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Cognitive therapy and behavioural activation are both widely applied and effective psychotherapies for depression, but it is unclear which works best for whom. Individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis allows for examining moderators at the participant level and can provide more precise effect estimates than conventional meta-analysis, which is based on study-level data.
This article describes the protocol for a systematic review and IPD meta-analysis that aims to compare the efficacy of cognitive therapy and behavioural activation for adults with depression, and to explore moderators of treatment effect. (PROSPERO: CRD42022341602)
Systematic literature searches will be conducted in PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library, to identify randomised clinical trials comparing cognitive therapy and behavioural activation for adult acute-phase depression. Investigators of these trials will be invited to share their participant-level data. One-stage IPD meta-analyses will be conducted with mixed-effects models to assess treatment effects and to examine various available demographic, clinical and psychological participant characteristics as potential moderators. The primary outcome measure will be depressive symptom level at treatment completion. Secondary outcomes will include post-treatment anxiety, interpersonal functioning and quality of life, as well as follow-up outcomes.
To the best of our knowledge, this will be the first IPD meta-analysis concerning cognitive therapy versus behavioural activation for adult depression. This study has the potential to enhance our knowledge of depression treatment by using state-of-the-art statistical techniques to compare the efficacy of two widely used psychotherapies, and by shedding more light on which of these treatments might work best for whom.
Demand for building competencies in implementation research (IR) outstrips supply of training programs, calling for a paradigm shift. We used a bootstrap approach to leverage external resources and create IR capacity through a novel 2-day training for faculty scientists across the four Texas Clinical & Translational Science Awards (CTSAs). The Workshop combined internal and external expertise, targeted nationally established IR competencies, incorporated new National Institutes of Health/National Cancer Institute OpenAccess online resources, employed well-known adult education principles, and measured impact. CTSA leader buy-in was reflected in financial support. Evaluation showed increased self-reported IR competency; statewide initiatives expanded. The project demonstrated that, even with limited onsite expertise, it was possible to bootstrap resources and build IR capacity de novo in the CTSA community.
The National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS) has defined translation as the process of turning observations into interventions that are adopted, sustained, and improve health. Translation must attend to research and community systems and context at multiple levels, and to key stakeholders. Dissemination and implementation (D&I) sciences are informed by an understanding of the critical role of people and systems in disseminating, adopting, and sustaining innovations within real-world settings. Thus, the D&I sciences provides a set of principles that can guide the translational work of Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) programs from basic research to public health. In this special communication, our cross-domain working group of the CTSA consortium, comprised of experts in methods and processes, workforce development, evaluation, stakeholder engagement, and D&I sciences, share a vision of how CTSAs can enhance translation across the translational spectrum through the integration of D&I sciences into the critical areas of methods and processes, workforce development, and evaluation. We propose a set of recommendations for NCATS national and local leaders that are intended to move D&I sciences out of a position of unfamiliarity and ancillary value and into the core identity of who CTSAs are, how they think, and what they do, to advance translation and health.
Implementation science offers a compelling value proposition to translational science. As such, many translational science stakeholders are seeking to recruit, teach, and train an implementation science workforce. The type of workforce that will make implementation happen consists of both implementation researchers and practitioners, yet little guidance exists on how to train such a workforce. We—members of the Advancing Dissemination and Implementation Sciences in CTSAs Working Group—present the Teaching For Implementation Framework to address this gap. We describe the differences between implementation researchers and practitioners and demonstrate what and how to teach them individually and in co-learning opportunities. We briefly comment on educational infrastructures and resources that will be helpful in furthering this type of approach.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: Working alongside news staff as community partners is feasible for community engagement to co-create a post-hurricane health assessment and connect it to our academic health center’s disaster response capacity. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Successful academic-community partnership in post-disaster response depends on shared understanding of impact. Community newspapers could provide valuable insight into health needs and inform strategic recovery plans. Our objective was to determine methodological feasibility of using newspaper stories to identify post-disaster needs. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Community-Based Participatory Research principles were applied to engage newspaper staff and conduct qualitative analysis of stories published in the weekly Port Aransas South Jetty newspaper, serving this small rural coastal community. Using directed content analysis, the team derived and validated constructs from Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs and Phases of Disaster models to create a codebook. Scientists and newspaper staff examined the codebook for congruency regarding interpretation and themes. With copyright permission to access online newspaper files, NVivo software was used to search for Hurricane Harvey-related terms (e.g., ‘Harvey, tropical storm, flood, damage, volunteer’). Stories from 3 days post-Harvey to 6 months post-Harvey were examined and again at anniversary date. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: The weekly South Jetty newspaper was published continuously from August 31, 2017, through the date our study ended, February 22, 2018. Analysis showed themes of the storm and community response to disaster at multiple levels. Harvey caused catastrophic flooding, destruction, on par with 2005 Hurricane Katrina as the costliest storm on record. In Port Aransas, 130 mph winds and a 12-foot storm surge damaged 90% of the buildings. Stories reflected Phases of Response: Pre-disaster, Impact, Heroic, Honeymoon, Disillusionment, and initial phases of Reconstruction and Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. Story: ‘It’s not just the physical part of Port Aransas that was hurt by the hurricane. Harvey also wounded the town’s collective psyche. We’ve wept for our losses, then counted our blessings, then wept for our losses again.’ DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: Newspapers were a rich source of post-disaster data. Text and pictures were poignant. Thematic analysis identified stages of recovery. Working alongside news staff as community partners is feasible for community engagement to co-create a post-hurricane health assessment and connect it to our academic health center’s disaster response capacity.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: Points to strategies to de-implement ineffective, harmful, or unproven practices, lowering burden and cost of healthcare, using evidence-based recommendations on low value care. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Ineffective, harmful, or unproven practices add burden and cost of healthcare. In national efforts to de-implement low value care (LVC), Choosing Wisely ®campaign generated 25 recommendations through the American Academy of Nursing (CW AAN). Our study described nurse-awareness of CW AAN recommendations as requisite toward de-implementing LVC. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: A multi-stakeholder state action coalition led the project to achieve the Institute of Medicine Future of Nursing goals by describing nurse awareness of CW AAN recommendations. The survey was the first among nursing professionals. Use of human subjects was approved at the lead university. Registered Nurse contact information was obtained from the state Board of Nursing of a large mid-South state. Qualtrics ®surveys patterned after the CW survey of physicians’ awareness were administered online by the state Center for Nursing Workforce Studies. Content experts developed 2 surveys’‘ one for Registered Nurses (RNs) and one for Advance Practice Registered Nurses (APRNs)’‘ to account for differences in scope of practice. Surveys assessed current knowledge and perception of the Choosing Wisely ®AAN campaign. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Over six weeks, 374 nurses participated (295 RNs and 79 APRNs). About half of each group indicated that unnecessary nursing care was a ‘somewhat serious problem.’ Only 21% of RNs and 26% of APRNs were aware of Choosing Wisely ®AAN recommendations. Participants identified reasons for the prevalence of low value care in practice as being concerns about malpractice issues, lack of time with patients for meaningful discussion, ‘just to be safe,’ and patients insisting on getting the test or procedure. For the RN group, cost of LVC was rarely discussed; in the APRN group, cost was frequently discussed. Of the APRNs who were aware of CW, 90% believe the recommendations were helpful. When asked for LVC de-implementation suggestions, 78% said EBP recommendations would be effective; at the same time, 20% had low knowledge of EBP. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: RNs and APRNs reported low awareness of CW AAN advice. While representative, sample size limits generalization. De-implementation in learning health systems will include socioecological strategies focused on provider awareness and confidence, patient preference, cost, strength of evidence, and safe work culture to diffuse fear of litigation.
A new fossil site in a previously unexplored part of western Madagascar (the Beanka Protected Area) has yielded remains of many recently extinct vertebrates, including giant lemurs (Babakotia radofilai, Palaeopropithecus kelyus, Pachylemur sp., and Archaeolemur edwardsi), carnivores (Cryptoprocta spelea), the aardvark-like Plesiorycteropus sp., and giant ground cuckoos (Coua). Many of these represent considerable range extensions. Extant species that were extirpated from the region (e.g., Prolemur simus) are also present. Calibrated radiocarbon ages for 10 bones from extinct primates span the last three millennia. The largely undisturbed taphonomy of bone deposits supports the interpretation that many specimens fell in from a rock ledge above the entrance. Some primates and other mammals may have been prey items of avian predators, but human predation is also evident. Strontium isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr) suggest that fossils were local to the area. Pottery sherds and bones of extinct and extant vertebrates with cut and chop marks indicate human activity in previous centuries. Scarcity of charcoal and human artifacts suggests only occasional visitation to the site by humans. The fossil assemblage from this site is unusual in that, while it contains many sloth lemurs, it lacks ratites, hippopotami, and crocodiles typical of nearly all other Holocene subfossil sites on Madagascar.
