Skip to main content Accessibility help

Retrospective and Prospective Memory Among OEF/OIF/OND Veterans With a Self-Reported History of Blast-Related mTBI

  • Kathleen F. Pagulayan (a1) (a2), Holly Rau (a1), Renee Madathil (a1), Madeleine Werhane (a3) (a4), Steven P. Millard (a1) (a5), Eric C. Petrie (a1) (a2), Brett Parmenter (a1) (a2), Sarah Peterson (a1), Scott Sorg (a4), Rebecca Hendrickson (a1), Cindy Mayer (a1), James S. Meabon (a1) (a2), Bertrand R. Huber (a6) (a7), Murray Raskind (a1) (a2), David G. Cook (a5) (a8) (a9) and Elaine R. Peskind (a1) (a2)...


Objectives: To evaluate prospective and retrospective memory abilities in Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF), Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), and Operation New Dawn (OND) Veterans with and without a self-reported history of blast-related mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Methods: Sixty-one OEF/OIF/OND Veterans, including Veterans with a self-reported history of blast-related mTBI (mTBI group; n=42) and Veterans without a self-reported history of TBI (control group; n=19) completed the Memory for Intentions Test, a measure of prospective memory (PM), and two measures of retrospective memory (RM), the California Verbal Learning Test-II and the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised. Results: Veterans in the mTBI group exhibited significantly lower PM performance than the control group, but the groups did not differ in their performance on RM measures. Further analysis revealed that Veterans in the mTBI group with current PTSD (mTBI/PTSD+) demonstrated significantly lower performance on the PM measure than Veterans in the control group. PM performance by Veterans in the mTBI group without current PTSD (mTBI/PTSD-) was intermediate between the mTBI/PTSD+ and control groups, and results for the mTBI/PTSD- group were not significantly different from either of the other two groups. Conclusions: Results suggest that PM performance may be a sensitive marker of cognitive dysfunction among OEF/OIF/OND Veterans with a history of self-reported blast-related mTBI and comorbid PTSD. Reduced PM may account, in part, for complaints of cognitive difficulties in this Veteran cohort, even years post-injury. (JINS, 2018, 24, 324–334)


Corresponding author

Correspondence and reprint requests to: Kathleen F. Pagulayan, VA Puget Sound Health Care System, Mail Code S-116-MIRECC, 1660 South Columbian Way, Seattle, WA, 98108. E-mail:


Hide All
Altgassen, M., Kliegel, M., & Martin, M. (2009). Event-based prospective memory in depression: The impact of cue focality. Cognition and Emotion, 23(6), 10411055.
Belanger, H.G., Curtiss, G., Demery, J.A., Lebowitz, B.K., & Vanderploeg, R.D. (2005). Factors moderating neuropsychological outcomes following mild traumatic brain injury: A meta-analysis. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 11(3), 215227.
Belanger, H.G., Kretzmer, T., Yoash-Gantz, R., Pickett, T., & Tupler, L.A. (2009). Cognitive sequelae of blast-related versus other mechanisms of brain trauma. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 15(1), 18.
Belanger, H.G., Spiegel, E., & Vanderploeg, R.D. (2010). Neuropsychological performance following a history of multiple self-reported concussions: A meta-analysis. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 16(2), 262267.
Belanger, H.G., & Vanderploeg, R.D. (2005). The neuropsychological impact of sports-related concussion: A meta-analysis. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 11(4), 345357.
Benedict, R. (1997). Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised. Odessa: Psychological Corporation.
Blake, D., Weathers, F., Nagy, L., Kaloupek, D., Klauminzer, G., Charney, D., & Keane, T. (1990). A clinician rating scale for assessing current and lifetime PTSD: The CAPS-1. Behavior Therapist, 13, 187188.
Blake, D.D., Weathers, F.W., Nagy, L.M., Kaloupek, D.G., Gusman, F.D., Charney, D.S., &&Keane, T.M. (1995). The development of a Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 8(1), 7590.
