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Humans are contributing to large carnivore declines around the globe, and conservation interventions should focus on increasing local stakeholder tolerance of carnivores and be informed by both biological and social considerations. In the Okavango Delta (Botswana), we tested new conservation strategies alongside a pre-existing government compensation programme. The new strategies included the construction of predator-proof livestock enclosures, the establishment of an early warning system linked to GPS satellite lion collars, depredation event investigations and educational programmes. We conducted pre- and post-assessments of villagers’ livestock management practices, attitudes towards carnivores and conservation, perceptions of human–carnivore coexistence and attitudes towards established conservation programmes. Livestock management levels were low and 50% of farmers lost livestock to carnivores, while 5–10% of owned stock was lost. Respondents had strong negative attitudes towards lions, which kill most depredated livestock. Following new management interventions, tolerance of carnivores significantly increased, although tolerance of lions near villages did not. The number of respondents who believed that coexistence with carnivores was possible significantly increased. Respondents had negative attitudes towards the government-run compensation programme, citing low and late payments, but were supportive of the new management interventions. These efforts show that targeted, intensive management can increase stakeholder tolerance of carnivores.
Serotonergic neurotransmission plays a key role in seasonal changes of mood and behaviour. Higher serotonin transporter availability in healthy human subjects in times of lesser light has been reported in recent studies. Furthermore, seasonal alterations of postsynaptic serotonin-1A receptors have been suggested by a recent animal study. Following that, this study aimed at identifying seasonal alterations of serotonin-1A receptor binding in the living human brain.
Thirty-six healthy, drug-naïve subjects were investigated using PET and the specific tracer [carbonyl-11C]WAY-100635. Regional serotonin-1A receptor binding (5-HT1A BPND) was related to the individual exposure to global radiation. Furthermore, the subjects were divided into two groups depending on individual exposure to global radiation, and the group differences in regional 5-HT1A BPND were determined.
Correlation analysis controlled for age and gender revealed highly significant positive correlations between regional postsynaptic 5-HT1A BPND and global radiation accumulated for 5 days (r=.32 to .48, p=.030 to .002). Highly significant differences in 5-HT1A BPND binding between subjects with low compared to high exposure to global radiation were revealed (T=-2.63 to -3.77, p .013 to .001). 20% to 30% lower 5-HT1A BPND was found in the subject group exposed to lower amount of global radiation.
Seasonal factors such as exposure to global radiation influence postsynaptic serotonin-1A receptor binding in various brain regions in healthy human subjects. In combination with seasonal alterations in serotonin turnover and 5-HTT availability revealed in recent studies, our results provide an essential contribution of molecular mechanisms in seasonal changes of human serotonergic neurotransmission.
This study assessed the efficacy of agomelatine (1,2,3), in the prevention of relapse in non-depressed out-patients with DSM-IV-TR defined Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) and the tolerability.
GAD patients received open label agomelatine (25–50 mg/day). At week 4 the dose was increased for patients with insufficient improvement (blinded criteria). At week 16, responders were randomised to maintenance treatment with either agomelatine, or placebo for a 26 week period. Then, agomelatine treated-patients were re-randomised to an agomelatine arm or to a placebo arm, to confirm the lack of discontinuation symptoms (on the DESS check-list).
The primary outcome was the time to relapse (days) during the 26 week double-blind treatment period, as estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Relapse was defined as HAMA total score > = 15 or withdrawal for lack of efficacy (in the investigator's opinion, based on both HAM-A and CGI scores).
477 patients entered the open-label phase and 329 completed this period. 228 patients were randomly assigned to receive agomelatine (114 patients) or placebo (114 patients).
The incidence over time of relapse was significantly lower with agomelatine compared to placebo (19.7% versus 31.7% log rank test p = 0.046) during the double-blind treatment period.
During the double-blind treatment period 12.4% patients with agomelatine and 9.6% with placebo reported at least one emergent adverse event related to the study treatment. There was no discontinuation syndrome in agomelatine treated patients.
Agomelatine was efficacious in preventing relapse in GAD, with maintenance of efficacy over 6 months, and good tolerability.
Two common approaches to identify subgroups of patients with bipolar disorder are clustering methodology (mixture analysis) based on the age of onset, and a birth cohort analysis. This study investigates if a birth cohort effect will influence the results of clustering on the age of onset, using a large, international database.
