To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Data on average iodine requirements for the Chinese population are limited following implementation of long-term universal salt iodization. We explored the minimum iodine requirements of young adults in China using a balance experiment and the “iodine overflow” hypothesis proposed by our team. Sixty healthy young adults were enrolled to consume a sequential experimental diet containing low, medium, and high levels of iodine (about 20, 40, and 60 μg/d, respectively). Each dose was consumed for 4 days, and daily iodine intake, excretion, and retention were assessed. All participants were in negative iodine balance throughout the study. Iodine intake, excretion, and retention differed among the three iodine levels (P < 0.01 for all groups). The zero-iodine balance derived from a random effect model indicated a mean iodine intake of 102 µg/d, but poor correlation coefficients between observed and predicted iodine excretion (r = 0.538 for µg/d data) and retention (r = 0.304 for µg/d data). As iodine intake increased from medium to high, all of the increased iodine was excreted (“overflow”) through urine and feces by males, and 89.5% was excreted by females. Although the high iodine level (63.4 μg/d) might be adequate in males, the corresponding level of 61.6 μg/d in females did not meet optimal requirements. Our findings indicate that a daily iodine intake of approximately half the current RNI (120 μg/d) may satisfy the minimum iodine requirements of young male adults in China, while a similar level is insufficient for females based on the “iodine overflow” hypothesis.
To identify the association of the glucokinase gene (GCK) rs4607517 polymorphism with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and determine whether sweets consumption could interact with the polymorphism on GDM in Chinese women.
We conducted a case–control study at a hospital including 1015 participants (562 GDM cases and 453 controls). We collected the data of pre-pregnancy BMI, sweets consumption and performed genotyping of the GCK rs4607517 polymorphism. Logistic regression was performed to test the association between the rs4607517 polymorphism and GDM, and the stratified analyses by sweets consumption were conducted, using an additive genetic model.
A case–control study of women at a hospital in Beijing, China.
One thousand and fifteen Chinese women.
The GCK rs4607517 A allele was significantly associated with GDM (OR 1·35, 95 % CI 1·03, 1·77; P = 0·028). Furthermore, stratified analyses showed that the A allele increased the risk of GDM only in women who had a habitual consumption of sweet foods (sweets consumption ≥ once per week) (OR 1·61, 95 % CI 1·17, 2·21; P = 0·003). Significant interaction on GDM was found between the rs4607517 A allele and sweets consumption (P = 0·004).
This study for the first time reported the interaction between the GCK rs4607517 polymorphism and sweets consumption on GDM. The results provided novel evidence for risk assessment and personalised prevention of GDM.
To explore the epidemiological characteristics of COVID-19 associated with SARS-Cov-2 in Guizhou province, and to compare the differences in epidemiology with other provinces.
The data were extracted from National Health Commission of the People’s Republic of China, Health Commission of Guizhou province, and Health Commission of Hubei province from January 20 to February 12, 2020. Information included such as general demographic indicators, population data and clinical outcome.
A total of 135 cases were analyzed in the study. The average age was 39.46±18.95 years. The ratio of males to females was 0.985:1. Most of COVID-19 patients were 18-45 years old (52.27%). Close contact history was the most common (37.88%), followed by residence history in Hubei (34.85%). There was no difference between males and females in age (P=0.953) and exposure condition (P=0.186). Correlation analysis showed that there was a significant positive correlation between the migration index and the number of confirmed cases (r=0.816, P=0.007).
Among the cases, most patients were young adults. Most epidemiological characteristics were no difference between males and females. Family-based transmission should not be ignored, as a close contact history was the top reason of exposure. Moreover, population movements also had significant impact on outbreaks.
