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This paper provides an overview of the features of caregiver input that facilitate language learning across early childhood. We discuss three dimensions of input quality: interactive, linguistic, and conceptual. All three types of input features have been shown to predict children's language learning, though perhaps through somewhat different mechanisms. We argue that input best designed to promote language learning is interactionally supportive, linguistically adapted, and conceptually challenging for the child's age/level. Furthermore, input features interact across dimensions to promote learning. Some but not all qualities of input vary based on parent socioeconomic status, language, or culture, and contexts such as book-reading or pretend play generate uniquely facilitative input features. The review confirms that we know a great deal about the role of input quality in promoting children's development, but that there is much more to learn. Future research should examine input features across the boundaries of the dimensions distinguished here.
Ornamental grasses may become invasive weeds depending on their ability to naturalize and outcompete other species. Miscanthus sacchariflorus (Maxim) Franch. (Amur silvergrass) is a tall, self-incompatible, nonnative grass that has become naturalized in eastern North America, forming monospecific stands and raising concerns about its potential invasiveness. To understand the extent of clonal and sexual reproduction in feral populations, we examined their population genetic structure, seed production, and ploidy. We surveyed 21 populations in Iowa and Minnesota using eight polymorphic microsatellite markers. Only 34 multilocus genotypes (MLGs) were detected from a total of 390 samples. All of the study populations had more than one MLG, thereby allowing cross-pollination with near neighbors, but most were dominated by one or a few MLGs. Low genetic divergence suggests that all populations may have originated from similar cultivars. Cluster analysis showed that the six populations from Minnesota were extremely similar to each other, whereas the 15 populations from Iowa were somewhat more diverse. Seed production was quantified for 20 populations and ploidy for 11 populations. Average seed production was very low (< 0.30 seeds per panicle), although most populations did produce seeds. Because the populations were diploid (2x), they also may have the potential to hybridize with ornamental varieties of Miscanthus sinensis (Chinese silvergrass; eulaliagrass), a diploid close relative. Clonal growth, self-incompatibility, and spatial isolation of compatible clones may contribute to pollen-limited seed set in these populations. Low seed set may affect the rate of spread of feral M. sacchariflorus, which appears to disperse vegetatively as well as by seed. Although this species is not widely viewed as invasive, it is worth monitoring as a species that may become more widespread in the future.
Ceremonial architecture of late precontact (A.D. 600-1500) societies of Puerto Rico consists of stone-lined plazas and ball courts (bateys,). Archaeologists use these structures to signify the onset of hierarchical “chiefly” polities and to interpret their regional organization. Problematically, little consideration is given to the costs of their physical construction and the associated organizational implications at local and regional scales. In this paper, we use data gathered through geoarchaeological field investigations to develop labor estimates for the plaza and bateys at the site of Tibes—one of the largest precolumbian ceremonial centers in Puerto Rico. The estimates provide a basis for addressing how these features were constructed at the site and are considered within the broader organizational contexts of incipient polities in the island's south-central region between A.D. 600 and A.D. 1200.
We present the first results of a dedicated search for Diffuse Interstellar Bands that have profiles with FWHM > 6 Å. Broad DIBs have been noticed in past surveys using averages of multiple sight lines (e.g. Jenniskens & Désert, 1994), but careful detection, measurement, and cataloguing for individual sight lines has not been done since the pioneering work of Herbig (1995). We have initiated an observing campaign using the Apache Point Observatory in order to obtain low-resolution spectra to search for such broad DIBs and monitor their behaviour from star to star. A first sample of 21 stars with 0.3 < E(B-V) < 3.3 mag, along with 15 matched low-reddening stars, were observed with the APO/DIS B400 (R ~ 450) and R300 (R ~ 1000) gratings to obtain spectra having S/N > 500.
This work focusses on MWC 922, the central object in the Red Square Nebula. We obtained low and medium resolution spectra of both, the central object and the surrounding nebula, using the DIS and TSpec spectrograph. The spectra show the whole spectral range between ~3 500 Å up to ~25 000 Å. The central object shows a plethora of emission lines, including many Fe II and forbidden Fe [II] lines. Here, we present the inventory of the emission lines of the central object, MWC 922. Future work will comprise the identification of the nebula emission lines by using newly obtained X-Shooter spectra. That way we want to gain further insight into the physical and chemical conditions in this environment. A comparison of the Red Square to the Red Rectangle Nebula is anticipated and will guide our search for DIBs in emission.