Burgess, P.W., Alderman, N., Forbes, C., Costello, A., Coates, L.M., Dawson, D.R., & Channon, S. (2006). The case for the development and use of “ecologically valid” measures of executive function in experimental and clinical neuropsychology. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 12(2), 194209.
Butcher, J.N., Graham, J.R., Tellegen, A., & Kaemmer, B. (1989). Manual for the restandardized Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory: MMPI-2. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Carey, C.L., Woods, S.P., Rippeth, J.D., Heaton, R.K., & Grant, I. (2006). Prospective memory in HIV-1 infection. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 28(4), 536548.
Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences, Second Edition. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Contardo, C., Black, A.C., Beauvais, J., Dieckhaus, K., & Rosen, M.I. (2009). Relationship of prospective memory to neuropsychological function and antiretroviral adherence. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 24(6), 547554.
Cooper, D.B., Kennedy, J.E., Cullen, M.A., Critchfield, E., Amador, R.R., & Bowles, A.O. (2011). Association between combat stress and post-concussive symptom reporting in OEF/OIF service members with mild traumatic brain injuries. Brain injury, 25(1), 17.
Davenport, N.D., Lim, K.O., Armstrong, M.T., & Sponheim, S.R. (2012). Diffuse and spatially variable white matter disruptions are associated with blast-related mild traumatic brain injury. NeuroImage, 59(3), 20172024.
Dawson, D.R., Anderson, N.D., Burgess, P., Cooper, E., Krpan, K.M., & Stuss, D.T. (2009). Further development of the Multiple Errands Test: Standardized scoring, reliability, and ecological validity for the Baycrest version. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 90(11 Suppl.), S41S51.
Delis, D., & Kramer, J. (2000). California Verbal Learning Test, Second Edition. San Antonio: Psychological Corporation.
Donnelly, K.T., Donnelly, J.P., Dunnam, M., Warner, G.C., Kittleson, C.J., Constance, J.E., & Alt, M. (2011). Reliability, sensitivity, and specificity of the VA traumatic brain injury screening tool. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 26, 439453.
Drag, L.L., Spencer, R.J., Walker, S.J., Pangilinan, P.H., & Bieliauskas, L.A. (2012). The contributions of self-reported injury characteristics and psychiatric symptoms to cognitive functioning in OEF/OIF veterans with mild traumatic brain injury. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 18(3), 576584.
Etkin, A., Gyurak, A., & O’Hara, R. (2013). A neurobiological approach to the cognitive deficits of psychiatric disorders. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, 15(4), 419429.
Eysenck, M.W., Derakshan, N., Santos, R., & Calvo, M.G. (2007). Anxiety and cognitive performance: Attentional control theory. Emotion, 7(2), 336353.
Fleming, J.M., Shum, D., Strong, J., & Lightbody, S. (2005). Prospective memory rehabilitation for adults with traumatic brain injury: A compensatory training programme. Brain Injury, 19(1), 110.
Foa, E.B., Hembree, E.A., & Rothbaum, B.O. (2007). Prolonged exposure therapy for PTSD: Emotional processing of traumatic experiences: Therapist guide. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
Forbes, D., Creamer, M., & Biddle, D. (2001). The validity of the PTSD checklist as a measure of symptomatic change in combat-related PTSD. Behavior Research and Therapy, 39(8), 977986.
Galarneau, M.R., Woodruff, S.I., Dye, J.L., Mohrle, C.R., & Wade, A.L. (2008). Traumatic brain injury during Operation Iraqi Freedom: Findings from the United States Navy-Marine Corps Combat Trauma Registry. Journal of Neurosurgery, 108(5), 950957.
Gonneaud, J., Rauchs, G., Groussard, M., Landeau, B., Mezenge, F., de La Sayette, V., & Desgranges, B. (2014). How do we process event-based and time-based intentions in the brain? an fMRI study of prospective memory in healthy individuals. Human Brain Mapping, 35(7), 30663082.
Green, R.E., Melo, B., Christensen, B., Ngo, L.A., Monette, G., & Bradbury, C. (2008). Measuring premorbid IQ in traumatic brain injury: An examination of the validity of the Wechsler Test of Adult Reading (WTAR). Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 30, 163172.