This study advances an original theoretical framework to understand the deployment of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in political contention. It argues that we should not look only at the use of ICTs in contention, as technologies are not “born” to be used in and for political activism. Rather, people appropriate and manoeuvre technologies—some but not others—for such purposes, in specific contexts. This study proposes a relational understanding of ICT uses in contention, taking into account their technicalities and their sociality, as well as the transformation and actualisation that occurs between them. It suggests that an investigation necessitates the perception of communication technologies as a repertoire of contention on the basis of affordances that structure the possibilities of the use of technology. The study further presents an application of the framework in cases of protests in mainland China. Through fieldwork and in-depth interviews, this study indicates that the choice of (certain functions of) mobile phones as protest repertoire derives from a confluence of (a) a given social group’s habitus of media use that manifests particular affordances, and (b) the learned experience of the contested means of the past in official mass communication. It concludes that what people do and do not do with ICTs in political contention is significantly shaped by affordances and habitus, thereby revealing the dynamics behind repertoire selection and constraint.
This article presents a brief review of our case studies of data-driven Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) for intelligently discovering advanced structural metal materials, including light-weight materials (Ti, Mg, and Al alloys), refractory high-entropy alloys, and superalloys. The basic bonding in terms of topology and electronic structures is recommended to be considered as the building blocks/units constructing the microstructures of advanced materials. It is highlighted that the bonding charge density could not only provide an atomic and electronic insight into the physical nature of chemical bond of materials but also reveal the fundamental strengthening/embrittlement mechanisms and the local phase transformations of planar defects, paving a path in accelerating the development of advanced metal materials via interfacial engineering. Perspectives on the knowledge-based modeling/simulations, machine-learning knowledge base, platform, and next-generation workforce for sustainable ecosystem of ICME are highlighted, thus to call for more duty on the developments of advanced structural metal materials and enhancement of research productivity and collaboration.
Recently, layered double hydroxides (LDHs) have attracted intensive research interest as the next-generation supercapacitor electrodes due to their unique two-dimensional (2D) hydrotalcite-like structure. However, the inevitable agglomeration significantly decreases the accessible surface areas and blocks the pseudocapacitive sites, thus severely hinders their electrochemical applications. Herein, we develop a facile one-step growth approach to fabricate porous agglomerate of NiCo-LDH nanosheets and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanoflakes. By adjusting feeding molar ratios, the obtained NiCo-LDH/rGO electrode delivers a high specific capacity of 879.5 C/g at a current density of 0.5 A/g and still remains 485 C/g at 20 A/g. Furthermore, the fabricated asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) has demonstrated a superior energy density of 48.7 W h/kg at a power density of 401 W/kg. After 2000 cycles, the assembled ASC exhibits an improved capacity retention of 81% within a potential window of 1.6 V at 2 A/g.
Transmission of varicella occurs frequently in schools and households. We investigated the characteristics of varicella cases derived from within-household transmission and the modes of varicella transmission between school and household settings in Shanghai, China, from 2009 to 2018. Within-household transmission occurred in 278 households, of which 134 transmission events were between children. Sixty-one household varicella transmission events may be attributed to isolation procedures for infected students during school outbreaks, and 7.6% of school outbreaks were caused by schoolchildren cases derived from within-household transmission. The frequency of ‘school-household-school’ transmission adds an additional layer of complexity to the control of school varicella outbreaks. Administration of varicella vaccine as post-exposure prophylaxis after exposure is considered to be an effective measure to control varicella spread within households and schools.
This research communication describes a genome-wide association study for Italian buffalo mammary gland morphology. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (AX-85117983, AX-8509475 and AX-85117518) were identified to be significantly associated with buffalo anterior teat length, posterior teat length and distance between anterior and posterior teat, respectively. Two significant signals for buffalo mammary gland morphology were observed in two genomic regions on the chromosome 10, and chromosome 20. One of the regions located on the chromosome 10 has the most likely candidate genes ACTC1 and GJD2, both of which have putative roles in the regulation of mammary gland development. This study provides new insights into the genetic variants of buffalo mammary gland morphology and may be beneficial for understanding of the genetic regulation of mammary growth.