Anomalously broad diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) at 5780.5, 5797.1, 6196.0, and 6613.6 Å are found in absorption along the line of sight to Herschel 36, an O star system next to the bright Hourglass nebula of the Hii region Messier 8. Excited lines of CH and CH+ are seen as well. We show that the region is very compact and itemize other anomalies of the gas. An infrared-bright star within 400 AU is noted. The combination of these effects produces anomalous DIBs, interpreted by Oka et al. (2013, see also this volume) as being caused predominantly by infrared pumping of rotational levels of relatively small molecules.
Potential visual impact on coastal lands has emerged as a major concern in the development of offshore wind facilities in the United States and Europe. Optimal siting of offshore facilities requires accurate knowledge of the relationship between distance and the visibility of wind turbines. Past assessments of offshore wind turbine visibility were based on smaller turbines and facilities in use at the time and underestimate visibility for current projects, which use more and larger larger turbines. This study is a preliminary assessment of the visibility of offshore wind facilities in the United Kingdom. Study objectives included identifying the maximum distances the facilities could be seen in both daytime and nighttime views and assessing the effect of distance on visual contrasts associated with the facilities. Results showed that small to moderately sized facilities were visible to the unaided eye at distances greater than 42 km [26 miles (mi)], with turbine blade movement visible up to 39 km (24 mi). At night, aerial hazard navigation lighting was visible at distances greater than 39 km (24 mi). The observed wind facilities were judged to be a major focus of visual attention at distances up to 16 km (10 mi), were noticeable to casual observers at distances of almost 29 km (18 mi), and were visible with extended or concentrated viewing at distances beyond 40 km (25 mi).
During 2007–2009 a UK-wide, 3-year stratified randomized survey of UK chicken broiler flocks was conducted to estimate the prevalence of Campylobacter-infected batches of birds at slaughter. Thirty-seven abattoirs, processing 88·3% of the total UK slaughter throughput, were recruited at the beginning of the survey. Of the 1174 slaughter batches sampled, 79·2% were found to be colonized with Campylobacter, the majority of isolates being C. jejuni. Previous partial depopulation of the flock [odds ratio (OR) 5·21], slaughter in the summer months (categorized as June, July and August; OR 14·27) or autumn months (categorized as September, October and November; OR 1·70) increasing bird age (40–41 days, OR 3·18; 42–45 days, OR 3·56; ⩾46 days, OR 13·43) and higher recent mortality level in the flock (1·00–1·49% mortality, OR 1·57; ⩾1·49% mortality, OR 2·74) were all identified as significant risk factors for Campylobacter colonization of the birds at slaughter. Time in transit to the slaughterhouse of more than 2·5 h was identified as a protective factor (OR 0·52).
Prior studies suggest that autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are associated with a domain-specific memory impairment for faces. The underlying cause of this problem and its relation to impaired visual scanning of faces—particularly of the eyes—remains to be determined. We recorded eye movements while 22 high-functioning ASD and 21 typically developing (TD) adolescents encoded and later recognized faces and objects from a single, nonsocial object category (electric fans). Relative to TD subjects, ASD individuals had poorer memory for faces, but not fans. Correlational analyses showed significant relationships between recognition memory and fixations. Eye tracking during encoding revealed that TD subjects made more fixations to faces than fans, whereas ASD individuals did not differ in number of fixations made to each stimulus type. Moreover, although both the TD and ASD groups showed a strong preference for fixating the eyes more than the mouth, the ASD subjects were less likely than TD subjects to scan regions of the face outside of the primary facial features (i.e., eyes, nose, and mouth). We concluded that ASD individuals have a domain-specific memory impairment for faces relative to mechanical objects and that this impairment may be related to abnormal scanning during encoding. (JINS, 2011, 17, 1021–1029)
Background: Anxiety has a high prevalence among individuals with dementia, and it has a significant negative impact on their functioning; yet intervention studies are lacking. We developed Peaceful Mind, a cognitive-behavioral intervention for persons with dementia. In this paper, we describe the intervention and results of an open trial evaluating the feasibility and utility of the intervention and assessment procedures.
Methods: Peaceful Mind is implemented over a period of three months in the participant's home with involvement of a caregiver or “collateral.” Dyads are followed for an additional three months via telephone. An assortment of simplified skills is offered, including self-awareness, breathing, behavioral activation, calming thoughts, and sleep skills.