Grundgeiger, T., Bayen, U., & Horn, S. (2014). Effects of sleep deprivation on prospective memory. Memory, 22(6), 679686.
Guskiewicz, K.M., McCrea, M., Marshall, S.W., Cantu, R.C., Randolph, C., Barr, W., & Kelly, J.P. (2003). Cumulative effects associated with recurrent concussion in collegiate football players: The NCAA Concussion Study. Journal of the American Medical Association, 290(19), 25492555.
Hayes, J.P., Miller, D.R., Lafleche, G., Salat, D.H., & Verfaellie, M. (2015). The nature of white matter abnormalities in blast-related mild traumatic brain injury. Neuroimage Clinical, 8, 148156.
Hoge, C.W., McGurk, D., Thomas, J.L., Cox, A.L., Engel, C.C., & Castro, C.A. (2008). Mild traumatic brain injury in U.S. Soldiers returning from Iraq. The New England Journal of Medicine, 358(5), 453463.
Holm, S. (1979). A simple sequentially rejective multiple test procedure. Scandinavian Journal of Statistics, 6, 6570.
Hothorn, T., Bretz, F., & Westfall, P. (2008). Simultaneous inference in general parametric models. Biometrical Journal, 50(3), 346363.
Johnstone, B., & Frank, R.G. (1995). Neuropsychological assessment in rehabilitation: Current limitations and applications. NeuroRehabilitation, 5(1), 7586.
Jorge, R.E., Acion, L., White, T., Tordesillas-Gutierrez, D., Pierson, R., Crespo-Facorro, B., && Magnotta, V. (2012). White matter abnormalities in Veterans with mild traumatic brain injury. American Journal of Psychiatry, 169(12), 12841291.
Kamat, R., Weinborn, M., Kellogg, E.J., Bucks, R.S., Velnoweth, A., & Woods, S.P. (2014). Construct validity of the Memory for Intentions Screening Test (MIST) in healthy older adults. Assessment, 21(6), 742753.
Kay, T. (1993). Neuropsychological treatment of mild traumatic brain injury. The Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 8, 7485.
Kirschen, M.P., Chen, S.H.A., Schraedley-Desmond, P., & Desmond, J.E. (2005). Load- and practice-dependent increases in cerebro-cerebellar activation in verbal working memory: An fMRI study. NeuroImage, 24(2), 462472.
Kliegel, M., Altgassen, M., Hering, A., & Rose, N.S. (2011). A process-model based approach to prospective memory impairment in Parkinson’s disease. Neuropsychologia, 49(8), 21662177.
Kliegel, M., Martin, M., McDaniel, M., & Einstein, G. (2002). Complex prospective memory and executive control of working memory: A process model. Psychologische Beitrage, 44, 303318.
Kliegel, M., McDaniel, M., & Einstein, G. (2008). Prospective memory. New York: Taylor and Francis.
Kroenke, K., Spitzer, R.L., & Williams, J.B. (2001). The PHQ-9: Validity of a brief depression severity measure. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 16(9), 606613.
Lange, R.T., Brickell, T.A., Ivins, B., Vanderploeg, R.D., & French, L.M. (2013). Variable, not always persistent, postconcussion symptoms after mild TBI in U.S. military service members: A five-year cross-sectional outcome study. Journal of Neurotrauma, 30(11), 958969.
Levin, H.S., Wilde, E., Troyanskaya, M., Petersen, N.J., Scheibel, R., Newsome, M., & Li, X. (2010). Diffusion tensor imaging of mild to moderate blast-related traumatic brain injury and its sequelae. Journal of Neurotrauma, 27(4), 683694.
Levin, J.R., Serlin, R.C., & Seaman, M.A. (1994). A controlled, powerful multiple-comparison strategy for several situations. Psychological Bulletin, 115(1), 153159.
Lew, H.L., Otis, J.D., Tun, C., Kerns, R.D., Clark, M.E., & Cifu, D.X. (2009). Prevalence of chronic pain, posttraumatic stress disorder, and persistent postconcussive symptoms in OIF/OEF veterans: Polytrauma clinical triad. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, 46(6), 697702.