Materials with crystal structures containing tetrahedral motifs are preferable for optoelectronic applications because they often have direct band gaps and low electron effective masses. However, crystal structures of manganese chalcogenides typically contain octahedral motifs, such as in rock salt (RS) MnS and MnSe materials. Here, we experimentally show that MnS1−xSex alloys with tetrahedrally bonded wurtzite (WZ) structure can form between MnSe and MnS parent compounds with octahedral RS structures, at S-rich compositions (x < 0.4) and low synthesis temperatures (∼300 °C). The calculated mixing enthalpies of MnS1−xSex alloys in RS and WZ structures cannot explain this experimental observation, so we hypothesize that WZ stabilization may be related to smaller structure density and lower surface energy compared with RS. The resulting WZ MnS1−xSex alloys have 3.0–3.2 eV optical absorption onset and lower electrical conductivity (<0.0001 S/cm) than the parent RS compounds. These experimental measurement results are consistent with computationally predicted band gaps and effective masses.
The development of GaN-on-diamond devices offers bright prospects for the creation of high-power density electronics. This article presents a process of fabricating GaN-on-diamond structure by depositing diamond films on dual sides, including heat dissipation diamond film and sacrificial carrier diamond film. Prior to heat dissipation diamond film layer preparation, aluminum nitride (AlN) is chosen as a dielectric layer and pretreated by nanodiamond (ND) particles, to enhance the nucleation density. Zeta potential measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy are used to analyze the AlN surface after each treatment. The results show that oxygen-terminated ND particles tend to adhere to an AlN surface because the oxygen-terminated NDs have –COOH and –OH groups, and hold a negative potential. On the contrary, fluorine-terminated AlN prefers to attract the hydrogen-terminated ND seeds, which resulted in higher diamond nucleation density. Based on this preliminary study, a dense high-quality GaN-on-diamond wafer is successfully produced by using AlN as the dielectric layer and a diamond film as the sacrificial carrier.
This paper presents a comprehensive study of the zircon geochronology, geochemistry and Sr–Nd isotope geology of Devonian mafic rocks developed in the East Kunlun orogenic belt, northern Tibetan Plateau, and reveals their mantle sources, petrogenesis and geodynamic implications for continental exhumation. The zircon geochronology of typical samples indicates that these mafic rocks crystallized at 406∼408 Ma. They can be classified into two different groups based on petrographic observations and geochemical compositions. Group 1 rocks exhibit low TiO2 and FeOt contents and Nb/Y ratios and have enriched mid-ocean ridge basalt (E-MORB)-like compositions with slight negative Nb and Ta anomalies. However, Group 2 rocks have distinctly high TiO2 and FeOt contents and Nb/Y ratios, comparable to typical Fe–Ti-rich mafic rocks worldwide. All the samples exhibit weak enrichments in light rare earth elements, Nb and Ta relative to the primitive mantle. Based on geochemical and isotopic studies, Group 1 rocks are suggested to be derived from depleted asthenospheric mantle that was metasomatized by c. 3–5 % continental crustal components, while Group 2 rocks originated from partial melting of enriched lithospheric mantle. The high contents of Fe, Ti and Nb for Group 2 rocks could be attributed to a high degree of olivine crystallization under low fO2 conditions with delayed nucleation of Fe–Ti oxides. Combining those results with other geological data, we conclude that slab break-off was the key factor causing exhumation of eclogites and triggering flare-up of the Devonian magmatism, and that continental collision or continental subduction may have initiated at 431∼436 Ma.
Women experience both physical and psychological changes during different phases of the menstrual cycle (MC), which can affect their decision making. The present study aims to investigate the impact of the MC on women’s preferences for conspicuous consumption. In three studies, women in the low-fertility phase were found to be more inclined toward conspicuous consumption, with the MC effect on conspicuous consumption being mediated by the extent of pride. We assumed that women in the low-fertility phase would feel less proud due to an evolutionary drive and that they would consume conspicuous products as a means of compensation. Meanwhile, women who were only children did not manifest such behavior. We infer that women from one-child families may have a greater sense of security and confidence, which buffers the mediating effect. This research contributes to both evolutionary psychology and marketing research and provides new insights for future studies.
