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The accurate prediction of turbulent mixing induced by Rayleigh–Taylor (R–T), Richtmyer–Meshkov (R–M) and Kelvin–Helmholtz (K–H) instabilities is very important in understanding natural phenomena and improving engineering applications. In applications, the prediction of mixing with the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) equation remains the most widely used method. The RANS method involves two aspects, i.e. physical modelling and model coefficients. Generally, the latter is determined empirically; thus, there is a lack of universality. In this paper, inspired by the well-known Reynolds decomposition, we propose a methodology to determine the model coefficients with the following three steps: (i) preset a set of analytical RANS solutions by fully using the knowledge of mixing evolutions; (ii) simplify the differential RANS equations to algebraic equations by imposing the preset solutions to RANS equations; (iii) solve the algebraic equations approximately to give the values of the entire model coefficients. The specific application of this methodology in the widely used K–L mixing model shows that, using the same set of model coefficients determined from the current methodology, the K–L model successfully predicts the mixing evolutions in terms of different physical quantities (e.g. temporal scalings and spatial profiles), density ratios and problems (e.g. R–T, R–M, K–H and reshocked R–M mixings). It is possible to extend this methodology to other turbulence models characterised with self-similar evolutions, such as K-
A flexible surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate was prepared by vacuum evaporation of silver on the surface of woven nylon fabrics. SERS properties of the Ag-coated nylon fabrics varied as the thickness of silver coatings changed, relative to the morphologies and distribution of silver nanoparticles (NPs) on fiber. The SERS enhancement performance of Ag-coated nylon fabrics was evaluated by collecting Raman signals of different concentrations of p-aminothiophenol (PATP). The results suggested that the nylon fabrics coated with 10 nm thickness Ag NPs coatings possessed high SERS activity and its detection concentration for PATP is as low as 10−9 M. Furthermore, sensitive SERS signals with excellent reproducibility (Relative standard deviation = 8.25%) and stability (30 days) have been demonstrated. In addition, the SERS nylon fabrics have been applied to rapidly detect thiram pesticides on cucumber, which indicated a great potential for trace analysis.
Synaptotagmin 1 (Syt1) is an abundant and important presynaptic vesicle protein that binds Ca2+ for the regulation of synaptic vesicle exocytosis. Our previous study reported its localization and function on spindle assembly in mouse oocyte meiotic maturation. The present study was designed to investigate the function of Syt1 during mouse oocyte activation and subsequent cortical granule exocytosis (CGE) using confocal microscopy, morpholinol-based knockdown and time-lapse live cell imaging. By employing live cell imaging, we first studied the dynamic process of CGE and calculated the time interval between [Ca2+]i rise and CGE after oocyte activation. We further showed that Syt1 was co-localized to cortical granules (CGs) at the oocyte cortex. After oocyte activation with SrCl2, the Syt1 distribution pattern was altered significantly, similar to the changes seen for the CGs. Knockdown of Syt1 inhibited [Ca2+]i oscillations, disrupted the F-actin distribution pattern and delayed the time of cortical reaction. In summary, as a synaptic vesicle protein and calcium sensor for exocytosis, Syt1 acts as an essential regulator in mouse oocyte activation events including the generation of Ca2+ signals and CGE.
The aim of the present study was to explore the influence of tea consumption on diabetes mellitus in the Chinese population. This multi-centre, cross-sectional study was conducted in eight sites from south, east, north, west and middle regions in China by enrolling 12 017 subjects aged 20–70 years. Socio-demographic and general information was collected by a standardised questionnaire. A standard procedure was used to measure anthropometric characteristics and to obtain blood samples. The diagnosis of diabetes was determined using a standard 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. In the final analysis, 10 825 participants were included and multiple logistic models and interaction effect analysis were applied for assessing the association between tea drinking with diabetes. Compared with non-tea drinkers, the multivariable-adjusted OR for newly diagnosed diabetes were 0·80 (95 % CI 0·67, 0·97), 0·88 (95 % CI 0·71, 1·09) and 0·86 (95 % CI 0·67, 1·11) for daily tea drinkers, occasional tea drinkers and seldom tea drinkers, respectively. Furthermore, drinking tea daily was related to decreased risk of diabetes in females by 32 %, elderly (>45 years) by 24 % and obese (BMI > 30 kg/m2) by 34 %. Moreover, drinking dark tea was associated with reduced risk of diabetes by 45 % (OR 0·55; 95 % CI 0·42, 0·72; P < 0·01). The results imply that drinking tea daily was negatively related to risk of diabetes in female, elderly and obese people. In addition, drinking dark tea was associated with decreased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
We established a mastitis model using exogenous infection of the mammary gland of Chinese Holstein cows with Staphylococcus aureus and extracted total RNA from S. aureus-infected and healthy mammary quarters. Differential expression of genes due to mastitis was evaluated using Affymetrix technology and results revealed a total of 1230 differentially expressed mRNAs. A subset of affected genes was verified via Q-PCR and pathway analysis. In addition, Solexa high-throughput sequencing technology was used to analyze profiles of miRNA in infected and healthy quarters. These analyses revealed a total of 52 differentially expressed miRNAs. A subset of those results was verified via Q-PCR. Bioinformatics techniques were used to predict and analyze the correlations among differentially expressed miRNA and mRNA. Results revealed a total of 329 pairs of negatively associated miRNA/mRNA, with 31 upregulated pairs of mRNA and 298 downregulated pairs of mRNA. Differential expression of miR-15a and interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase-like 2 (IRAK2), were evaluated by western blot and luciferase reporter assays. We conclude that miR-15a and miR-15a target genes (IRAK2) constitute potential miRNA–mRNA regulatory pairs for use as biomarkers to predict a mastitis response.