Ling, J., Campbell, C., Heffernan, T.M., & Greenough, C.G. (2007). Short-term prospective memory deficits in chronic back pain patients. Psychosomatic Medicine, 69(2), 144148.
Lipton, M.L., Gulko, E., Zimmerman, M.E., Friedman, B.W., Kim, M., Gellella, E., & Branch, C.A. (2009). Diffusion-tensor imaging implicates prefrontal axonal injury in executive function impairment following very mild traumatic brain injury. Neuroradiology, 252(3), 816824.
Marshall, A., Heffernan, T., & Hamilton, C. (2016). The synergistic impact of excessive alcohol drinking and cigarette smoking upon prospective memory. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 7, 75.
Mathias, J.L., & Mansfield, K.M. (2005). Prospective and declarative memory problems following moderate and severe traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury, 19(4), 271282.
McCrea, M.A. (2008). Mild trauamatic brain injury and postconcussion syndrome: The new evidence base for diagnosis and treatment. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
McDaniel, M., & Einstein, G. (2000). Strategic and automatic processes in prospective memory retrieval: A multiprocess framework. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 14, S127S144.
McDonald, A., Haslam, C., Yates, P., Gurr, B., Leeder, G., & Sayers, A. (2011). Google calendar: A new memory aid to compensate for prospective memory deficits following acquired brain injury. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 21(6), 784807.
Meabon, J.S., Huber, B.R., Cross, D.J., Richards, T.L., Minoshima, S., Pagulayan, K.F., & Cook, D.G. (2016). Repetitive blast exposure in mice and combat veterans causes persistent cerebellar dysfunction. Science Translational Medicine, 8(321), 115.
Millard, S. (2013). EnvStats: An R package for environmental statistics. New York: Springer-Verlag.
Morey, L.C. (2007). The Personality Assessment Inventory professional manual. Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.
Niogi, S.N., & Mukherjee, P. (2010). Diffusion tensor imaging of mild traumatic brain injury. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 25(4), 241255.
Nelson, N.W., Hoelzle, J.B., Doane, B.M., McGuire, K.A., Ferrier-Auerbach, A.G., Charlesworth, M.J., & Sponheim, S.R. (2012). Neuropsychological outcomes of U.S. Veterans with report of remote blast-related concussion and current psychopathology. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 18(5), 845855.
Nelson, N.W., Hoelzle, J.B., McGuire, K.A., Ferrier-Auerbach, A.G., Charlesworth, M.J., & Sponheim, S.R. (2011). Neuropsychological evaluation of blast-related concussion: Illustrating the challenges and complexities through OEF/OIF case studies. Brain Injury, 25, 511525.
Newcombe, R.G. (1998). Interval estimation for the difference between independent proportions: Comparison of eleven methods. Statistics in Medicine, 17(8), 873890.
Newsome, M.R., Durgerian, S., Mourany, L., Scheibel, R.S., Lowe, M.J., Beall, E.B., & Rao, S.M. (2015). Disruption of caudate working memory activation in chronic blast-related traumatic brain injury. Neuroimage Clinical, 8, 543553.
Newsome, M.R., Mayer, A.R., Lin, X., Troyanskaya, M., Jackson, G.R., Scheibel, R.S., & Levin, H.S. (2016). Chronic effects of blast-related TBI on subcortical functional connectivity in Veterans. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 22, 631642.
O’Neil, M.E., Carlson, K.F., Storzbach, D., Brenner, L.A., Freeman, M., Quinones, A.R., & Kansagara, D. (2014). Factors associated with mild traumatic brain injury in veterans and military personnel: A systematic review. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 20, 249261.
Parsons, T.D. (2015). Virtual reality for enhanced ecological validity and experimental control in the clinical, affective and social neurosciences. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 9, 660.
Paxton, J., & Chiaravalloti, N. (2014). Rule monitoring ability predicts event-based prospective memory performance in individuals with TBI. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 20(7), 673683.