We report on a high-power Ho:YAG single-crystal fiber (SCF) laser inband pumped by a high-brightness Tm-fiber laser at 1908 nm. The Ho:YAG SCF grown by the micro-pulling-down technique exhibits a propagation loss of
. A continuous-wave output power of 35.2 W is achieved with a slope efficiency of 42.7%, which is to the best of our knowledge the highest power ever reported from an SCF-based laser in the 2
Schizophrenia is a serious health problem worldwide. This systematic analysis aims to quantify the burden of schizophrenia at the global, regional and national levels using the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017 (GBD 2017).
We collected detailed information on the number of incidence cases, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and age-standardised incidence rate (ASIR) and age-standardised rate of DALYs (ASDR) during 1990–2017 from GBD 2017. The estimated annual percentage changes (EAPCs) in the ASIR and in the ASDR were calculated to quantify the temporal trends in the ASIR and ASDR of schizophrenia.
Globally there were 1.13 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI] = 1.00 to 1.28) incident schizophrenia cases and 12.66 million (95% UI = 9.48 to 15.56) DALYs due to schizophrenia in 2017. The global ASIR decreased slightly from 1990 to 2017 (EAPC = −0.124, 95% UI = −0.114 to −0.135), while the ASDR was stable. The number of incident cases, DALYs, ASIR and ASDR were higher for males than for females. The incident rate and DALYs rate were highest among those aged 20–29 and 30–54 years, respectively. ASIR and ASDR were highest in East Asia in 2017, at 19.66 (95% UI = 17.72 to 22.00) and 205.23 (95% UI = 153.13 to 253.34), respectively. In 2017, the ASIR was highest in countries with a high-moderate sociodemographic index (SDI) and the ASDR was highest in high-SDI countries. We also found that the EAPC in ASDR was negatively correlated with the ASDR in 1990 (P = 0.001, ρ = −0.23).
The global burden of schizophrenia remains large and continues to increase, thereby increasing the burden on health-care systems. The reported findings should be useful for resource allocation and health services planning for the increasing numbers of patients with schizophrenia in ageing societies.
Solid polymer electrolytes are a crucial class of compounds in the next-generation solid-state lithium batteries featured by high safety and extraordinary energy density. This review highlights the importance of carbonyl-coordinating polymer-based solid polymer electrolytes in next-generation safe and high–energy density lithium metal batteries, unraveling their synthesis, sustainability, and electrochemical performance.
With the massive consumption of fossil fuel in vehicles nowadays, the resulted air pollution and greenhouse gases issue have now aroused the global interest on the replacement of the internal combustion engines with engine systems using renewable energy. Thus, the commercial electric vehicle market is growing fast. As the requirement for longer driving distances and higher safety in commercial electric vehicles becomes more demanding, great endeavors have been devoted to developing the next-generation solid-state lithium metal batteries using high-voltage cathode materials, e.g., high nickel (Ni) ternary active materials, LiCoO2, and spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4. However, the most extensively investigated solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) are based on polyether-based polymers, especially the archetypal poly(ethylene oxide), which are still suffering from low ionic conductivity (10−7 to 10−6 S/cm at room temperature), limited lithium ion transference number (<0.2), and narrow electrochemical stability window (<3.9 V), restricting this type of SPEs from realizing their full potential for the next-generation lithium-based energy storage technologies. As a promising class of alternative polymer hosts for SPEs, carbonyl-coordinating polymers have been extensively researched, exhibiting unique and promising electrochemical properties. Herein, the synthesis, sustainability, and electrochemical performance of carbonyl-coordinating SPEs for high-voltage solid-state lithium batteries will be reviewed.
The experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary threonine (Thr) on growth performance and muscle growth, protein synthesis and antioxidant-related signalling pathways of hybrid catfish Pelteobagrus vachelli♀ × Leiocassis longirostris♂. A total of 1200 fish (14·19 (se 0·13) g) were randomly distributed into six groups with four replicates each, fed six diets with graded level of Thr (9·5, 11·5, 13·5, 15·4, 17·4 and 19·3 g/kg diets) for 56 d. Results showed (P < 0·05) that dietary Thr (1) increased percentage weight gain, specific growth rate, feed efficiency and protein efficiency ratio; (2) up-regulated growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), proliferating cell nuclear antigen, myogenic regulation factors (MyoD, Myf5, MyoG and Mrf4) and myosin heavy chain (MyHC) mRNA levels; (3) increased muscle protein content via regulating the protein kinase B/target of rapamycin signalling pathway and (4) decreased malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl contents, increased catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione reductase and GSH activities, up-regulated mRNA levels of antioxidant enzymes related to NFE2-related factor 2 and γ-glutamylcysteine ligase catalytic subunit. These results suggest that Thr has a potential role to improve muscle growth and protein synthesis, which might be due to the regulation of GH-IGF system, muscle growth-related gene, antioxidative capacity and protein synthesis-related signalling pathways. Based on the quadratic regression analysis of specific growth rate, the Thr requirement of hybrid catfish (14·19–25·77 g) was estimated to be 13·77 g/kg of the diet (33·40 g/kg of dietary protein).
The present study investigated the effects of condensed tannins (CT) on intestinal immune function in on-growing grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). A total of 540 healthy grass carp were fed six diets containing different levels of CT (0, 10·00, 20·00, 30·00, 40·00 and 50·00 g/kg diet) for 70 d and then challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila for 14 d. The results showed that, compared with the control group, dietary CT (1) induced intestinal histopathological lesions and aggravated enteritis; (2) decreased lysozyme and acid phosphatase activities, complement 3 (C3), C4 and IgM contents and down-regulated the Hepcidin, liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide (LEAP)-2A, LEAP-2B, Mucin2 and β-defensin-1 mRNA levels in the proximal intestine (PI), mid intestine (MI) and distal intestine (DI) (P < 0·05); (3) down-regulated the mRNA levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, TGF-β2 (not in MI and DI), IL-4/13A (not IL-4/13B), IL-10 and IL-11 partly correlated with target of rapamycin (TOR) signalling; and (4) up-regulated the mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines interferon-γ2, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 (not in PI), IL-12p35, IL-12p40, IL-15 and IL-17D partly related to NF-κB signalling in the intestine of on-growing grass carp. Overall, the results indicated that CT could impair the intestinal immune function, and its potential regulation mechanisms were partly associated with the TOR and NF-κB signalling pathways. Finally, based on the percentage weight gain and enteritis morbidity, the maximum allowable levels of CT for on-growing grass carp (232·22–890·11 g) were estimated to be 18·6 and 17·4 g/kg diet, respectively.
A multilevel nonvolatile memory based on an amorphous indium–gallium–zinc oxide thin-film transistor is successfully demonstrated by using an atomic layer–deposited ZnO film as a charge trapping layer. The memory device shows a much higher erasing efficiency at a negative bias, i.e., after erasing at −13 V for 1 μs, the threshold voltage shift is as large as −7.4 V. In the case of 13 V/1 μs programming (P) and −12 V/1 μs erasing (E), the device demonstrates an ON/OFF readout drain current (IDS) ratio of ∼103 after 105 s, and a large and stable ON/OFF IDS ratio of ∼106 till 104 of P/E cycles. Furthermore, multilevel memory characteristics are also demonstrated on the device, showing an IDS ratio of >102 for 4 different states. Additionally, the device also successfully demonstrates typical synaptic behaviors, such as excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic current with different memory times at different memory states.