. Moreover, a metastable fee crystalline Y-Ti phase was observed, for the first time, in this system. The crystalline lattice constant of the metastable phase was determined to be 4.012 Å. The re-crystallization temperature of the formed amorphous alloy was found out to be 600°C by in situ transmission electron microscope annealing as well as by vacuum furnace experiments. Possible interpretation is also discussed by comparing the experimental results with those proposed models for predicting glass forming ability.
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