The database includes 4037 patients with a diagnosis of bipolar I disorder, previously collected at 36 collection sites in 23 countries. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to adjust the data for country median age, and in some models, birth cohort. Model-based clustering (mixture analysis) was then performed on the age of onset data using the residuals. Clinical variables in subgroups were compared.
There was a strong birth cohort effect. Without adjusting for the birth cohort, three subgroups were found by clustering. After adjusting for the birth cohort or when considering only those born after 1959, two subgroups were found. With results of either two or three subgroups, the youngest subgroup was more likely to have a family history of mood disorders and a first episode with depressed polarity. However, without adjusting for birth cohort (three subgroups), family history and polarity of the first episode could not be distinguished between the middle and oldest subgroups.
These results using international data confirm prior findings using single country data, that there are subgroups of bipolar I disorder based on the age of onset, and that there is a birth cohort effect. Including the birth cohort adjustment altered the number and characteristics of subgroups detected when clustering by age of onset. Further investigation is needed to determine if combining both approaches will identify subgroups that are more useful for research.
Prenatal maternal depression predicts disturbances in stress responses and an increased risk of psychopathology in offspring. However the foetal origins of these programming influences on the offspring's stress response mechanism are unclear. Furthermore, there are no inquiries into this issue from the developing world, where high rates of prenatal depression (25-45%) are reported.
To explore associations between prenatal depression and, foetal and infant responsivity, in a sample from rural South India.
67 pregnant women in their third trimester with high prenatal depression scores and 66 controls were assessed for their foetus’ responsivity to repeated vibroacoustic stimulation by measuring foetal heart rate responses. At 1.5-3 months postbirth, infant cortisol responses to immunisation and infant temperament were measured.
A curvilinear relationship existed between prenatal depression and foetal responsivity to a potential stressor (R2=0.98, p=0.02). Foetuses of mothers with both very high and very low levels of depression showed elevated responses compared to the foetuses of mothers with moderate levels of depression.
Prenatal depression predicted elevated infant cortisol responsivity independent of postnatal depression and other confounders (B=13.08, p=0.02). Quintile analysis revealed this relationship to be U shaped (R2=0.20, p=0.02), similar to the relationship between prenatal depression and foetal responsivity.
There were no associations between prenatal depression and difficult infant temperament.
The findings provide the first evidence of a curvilinear relationship between prenatal depression and offspring stress responsivity from the developing world suggesting that intra-uterine exposure to moderate stress levels may be beneficial in the context of socio-economic disadvantage.
Previously, a number of observational studies have found no association between contact with services and improved outcomes in children with psychopathology, despite the existence of effective interventions. The British Child and Adolescent Mental Health Survey (BCAMHS) 2004 is a study of 5,325 children aged 5-16, with data on parent-reported mental health-related public sector service contacts and psychopathology over three years, allowing exploration of the association in a large community-based dataset.
Describe the trajectories of children in contact and not in contact with services over three years from 2004-2007
Explore the association between mental health-related service contact over the study period and outcomes in terms of parent-rated psychopathology
This study is a secondary analysis of children's trajectories by service contact status (no contact, contact 2004 only, contact 2007 only, contact 2004 & 2007). The main measure of psychopathology over time was the well-validated Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Multivariable linear regression was used to examine the association between contact and outcomes in children with a psychiatric disorder at baseline in 2004.
Children in contact with services demonstrated the highest levels of psychopathology over time, and the 2007-only contact group displayed a trajectory of increasing difficulties. Overall, contact with services was not associated with improvement in outcomes, following adjustment for measured confounders.
The effectiveness of contact alone with services was not demonstrated in our findings. Despite methodological limitations, this underlines the need for continuing development and consistent implementation of effective interventions, alongside initiatives evaluating outcomes within services.