Dissemination and implementation (D&I) science is not a formal element of the Clinical Translational Science Award (CTSA) Program, and D&I science activities across the CTSA Consortium are largely unknown.
The CTSA Dissemination, Implementation, and Knowledge Translation Working Group surveyed CTSA leaders to explore D&I science-related activities, barriers, and needed supports, then conducted univariate and qualitative analyses of the data.
Out of 67 CTSA leaders, 55.2% responded. CTSAs reported directly funding D&I programs (54.1%), training (51.4%), and projects (59.5%). Indirect support (e.g., promoted by CTSA without direct funding) for D&I activities was higher – programs (70.3%), training (64.9%), and projects (54.1%). Top barriers included funding (39.4%), limited D&I science faculty (30.3%), and lack of D&I science understanding (27.3%). Respondents (63.4%) noted the importance of D&I training and recommended coordination of D&I activities across CTSAs hubs (33.3%).
These findings should guide CTSA leadership in efforts to raise awareness and advance the role of D&I science in improving population health.
Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a pathogenic nematode and the cause of neuroangiostrongyliasis, an eosinophilic meningitis more commonly known as rat lungworm disease. Transmission is thought to be primarily due to ingestion of infective third stage larvae (L3) in gastropods, on produce, or in contaminated water. The gold standard to determine the effects of physical and chemical treatments on the infectivity of A. cantonensis L3 larvae is to infect rodents with treated L3 larvae and monitor for infection, but animal studies are laborious and expensive and also raise ethical concerns. This study demonstrates propidium iodide (PI) to be a reliable marker of parasite death and loss of infective potential without adversely affecting the development and future reproduction of live A. cantonensis larvae. PI staining allows evaluation of the efficacy of test substances in vitro, an improvement upon the use of lack of motility as an indicator of death. Some potential applications of this assay include determining the effectiveness of various anthelmintics, vegetable washes, electromagnetic radiation and other treatments intended to kill larvae in the prevention and treatment of neuroangiostrongyliasis.
The efficient and effective movement of research into practice is acknowledged as crucial to improving population health and assuring return on investment in healthcare research. The National Center for Advancing Translational Science which sponsors Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) recognizes that dissemination and implementation (D&I) sciences have matured over the last 15 years and are central to its goals to shift academic health institutions to better align with this reality. In 2016, the CTSA Collaboration and Engagement Domain Task Force chartered a D&I Science Workgroup to explore the role of D&I sciences across the translational research spectrum. This special communication discusses the conceptual distinctions and purposes of dissemination, implementation, and translational sciences. We propose an integrated framework and provide real-world examples for articulating the role of D&I sciences within and across all of the translational research spectrum. The framework’s major proposition is that it situates D&I sciences as targeted “sub-sciences” of translational science to be used by CTSAs, and others, to identify and investigate coherent strategies for more routinely and proactively accelerating research translation. The framework highlights the importance of D&I thought leaders in extending D&I principles to all research stages.
Objectives: To evaluate prospective and retrospective memory abilities in Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF), Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), and Operation New Dawn (OND) Veterans with and without a self-reported history of blast-related mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Methods: Sixty-one OEF/OIF/OND Veterans, including Veterans with a self-reported history of blast-related mTBI (mTBI group; n=42) and Veterans without a self-reported history of TBI (control group; n=19) completed the Memory for Intentions Test, a measure of prospective memory (PM), and two measures of retrospective memory (RM), the California Verbal Learning Test-II and the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised. Results: Veterans in the mTBI group exhibited significantly lower PM performance than the control group, but the groups did not differ in their performance on RM measures. Further analysis revealed that Veterans in the mTBI group with current PTSD (mTBI/PTSD+) demonstrated significantly lower performance on the PM measure than Veterans in the control group. PM performance by Veterans in the mTBI group without current PTSD (mTBI/PTSD-) was intermediate between the mTBI/PTSD+ and control groups, and results for the mTBI/PTSD- group were not significantly different from either of the other two groups. Conclusions: Results suggest that PM performance may be a sensitive marker of cognitive dysfunction among OEF/OIF/OND Veterans with a history of self-reported blast-related mTBI and comorbid PTSD. Reduced PM may account, in part, for complaints of cognitive difficulties in this Veteran cohort, even years post-injury. (JINS, 2018, 24, 324–334)