Results: Nine participants were enrolled, eight completed the three-month assessment, and seven completed the six-month assessment. Overall, participants and collaterals were satisfied with the intervention and reported that they benefited in terms of anxiety, depression, and collateral distress.
Conclusions: A randomized controlled trial would help determine whether this promising new treatment has a statistically significant impact on anxiety in this population.
A cross-sectional study into risk factors for Salmonella was undertaken using data gathered from 252 fattening turkey flocks in the UK. The data was derived from the EU baseline survey conducted during 2006 and 2007, in addition to a voluntary questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression models identified significant risk factors for Salmonella spp. and Salmonella Typhimurium. A decreased risk of Salmonella spp. infection was associated with a history of intestinal illness in the sampled flock (OR 0·17), the use of wood shavings as litter (OR 0·21), use of disinfectant in the cleaning process (OR 0·25), incineration of dead birds on farm (OR 0·29), seasonal production (OR 0·31), farm staff also working with cattle (OR 0·31), and the presence of pigs on neighbouring farms (OR 0·38). The risk of isolating Salmonella spp. varied according to the company from which the poults were sourced. A reduced risk of S. Typhimurium infection was associated with the use of wax blocks to control rodents (OR 0·09), using mains water (OR 0·19) and having a Salmonella test programme (OR 0·23). An increased risk of S. Typhimurium infection was associated with storage of items around the turkey house (OR 5·20), evidence of mice (OR 4·71) and a soil surface surrounding the turkey house (OR 2·70). This study therefore identifies a number of important practical measures which can be implemented by farmers and veterinarians within the turkey industry to assist in the control of salmonellosis at the farm level.
Alcohol use is common in older adults and is associated with numerous health and social problems. Recent evidence suggests that in addition to level of alcohol consumption, drinking pattern may also be important. Moderate alcohol intake may confer some cardiac benefits, while heavy episodic drinking seems particularly problematic. Detecting alcohol misuse in older adults is difficult since clinical acumen is often poor, screening questionnaires have serious limitations and laboratory tests are not diagnostic. Brief alcohol interventions to reduce alcohol consumption appear useful in younger populations, but are less studied in older adults. While there is increasing research into the issue of alcohol use among older adults, clinicians and policy-makers must rely on limited evidence when making clinical decisions.
We investigated factors associated with persistence of different Salmonella serovars in buildings housing laying hens in Great Britain using survival analysis. A total of 264 incidents of Salmonella detection occurring between July 1998 and August 2007 in 152 houses were recorded. For incidents involving Salmonella Enteritidis (SE), both the rodent score of the house and the type of house were positively associated with persistence. For non-SE serovars, only the type of house was associated with persistence. Persistence of SE in the houses was longest (>15 months) in step-cage and cage-scraper houses when high levels of rodents were present, and lowest in non-cage and cage-belt houses. We estimated that 42% (95% CI 23·3–63·1) of SE incidents may be cleared during the lay period, and this was related to elimination of rodents from the houses. From January 2009, EU legislation will ban the sale of fresh eggs from SE-positive and S. Typhimurium-positive flocks over their remaining lifespan. If infection is eliminated from such flocks, they would cease to represent a public health risk.
We present equivalent width measurements and limits of six diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs, λ 4428, λ 5705, λ 5780, λ 5797, λ 6284, and λ 6613) in seven damped Lyα absorbers (DLAs) over the redshift range 0.091 ≤ z ≤ 0.524, sampling 20.3 ≤ log N(Hi) ≤ 21.7. Based upon the Galactic DIB–N(H i) relation, the λ 6284 DIB equivalent width upper limits in four of the seven DLAs are a factor of 4–10 times below the λ 6284 DIB equivalent widths observed in the Galaxy, but are not inconsistent with those present in the Magellanic Clouds. Assuming the Galactic DIB–E(B − V) relation, we determine reddening upper limits for the DLAs in our sample. Based upon the E(B − V) limits, the gas-to-dust ratios, N(H i)/E(B − V), of the four aforementioned DLAs are at least ~5 times higher than that of the Galactic ISM and are more consistent with the Large Magellanic Cloud. The ratios of two other DLAs are at least a factor of a few times higher. The best constraints on reddening derive from the upper limits for the λ 5780 and λ 6284 DIBs, which yield E(B − V) ≤ 0.08 mag for four of the seven DLAs and are more consistent with the Magellanic Clouds rather than the Galaxy. Our results suggest that, in DLAs, quantities related to dust, such as reddening and metallicity, appear to have a greater impact on DIB strengths than does H i gas abundance. The molecules responsible for the DIBs in DLA selected sightlines are underabundant relative to sightlines in the Galaxy of similarly high N(H i). Using DIBs to study the ISM of DLAs provide evidence that at least some population of DLAs are more Magellanic-like than Galactic-like.