An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that meat products have digestible indispensable amino acid scores (DIAAS) >100 and that various processing methods will increase standardised ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) and DIAAS. Nine ileal-cannulated gilts were randomly allotted to a 9 × 8 Youden square design with nine diets and eight 7-d periods. Values for SID of AA and DIAAS for two reference patterns were calculated for salami, bologna, beef jerky, raw ground beef, cooked ground beef and ribeye roast heated to 56, 64 or 72°C. The SID of most AA was not different among salami, bologna, beef jerky and cooked ground beef, but was less (P < 0·05) than the values for raw ground beef. The SID of AA for 56°C ribeye roast was not different from the values for raw ground beef and 72°C ribeye roast, but greater (P < 0·05) than those for 64°C ribeye roast. For older children, adolescents and adults, the DIAAS for all proteins, except cooked ground beef, were >100 and bologna and 64°C ribeye roast had the greatest (P < 0·05) DIAAS. The limiting AA for this age group were sulphur AA (beef jerky), leucine (bologna, raw ground beef and cooked ground beef) and valine (salami and the three ribeye roasts). In conclusion, meat products generally provide high-quality protein with DIAAS >100 regardless of processing. However, overcooking meat may reduce AA digestibility and DIAAS.
Despite the progress made in HIV treatment and prevention, HIV remains a major cause of adolescent morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. As perinatally infected children increasingly survive into adulthood, the quality of life and mental health of this population has increased in importance. This review provides a synthesis of the prevalence of mental health problems in this population and explores associated factors. A systematic database search (Medline, PsycINFO, Scopus) with an additional hand search was conducted. Peer-reviewed studies on adolescents (aged 10–19), published between 2008 and 2019, assessing mental health symptoms or psychiatric disorders, either by standardized questionnaires or by diagnostic interviews, were included. The search identified 1461 articles, of which 301 were eligible for full-text analysis. Fourteen of these, concerning HIV-positive adolescents, met the inclusion criteria and were critically appraised. Mental health problems were highly prevalent among this group, with around 25% scoring positive for any psychiatric disorder and 30–50% showing emotional or behavioral difficulties or significant psychological distress. Associated factors found by regression analysis were older age, not being in school, impaired family functioning, HIV-related stigma and bullying, and poverty. Social support and parental competence were protective factors. Mental health problems among HIV-positive adolescents are highly prevalent and should be addressed as part of regular HIV care.
Intermittent explosive disorder (IED) is characterised by impulsive anger attacks that vary greatly across individuals in severity and consequence. Understanding IED subtypes has been limited by lack of large, general population datasets including assessment of IED. Using the 17-country World Mental Health surveys dataset, this study examined whether behavioural subtypes of IED are associated with differing patterns of comorbidity, suicidality and functional impairment.
IED was assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview in the World Mental Health surveys (n = 45 266). Five behavioural subtypes were created based on type of anger attack. Logistic regression assessed association of these subtypes with lifetime comorbidity, lifetime suicidality and 12-month functional impairment.
The lifetime prevalence of IED in all countries was 0.8% (s.e.: 0.0). The two subtypes involving anger attacks that harmed people (‘hurt people only’ and ‘destroy property and hurt people’), collectively comprising 73% of those with IED, were characterised by high rates of externalising comorbid disorders. The remaining three subtypes involving anger attacks that destroyed property only, destroyed property and threatened people, and threatened people only, were characterised by higher rates of internalising than externalising comorbid disorders. Suicidal behaviour did not vary across the five behavioural subtypes but was higher among those with (v. those without) comorbid disorders, and among those who perpetrated more violent assaults.
The most common IED behavioural subtypes in these general population samples are associated with high rates of externalising disorders. This contrasts with the findings from clinical studies of IED, which observe a preponderance of internalising disorder comorbidity. This disparity in findings across population and clinical studies, together with the marked heterogeneity that characterises the diagnostic entity of IED, suggests that it is a disorder that requires much greater research.
Epidemiological studies indicate that individuals with one type of mental disorder have an increased risk of subsequently developing other types of mental disorders. This study aimed to undertake a comprehensive analysis of pair-wise lifetime comorbidity across a range of common mental disorders based on a diverse range of population-based surveys.
The WHO World Mental Health (WMH) surveys assessed 145 990 adult respondents from 27 countries. Based on retrospectively-reported age-of-onset for 24 DSM-IV mental disorders, associations were examined between all 548 logically possible temporally-ordered disorder pairs. Overall and time-dependent hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models. Absolute risks were estimated using the product-limit method. Estimates were generated separately for men and women.
Each prior lifetime mental disorder was associated with an increased risk of subsequent first onset of each other disorder. The median HR was 12.1 (mean = 14.4; range 5.2–110.8, interquartile range = 6.0–19.4). The HRs were most prominent between closely-related mental disorder types and in the first 1–2 years after the onset of the prior disorder. Although HRs declined with time since prior disorder, significantly elevated risk of subsequent comorbidity persisted for at least 15 years. Appreciable absolute risks of secondary disorders were found over time for many pairs.