Petrie, E.C., Cross, D.J., Yarnykh, V.L., Richards, T., Martin, N.M., Pagulayan, K., & Peskind, E.R. (2014). Neuroimaging, behavioral, and psychological sequelae of repetitive combined blast/impact mild traumatic brain injury in Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans. Journal of Neurotrauma, 31(5), 425436.
Pietrzak, R.H., Goldstein, M.B., Malley, J.C., Rivers, A.J., Johnson, D.C., & Southwick, S.M. (2010). Risk and protective factors associated with suicidal ideation in veterans of Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom. Journal of Affective Disorders, 123(1-3), 102107.
Poquette, A.J., Moore, D.J., Gouaux, B., Morgan, E.E., Grant, I., & Woods, S.P. (2013). Prospective memory and antiretroviral medication non-adherence in HIV: An analysis of ongoing task delay length using the memory for intentions screening test. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 19(2), 155161.
Raskin, S., Buckheit, C., & Sherrod, C. (2010). Memory for intentions test professional manual. Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.
Raskin, S., & Sohlberg, M. (2009). Prospective memory intervention: A review and evaluation of a pilot restorative intervention. Brain Impairment, 10, 7686.
Raskin, S. (2009). Memory for Intentsions Screening Test: Psychometric properties and clinical evidence. Brain Impairment, 10(1), 2333.
Raskin, S.A., Buckheit, C.A., & Waxman, A. (2012). Effect of type of cue, type of response, time delay and two different ongoing tasks on prospective memory functioning after acquired brain injury. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 22(1), 4064.
R Core Team. (2017). R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. Vienna: R Foundation for Statistical Computing.
Resick, P., Monson, C., & Chard, K. (2008). Cognitive processing therapy veteran/military version: Therapist and patient materials manual. Washington, DC: Department of Veterans Affairs.
Rohling, M.L., Binder, L.M., Demakis, G.J., Larrabee, G.J., Ploetz, D.M., & Langhinrichsen-Rohling, J. (2011). A meta-analysis of neuropsychological outcome after mild traumatic brain injury: Re-analyses and reconsiderations of Binder et al. (1997), Frencham et al. (2005), and Pertab et al. (2009). The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 25(4), 608623.
Scott, J.C., Woods, S.P., Vigil, O., Heaton, R.K., Schweinsburg, B.C., Ellis, R.J., & San Diego, H.I.V., Neurobehavioral Research Center (HNRC) Group. (2011). A neuropsychological investigation of multitasking in HIV infection: Implications for everyday functioning. Neuropsychology, 25(4), 511519.
Scott, J.C., Woods, S.P., Wrocklage, K.M., Schweinsburg, B.C., Southwick, S.M., & Krystal, J.H. (2016). Prospective Memory in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 22, 111.
Shum, D., Fleming, J., Gill, H., Gullo, M.J., & Strong, J. (2011). A randomized controlled trial of prospective memory rehabilitation in adults with traumatic brain injury. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 43(3), 216223.
Spencer, R.J., Drag, L.L., Walker, S.J., & Bieliauskas, L.A. (2010). Self-reported cognitive symptoms following mild traumatic brain injury are poorly associated with neuropsychological performance in OIF/OEF veterans. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, 47(6), 521530.
Spitzer, R.L., Kroenke, K., & Williams, J.B. (1999). Validation and utility of a self-report version of PRIME-MD: The PHQ primary care study. Primary care evaluation of mental disorders. Patient Health Questionnaire. Journal of the American Medical Association, 282(18), 17371744.
Sponheim, S.R., McGuire, K.A., Kang, S.S., Davenport, N.D., Aviyente, S., Bernat, E.M., && Lim, K.O. (2011). Evidence of disrupted functional connectivity in the brain after combat-related blast injury. Neuroimage, 54(Suppl. 1), S21S29.
Storzbach, D., Twamley, E.W., Roost, M.S., Golshan, S., Williams, R.M., O’Neil, M., & Huckans, M. (2017). Compensatory cognitive training for Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation New Dawn Veterans With Mild Traumatic Brain Injury. The Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 32, 1624.