A follow-on study was carried out on 23 holdings identified as Salmonella positive in the 2004/2005 European Union (EU) baseline survey of Salmonella in laying hens. Eleven of 13 cage and 4/7 floor houses remained positive for Salmonella when the new flock was tested, and from 10/13 cage and 3/7 floor houses a Salmonella of the same serovar/phage type as found in the EU survey was isolated. There was a high correlation between the level of contamination in the houses at the time of the EU survey and in the follow-on flock. On seven occasions the house identified as positive in the EU survey was sampled after cleaning and disinfection but before a new flock was placed, and in all of them Salmonella could be isolated from the houses. The observed number of infected houses in infected holdings suggests that the holding-level prevalence in the United Kingdom would be about 21% higher than the results obtained in the EU survey.
Auto radiolysis of uranium (VI) carbonate solutions between pH 5.9 and 7.2 is shown to alter the uranium speciation over relatively short periods of time and was followed by 13C NMR and visible spectrophotometry, using dissolved [233(UO2)3(CO3)6]6- both as the radiolysis source (DÑ= 14.9 Gy/hr) and as a trap for the newly formed hydrogen peroxide. The speciation is different than the uranyl mixed peroxy carbonate species that have been reported for higher pH carbonate solutions.
The following article outlines reforms for the IMF so as to enhance financial crisis prevention and management through better surveillance and transparency. With the present quota regime, creditor countries command excessive voting power, resulting in skewed crisis analysis and resource distribution. Consequently, exploring the democratic deficit within the governance structure of the Fund reveals much needed changes in the quota regime and voting system of significant import. Expressly, the democratic deficit results from three factors, namely, (1) the decline of basic votes in the Fund's quota regime has reduced the voice of smaller countries in the governance of the Fund; (2) biases in the calculation of economic strength have caused the IMF to neglect the strength of emerging market economies; and (3) the needless complexity and opacity involved in the calculation of quotas. As the governance structure of the Fund is a product of the political and economic agreements embodied in the quota regime, addressing the quota bias, the variable measurement and specification problems will provide the route towards a Fund that is in tune with the growing contiguous democratic consensus. Quota adjustments alone prove insufficient towards this democratic end and therefore we will explore reassessing the Fund size, given the pressing need for a larger Fund as the present size is too small when compared to the global GDP; readjusting access to the resources of the Fund in accordance with the gross financing need of the concerned country; re-examining the voting system and the veto market; restructuring the Executive Board so that every member of the Board is an elected member and; the Fund as an Economic Security Council (ESC), promoting stability in the global economy.
There has been a renewed interest in searching for diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) due to their probable connection to organic molecules and, thus, their possible link to life in the Universe. Our group is undertaking an extensive search for DIBs in DLAs via QSO absorption-line systems. Six of our DLA targets are presented here. Our equivalent width (EW) limits for the $\lambda$5780 DIB line strongly suggest that DIB abundance is below the Milky Way expected value or that metallicity plays a large role in DIB strengths.
With the Ultraviolet Visual Echelle Spectrograph mounted at the Very Large Telescope, we have observed at unprecedented spectral resolution the absorption spectrum toward reddened stars in the Magellanic Clouds over the wavelength range of 3500-10500 Å. This range covers the strong transitions associated with neutral and charged large carbon molecules of varying sizes and structures. We report the first detection of diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) at 5780 and 5797 Å in the Small Magellanic Cloud and the variation of those DIBs toward several targets in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The variation of DIBs in the Magellanic Clouds compared with Galactic targets may be governed by a combination of the different chemical processes prevailing in low-metallicity regions and the local environmental conditions. The analysis of high-resolution absorption spectra allows us to reveal the global effects in the chemistry and recycling of cosmic dust in the Magellanic Clouds which are relevant for the chemical pathways forming large organic molecules in external galaxies.