Survey data from a range of sites confirms that comorbidity between mental disorders is common. Understanding the risks of temporally secondary disorders may help design practical programs for primary prevention of secondary disorders.
Good education requires student experiences that deliver lessons about practice as well as theory and that encourage students to work for the public good—especially in the operation of democratic institutions (Dewey 1923; Dewy 1938). We report on an evaluation of the pedagogical value of a research project involving 23 colleges and universities across the country. Faculty trained and supervised students who observed polling places in the 2016 General Election. Our findings indicate that this was a valuable learning experience in both the short and long terms. Students found their experiences to be valuable and reported learning generally and specifically related to course material. Postelection, they also felt more knowledgeable about election science topics, voting behavior, and research methods. Students reported interest in participating in similar research in the future, would recommend other students to do so, and expressed interest in more learning and research about the topics central to their experience. Our results suggest that participants appreciated the importance of elections and their study. Collectively, the participating students are engaged and efficacious—essential qualities of citizens in a democracy.
Investigations of drinking behavior across military deployment cycles are scarce, and few prospective studies have examined risk factors for post-deployment alcohol misuse.
Prevalence of alcohol misuse was estimated among 4645 US Army soldiers who participated in a longitudinal survey. Assessment occurred 1–2 months before soldiers deployed to Afghanistan in 2012 (T0), upon their return to the USA (T1), 3 months later (T2), and 9 months later (T3). Weights-adjusted logistic regression was used to evaluate associations of hypothesized risk factors with post-deployment incidence and persistence of heavy drinking (HD) (consuming 5 + alcoholic drinks at least 1–2×/week) and alcohol or substance use disorder (AUD/SUD).
Prevalence of past-month HD at T0, T2, and T3 was 23.3% (s.e. = 0.7%), 26.1% (s.e. = 0.8%), and 22.3% (s.e. = 0.7%); corresponding estimates for any binge drinking (BD) were 52.5% (s.e. = 1.0%), 52.5% (s.e. = 1.0%), and 41.3% (s.e. = 0.9%). Greater personal life stress during deployment (e.g., relationship, family, or financial problems) – but not combat stress – was associated with new onset of HD at T2 [per standard score increase: adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.20, 95% CI 1.06–1.35, p = 0.003]; incidence of AUD/SUD at T2 (AOR = 1.54, 95% CI 1.25–1.89, p < 0.0005); and persistence of AUD/SUD at T2 and T3 (AOR = 1.30, 95% CI 1.08–1.56, p = 0.005). Any BD pre-deployment was associated with post-deployment onset of HD (AOR = 3.21, 95% CI 2.57–4.02, p < 0.0005) and AUD/SUD (AOR = 1.85, 95% CI 1.27–2.70, p = 0.001).
Alcohol misuse is common during the months preceding and following deployment. Timely intervention aimed at alleviating/managing personal stressors or curbing risky drinking might reduce risk of alcohol-related problems post-deployment.
Research on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) course finds a substantial proportion of cases remit within 6 months, a majority within 2 years, and a substantial minority persists for many years. Results are inconsistent about pre-trauma predictors.
The WHO World Mental Health surveys assessed lifetime DSM-IV PTSD presence-course after one randomly-selected trauma, allowing retrospective estimates of PTSD duration. Prior traumas, childhood adversities (CAs), and other lifetime DSM-IV mental disorders were examined as predictors using discrete-time person-month survival analysis among the 1575 respondents with lifetime PTSD.
20%, 27%, and 50% of cases recovered within 3, 6, and 24 months and 77% within 10 years (the longest duration allowing stable estimates). Time-related recall bias was found largely for recoveries after 24 months. Recovery was weakly related to most trauma types other than very low [odds-ratio (OR) 0.2–0.3] early-recovery (within 24 months) associated with purposefully injuring/torturing/killing and witnessing atrocities and very low later-recovery (25+ months) associated with being kidnapped. The significant ORs for prior traumas, CAs, and mental disorders were generally inconsistent between early- and later-recovery models. Cross-validated versions of final models nonetheless discriminated significantly between the 50% of respondents with highest and lowest predicted probabilities of both early-recovery (66–55% v. 43%) and later-recovery (75–68% v. 39%).