Stroupe, K.T., Smith, B.M., Hogan, T.P., & St Andre, J.R. (2013). Healthcare utilization and costs of Veterans screened and assessed for traumatic brain injury. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, 50(8), 10471068.
Tator, C.H., Davis, H.S., Dufort, P.A., Tartaglia, M.C., Davis, K.D., Ebraheem, A., && Hiploylee, C. (2016). Postconcussion syndrome: Demographics and predictors in 221 patients. Journal of Neurosurgery, 125, 12061216.
Tay, S.Y., Ang, B.T., Lau, X.Y., Meyyappan, A., & Collinson, S.L. (2010). Chronic impairment of prospective memory after mild traumatic brain injury. Journal of Neurotrauma, 27(1), 7783.
Taylor, B.C., Hagel, E.M., Carlson, K.F., Cifu, D.X., Cutting, A., Bidelspach, D.E., && Sayer, N.A. (2012). Prevalence and costs of co-occurring traumatic brain injury with and without psychiatric disturbance and pain among Afghanistan and Iraq War Veteran V.A. users. Medical Care, 50(4), 342346.
Terrio, H., Brenner, L.A., Ivins, B.J., Cho, J.M., Helmick, K., Schwab, K., & Warden, D. (2009). Traumatic brain injury screening: Preliminary findings in a US Army Brigade Combat Team. The Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 24(1), 1423.
Tombaugh, T. (1996). Test of memory malingering. New York: Multi-Health Systems.
Vanderploeg, R.D., Groer, S., & Belanger, H.G. (2012). Initial developmental process of a VA semistructured clinical interview for TBI identification. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, 49, 545556.
Vasterling, J., & Brailey, K. (2005). Neuropsychological findings in adults with PTSD. In J. Vasterling & C. Brewin (Eds.), Neuropsychology of PTSD: Biological, cognitive, and clinical perspectives (pp. 178207). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Vedhara, K., Wadsworth, E., Norman, P., Searle, A., Mitchell, J., Macrae, N., & Memel, D. (2004). Habitual prospective memory in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes: Implications for medication adherence. Psychology, Health, and Medicine, 9(1).
Verfaellie, M., Lafleche, G., Spiro, A., & Bousquet, K. (2014). Neuropsychological outcomes in OEF/OIF veterans with self-report of blast exposure: Associations with mental health, but not MTBI. Neuropsychology, 28(3), 337346.
Walker, W.C., Cifu, D.X., Hudak, A.M., Goldberg, G., Kunz, R.D., & Sima, A.P. (2015). Structured interview for mild traumatic brain injury after military blast: Inter-rater agreement and development of diagnostic algorithm. Journal of Neurotrauma, 32(7), 464473.
Weathers, F.W., Litz, B.T., Herman, D.S., Huska, J.A., & Keane, T.M. (1993). The PTSD Checklist (PCL): Reliability, validity, and diagnostic utility. Paper presented at the 9th Annual Conference of the ISTSS, San Antonio, TX.
Wechsler, D. (2001). Wechsler Test of Adult Reading Manual. San Antonio: Psychological Corporation.
Woods, S.P., Moran, L.M., Dawson, M.S., Carey, C.L., & Grant, I. (2008). Psychometric characteristics of the memory for intentions screening test. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 22(5), 864878.
Woods, S.P., Weber, E., Weisz, B.M., Twamley, E.W., & Grant, I. (2011). Prospective memory deficits are associated with unemployment in persons living with HIV infection. Rehabilitation Psychology, 56(1), 7784.
Zhang, L., Heier, L.A., Zimmerman, R.D., Jordan, B., & Ulug, A.M. (2006). Diffusion anisotropy changes in the brains of professional boxers. American Journal of Neuroradiology, 27(9), 20002004.
Zogg, J.B., Woods, S.P., Weber, E., Iudicello, J.E., Dawson, M.S., & Grant, I. (2010). HIV-associated prospective memory impairment in the laboratory predicts failures on a semi-naturalistic measure of health care compliance. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 24(6), 945962.



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed