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The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between affect and short-term life satisfaction (LS) taking into account the dimension of activation for positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) and the balance of PA and NA.
The study included 398 students (184 men and 214 women) who completed six questionnaires three of which were used for another study. The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule was utilized for assessing activated PA and NA. Two subscales of the Multiple Mood Scale were used to measure deactivated PA and NA, and the Short-term Life Satisfaction Scale for LS. Correlation analyses and hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted to mainly examine the relationships between affect balance (PA-NA and PA/NA) and LS.
The results of correlation analyses showed that LS was positively associated with affect balance in both activated and deactivated dimension. Additionally, the hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed a significant interaction between activated PA and NA, which indicated that the relationship between activated PA and LS in women was strengthened when the level of activated NA was relatively lower.
The findings in this study suggested that students who have stronger PA compared to NA might feel high LS in both activated and deactivated dimension. Moreover, it was suggested that the profitable effect of activated PA on LS in women would be larger when their activated NA was relatively weakened.
We examined the effects of affect and emotional suppression (ES) on short-term life satisfaction (LS). In doing so, we considered the dimension of activation for positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA).
The final sample included the data collected from 398 students (184 men and 214 women). The mean ages were 19.15 yrs for men and 19.84 yrs for women. Participants answered six questionnaires two of which were used for another study. The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule was utilized for assessing activated PA and NA, two subscales of the Multiple Mood Scale to measure deactivated PA and NA, respectively, one subscale of the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire for gauzing ES, and the Short-term Life Satisfaction Scale for LS. All of them were Japanese versions, answered on the past week.
Results showed that LS was positively associated with PA and negatively with NA, but that its positive association was stronger in activated PA than deactivated PA while its negative association was stronger in deactivated NA than activated NA. The interaction between deactivated NA and ES was significant in men, whose post-hoc tests suggested that deactivated NA was more negatively associated with LS when ES was higher.
This study suggested that activated and deactivated affect differ in their relations to life satisfaction. Moreover, it is likely that the detrimental effect of NA on life satisfaction is larger when the expression of NA is more strongly suppressed.
We examined the effects of affect and emotional suppression (ES) on short-term life satisfaction (LS) and depression. In doing so, we considered the dimension of activation for positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA).
The final sample included the data collected from 496 undergraduate and graduate students (240 men and 256 women). Participants answered seven questionnaires for assessing activated PA and NA, ES of PA and NA, short-term LS, and depression, three of which were used for another study. All of them were Japanese versions, answered on the past week.
Results from hierarchical regression analyses showed that LS was positively associated with PA and negatively with NA, but that its positive association was stronger in activated PA than deactivated PA while its negative association was stronger in deactivated NA than activated NA. Similar findings were obtained for depression. The significant interactions suggested:
(1) higher scores of ES of PA weaken the positive association between activated PA and LS in both sexes;
(2) higher scores of ES of NA strengthen the negative association between activated NA and LS in men and weaken the association in women; and
(3) the positive association between activated NA and depression is weakened by higher scores of ES of NA in women.
This study suggested that activated and deactivated affect differ in their relations to life satisfaction and depression. Moreover, it is likely that although ES of PA and NA influences health, its effects would be different between men and women.
Japanese universities are required to improve both international and Japanese students' mental health, because the number of international students increases annually. Moreover, mental health data for graduate school students in Japan are lacking. Therefore, the present study attempted to examine differences in graduate school students' mental health according to major, grade, and nationality.
A total of 587 students from a Japanese university, which only offers graduate school education, completed the Japanese version of Kessler 6 (K6) as part of their regular health assessments; 542 students agreed to the use of their data for research purposes.
The K6 scores were analyzed using a 3-way (major × grade × nationality) between-subjects ANOVA, and a significant second-order interaction (F(6, 518) = 2.68, p < .05) was observed. As a subsequent 2-way (major × nationality) ANOVA, performed according to grade, only showed an interaction for first-grade master's degree students (M1; F(2, 167) = 7.88, p < .01), comparisons between Japanese and international students were made according to major. For one major, Japanese students' K6 scores tended to be higher relative to those observed in international students (t(36) = 1.98, p < .10). In contrast, international students' K6 scores for another major were significantly higher than were those of Japanese students (t(86) = 3.31, p < .01).
Japanese and international M1 students' K6 scores differed significantly. University staff should take these differences into account and examine ways to support students.
The Keio Twin Research Center (KoTReC) was established in 2009 at Keio University to combine two longitudinal cohort projects — the Keio Twin Study (KTS) for adolescence and adulthood and the Tokyo Twin Cohort Project (ToTCoP) for infancy and childhood. KoTReC also conducted a two-time panel study of self-control and psychopathology in twin adolescence in 2012 and 2013 and three independent anonymous cross-sectional twin surveys (ToTcross) before 2012 — the ToTCross, the Junior and Senior High School Survey and the High School Survey. This article introduces the recent research designs of KoTReC and its publications.
Many medical procedures such as brachytherapy, thermal ablations, and biopsies are performed using needle-based procedures. In this work, 3D manipulation of an active needle realized by multiple Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) actuators was first predicted by Finite Element Analyses (FEA), and then demonstrated by a fabricate prototype. The FEA results were validated by planar deflection of an active needle. A similar FEA was developed to predict 3D manipulation of the active needle. For 17-gage needle, a maximum of 26° reversible deflection was achieved in 3D space via actuation forces of a 0.127 mm SMA wire. A scaled prototype was also developed and tested to show the feasibility of developing a 3D steering active needle with multiple actuators.
High dietary energy density (ED) has been associated with weight gain. However, little is known about the long-term effects of ED on weight changes among free-living subjects, particularly in Japanese and other Asian populations. In this study, we assessed dietary habits and weight changes in participants (5778 males and 7440 females, 35–69 years old) of the Takayama study. ED was estimated using a validated FFQ at baseline only. Information on body weight (BW) was obtained by self-administered questionnaires at baseline and follow-up. Mean BW difference in 9·8 years was 17 (se 4221) g for men and −210 (se 3889) g for women. In men, ED was positively associated with BW at follow-up after controlling for age, BW, height, physical activity score, alcohol consumption, energy intake, years of education at the baseline and change of smoking status during the follow-up. On average, men in the highest quartile of ED (>5·322 kJ/g (>1·272 kcal/g)) gained 138 (se 111) g, whereas men in the lowest ED (<1·057) lost 22 (se 111) g (Pfor trend=0·01). The association between ED and BW gain was stronger in men with normal weight. In women, the association between ED and weight change was not statistically significant. In conclusion, contrary to some studies that report an association between ED and weight gain in the overweight only, our data suggest that high-ED diets may be associated with weight gain in the lean population as well, at least in male subjects.
Insufficient nutrition during the perinatal period causes structural alterations in humans and experimental animals, leading to increased vulnerability to diseases in later life. Japanese quail, Coturnix japonica, in which partial (8–10%) egg white was withdrawn (EwW) from eggs before incubation had lower birth weights than controls (CTs). EwW birds also had reduced hatching rates, smaller glomeruli and lower embryo weight. In EwW embryos, the surface condensate area containing mesenchymal cells was larger, suggesting that delayed but active nephrogenesis takes place. In mature EwW quail, the number of glomeruli in the cortical region (mm2) was significantly lower (CT 34.7±1.4, EwW 21.0±1.2); capillary loops showed focal ballooning, and mesangial areas were distinctly expanded. Immunoreactive cell junction proteins, N-cadherin and podocin, and slit diaphragms were clearly seen. With aging, the mesangial area and glomerular size continued to increase and were significantly larger in EwW quail, suggesting compensatory hypertrophy. Furthermore, apoptosis measured by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick-end labeling analysis was higher in EwWs than in CTs on embryonic day 15 and postnatal day 4 (D4). Similarly, plasma glucocorticoid (corticosterone) was higher (P<0.01) on D4 in EwW quail. These results suggest that although nephrogenic activity is high in low-nutrition quail during the perinatal period, delayed development and increased apoptosis may result in a lower number of mature nephrons. Damaged or incompletely mature mesangium may trigger glomerular injury, leading in later life to nephrosclerosis. The present study shows that birds serve as a model for ‘fetal programming,’ which appears to have evolved phylogenetically early.
Pillared-graphene is one of nanocarbon hybrids. It consists of graphene sheets and carbon nanotubes (CNTs); the latter are bonded vertically to the former. In order to investigate the hardness of pillared-graphene, indentation simulations are performed using a molecular dynamics method. It is revealed that the hardness of pillared-graphene increases with increasing the diameter of the CNTs, whereas it decreases with increasing the distance between CNTs or temperature. Such tendencies can be understood by considering the deformations of graphene and CNTs individually.
A new approach is proposed to analyze Bremsstrahlung X-rays that are emitted from laser-produced plasmas (LPP) and are measured by a stack type spectrometer. This new method is based on a spectral tomographic reconstruction concept with the variational principle for optimization, without referring to the electron energy distribution of a plasma. This approach is applied to the analysis of some experimental data obtained at a few major laser facilities to demonstrate the applicability of the method. Slope temperatures of X-rays from LPP are determined with a two-temperature model, showing different spectral characteristics of X-rays depending on laser properties used in the experiments.
Although human paranasal sinuses are critical organs for nitric oxide production, little information is available regarding the role of arginase in alterations of arginine metabolism and nasal nitric oxide levels that may be informative for classifying chronic rhinosinusitis subtypes.
The expression and localisation of arginase and nitric oxide synthase isoforms in paranasal sinus mucosa were examined, and the fractional exhaled nitric oxide was measured in chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps (n=18) and chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (n = 27) patients.
Increased arginase-2 activities in chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps patients were associated with significantly lower levels of nasal fractional exhaled nitric oxide. Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps patients showed significant NOS2 messenger RNA upregulation with concomitant higher levels of oral and nasal fractional exhaled nitric oxide.
These results indicate that fractional exhaled nitric oxide is a valid marker for differentiating chronic rhinosinusitis phenotypes based on a delicate balance between arginase and nitric oxide synthase activities in nitric oxide production.
Generally, indium-tin-oxides (ITO) thin film is prepared by the sputtering process with ITO target, but only 20% of ITO yielded from the target is deposited on the substrate. Namely, about 80% ITO is exhausted by the deposition elsewhere far from the substrate. The recycling process is limited so that ca 20% ITO of the starting target is lost without any recovery. Even if the recycling of ITO has been carried out in this process, we should prepare ITO target of 5 times more than apparent use of ITO on film. If we change it to printing process from the sputtering, the reduction in ITO use is expected as ca. 50%, considering the increase in film thickness by printing. Our target technology also includes ITO nanoink for the project. As a result, monodispersed ITO nanoparticles (NPs) with a cubic shape were fabricated by using quaternary ammonium hydroxide-assisted metal hydroxide organogels. These NPs have perfect uniformity in size with beautiful shape, and perfect single crystalline structure including Sn. As we were attempted to make thin film with ITO nanoink, it was successfully fabricated below 200 nm in thickness and the resistivity was drastically decreased below 1.0 x 10-3 Ω cm after heat treatments. GZO nanoink as substitute of ITO has also been developed.