We found PTSD recovery trajectories similar to those in previous studies. The weak associations of pre-trauma factors with recovery, also consistent with previous studies, presumably are due to stronger influences of post-trauma factors.
Sexual assault is a global concern with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), one of the common sequelae. Early intervention can help prevent PTSD, making identification of those at high risk for the disorder a priority. Lack of representative sampling of both sexual assault survivors and sexual assaults in prior studies might have reduced the ability to develop accurate prediction models for early identification of high-risk sexual assault survivors.
Data come from 12 face-to-face, cross-sectional surveys of community-dwelling adults conducted in 11 countries. Analysis was based on the data from the 411 women from these surveys for whom sexual assault was the randomly selected lifetime traumatic event (TE). Seven classes of predictors were assessed: socio-demographics, characteristics of the assault, the respondent's retrospective perception that she could have prevented the assault, other prior lifetime TEs, exposure to childhood family adversities and prior mental disorders.
Prevalence of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV (DSM-IV) PTSD associated with randomly selected sexual assaults was 20.2%. PTSD was more common for repeated than single-occurrence victimization and positively associated with prior TEs and childhood adversities. Respondent's perception that she could have prevented the assault interacted with history of mental disorder such that it reduced odds of PTSD, but only among women without prior disorders (odds ratio 0.2, 95% confidence interval 0.1–0.9). The final model estimated that 40.3% of women with PTSD would be found among the 10% with the highest predicted risk.
Whether counterfactual preventability cognitions are adaptive may depend on mental health history. Predictive modelling may be useful in targeting high-risk women for preventive interventions.
Background: The surgical risk factors and neuro-imaging characteristics associated with cerebellar mutism (CM) remain unclear and require further investigation. We aimed to examine surgical and MRI findings associated with CM in children following posterior fossa tumor resection. Methods: Using our data registry, we retrospectively collected data from pediatric patients who acquired CM and were matched based on age and pathology type with patients not acquiring CM after posterior fossa surgery. The strength of association between surgical and MRI variables and CM were examined using odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: A total of 22 patients were included. Medulloblastoma was the most common pathology among CM patients (91%). Tumor attachment to the floor of the fourth ventricle (OR, 6; 95% CI, 0.7-276), calcification/hemosiderin deposition (OR 7; 95% CI 0.9-315.5), and post-operative peri-ventricular ischemia on MRI (OR, 5; 95% CI, 0.5-236.5) were found to have the highest association with CM. Conclusions: Our results may suggest that tumor attachment to the floor of the fourth ventricle, pathological calcification, and post-operative ischemia are relatively more prevalent in patients with CM. Collectively, our work calls for a larger multi-institutional study of CM patients to further investigate the determinants and management of CM to potentially minimize its development and predict onset.
The suicide rate has increased significantly among US Army soldiers over the past decade. Here we report the first results from a large psychological autopsy study using two control groups designed to reveal risk factors for suicide death among soldiers beyond known sociodemographic factors and the presence of suicide ideation.
Informants were next-of-kin and Army supervisors for: 135 suicide cases, 137 control soldiers propensity-score-matched on known sociodemographic risk factors for suicide and Army history variables, and 118 control soldiers who reported suicide ideation in the past year.
Results revealed that most (79.3%) soldiers who died by suicide have a prior mental disorder; mental disorders in the prior 30-days were especially strong risk factors for suicide death. Approximately half of suicide decedents tell someone that they are considering suicide. Virtually all of the risk factors identified in this study differed between suicide cases and propensity-score-matched controls, but did not significantly differ between suicide cases and suicide ideators. The most striking difference between suicides and ideators was the presence in the former of an internalizing disorder (especially depression) and multi-morbidity (i.e. 3+ disorders) in the past 30 days.
Most soldiers who die by suicide have identifiable mental disorders shortly before their death and tell others about their suicidal thinking, suggesting that there are opportunities for prevention and intervention. However, few risk factors distinguish between suicide ideators and decedents, pointing to an important direction for future research.
Introduction: The Canadian Triage and Acuity Scale (CTAS) is the standard used in all Canadian (and many international) emergency departments (EDs) for establishing the priority by which patients should be assessed. In addition to its clinical utility, CTAS has become an important administrative metric used by governments to estimate patient care requirements, ED funding and workload models. Despite its importance, the process by which CTAS scores are derived is highly variable. Emphasis on ED wait times has also drawn attention to the length of time the triage process takes. The primary objective of this study was to determine the interrater agreement of CTAS in current clinical practice. The secondary objective was to determine the time it takes to triage in a variety of ED settings. Methods: This was a prospective, observational study conducted in 7 hospital EDs, selected to represent a mix of triage processes (electronic vs. manual), documentation practices (electronic vs. paper), hospital types (rural, community and teaching) and patient volumes (annual ED census ranged from 38,000 to 136,000). An expert CTAS auditor observed on-duty triage nurses in the ED and assigned independent CTAS in real time. Research assistants not involved in the triage process independently recorded the triage time. Interrater agreement was estimated using unweighted and quadratic-weighted kappa statistics with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: 738 consecutive patient CTAS assessments were audited over 21 seven-hour triage shifts. Exact modal agreement was achieved for 554 (75.0%) patients. Using the auditor’s CTAS score as the reference standard, on-duty triage nurses over-triaged 89 (12.1%) and under-triaged 95 (12.9%) patients. Interrater agreement was “good” with an unweighted kappa of 0.63 (95% CI: 0.58, 0.67) and quadratic-weighted kappa of 0.79 (95% CI: 0.67, 0.90). Research assistants captured triage time for 3808 patients over 69 shifts at 7 different EDs. Median (IQR) triage time was 5.2 (3.8, 7.3) minutes and ranged from 3.9 (3.1, 4.8) minutes to 7.5 (5.8, 10.8) minutes. Conclusion: Variability in the accuracy, and length of time taken to perform CTAS assessments suggest that a standardized approach to performing CTAS assessments would improve both clinical decision making, and administrative data accuracy.
The stress sensitization theory hypothesizes that individuals exposed to childhood adversity will be more vulnerable to mental disorders from proximal stressors. We aimed to test this theory with respect to risk of 30-day major depressive episode (MDE) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) among new US Army soldiers.
The sample consisted of 30 436 new soldier recruits in the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience (Army STARRS). Generalized linear models were constructed, and additive interactions between childhood maltreatment profiles and level of 12-month stressful experiences on the risk of 30-day MDE and GAD were analyzed.
Stress sensitization was observed in models of past 30-day MDE (χ28 = 17.6, p = 0.025) and GAD (χ28 = 26.8, p = 0.001). This sensitization only occurred at high (3+) levels of reported 12-month stressful experiences. In pairwise comparisons for the risk of 30-day MDE, the risk difference between 3+ stressful experiences and no stressful experiences was significantly greater for all maltreatment profiles relative to No Maltreatment. Similar results were found with the risk for 30-day GAD with the exception of the risk difference for Episodic Emotional and Sexual Abuse, which did not differ statistically from No Maltreatment.
New soldiers are at an increased risk of 30-day MDE or GAD following recent stressful experiences if they were exposed to childhood maltreatment. Particularly in the military with an abundance of unique stressors, attempts to identify this population and improve stress management may be useful in the effort to reduce the risk of mental disorders.
Traumatic events are common globally; however, comprehensive population-based cross-national data on the epidemiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the paradigmatic trauma-related mental disorder, are lacking.
Data were analyzed from 26 population surveys in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys. A total of 71 083 respondents ages 18+ participated. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview assessed exposure to traumatic events as well as 30-day, 12-month, and lifetime PTSD. Respondents were also assessed for treatment in the 12 months preceding the survey. Age of onset distributions were examined by country income level. Associations of PTSD were examined with country income, world region, and respondent demographics.
The cross-national lifetime prevalence of PTSD was 3.9% in the total sample and 5.6% among the trauma exposed. Half of respondents with PTSD reported persistent symptoms. Treatment seeking in high-income countries (53.5%) was roughly double that in low-lower middle income (22.8%) and upper-middle income (28.7%) countries. Social disadvantage, including younger age, female sex, being unmarried, being less educated, having lower household income, and being unemployed, was associated with increased risk of lifetime PTSD among the trauma exposed.
PTSD is prevalent cross-nationally, with half of all global cases being persistent. Only half of those with severe PTSD report receiving any treatment and only a minority receive specialty mental health care. Striking disparities in PTSD treatment exist by country income level. Increasing access to effective treatment, especially in low- and middle-income countries, remains critical for reducing the population burden of PTSD.