To explore whether and how group cognitive-behavioural therapy (GCBT) plus medication differs from medication alone for the treatment of generalised anxiety disorder (GAD).
Hundred and seventy patients were randomly assigned to the GCBT plus duloxetine (n=89) or duloxetine group (n=81). The primary outcomes were Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA) response and remission rates. The explorative secondary measures included score reductions from baseline in the HAMA total, psychic, and somatic anxiety subscales (HAMA-PA, HAMA-SA), the Hamilton Depression Scale, the Severity Subscale of Clinical Global Impression Scale, Global Assessment of Functioning, and the 12-item Short-Form Health Survey. Assessments were conducted at baseline, 4-week, 8-week, and 3-month follow-up.
At 4 weeks, HAMA response (GCBT group 57.0% vs. control group 24.4%, p=0.000, Cohen’s d=0.90) and remission rates (GCBT group 21.5% vs. control group 6.2%, p=0.004; d=0.51), and most secondary outcomes (all p<0.05, d=0.36−0.77) showed that the combined therapy was superior. At 8 weeks, all the primary and secondary significant differences found at 4 weeks were maintained with smaller effect sizes (p<0.05, d=0.32−0.48). At 3-month follow-up, the combined therapy was only significantly superior in the HAMA total (p<0.045, d=0.43) and HAMA-PA score reductions (p<0.001, d=0.77). Logistic regression showed superiority of the combined therapy for HAMA response rates [odds ratio (OR)=2.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02−4.42, p=0.04] and remission rates (OR=2.80, 95% CI 1.27−6.16, p=0.01).
Compared with duloxetine alone, GCBT plus duloxetine showed significant treatment response for GAD over a shorter period of time, particularly for psychic anxiety symptoms, which may suggest that GCBT was effective in changing cognitive style.
The Beijing Twin Study (BeTwiSt), which was established in 2006, is an ongoing study aiming to investigate the genetic and environmental etiology of adolescent psychopathology. Resting-state brain imaging datasets have been examined for same-sex twins, and other psychological traits and emotional and behavioral variables have been examined for all twins. Based on the registry, the main findings regarding the etiological mechanism underlying adolescent development, magnetic resonance imaging results, and genetic and environmental influences on other psychological traits have been published. This article summarizes the key findings in these three areas and discusses future plans for the BeTwiSt.
The COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins) project is a large international collaborative effort to analyze individual-level phenotype data from twins in multiple cohorts from different environments. The main objective is to study factors that modify genetic and environmental variation of height, body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) and size at birth, and additionally to address other research questions such as long-term consequences of birth size. The project started in 2013 and is open to all twin projects in the world having height and weight measures on twins with information on zygosity. Thus far, 54 twin projects from 24 countries have provided individual-level data. The CODATwins database includes 489,981 twin individuals (228,635 complete twin pairs). Since many twin cohorts have collected longitudinal data, there is a total of 1,049,785 height and weight observations. For many cohorts, we also have information on birth weight and length, own smoking behavior and own or parental education. We found that the heritability estimates of height and BMI systematically changed from infancy to old age. Remarkably, only minor differences in the heritability estimates were found across cultural–geographic regions, measurement time and birth cohort for height and BMI. In addition to genetic epidemiological studies, we looked at associations of height and BMI with education, birth weight and smoking status. Within-family analyses examined differences within same-sex and opposite-sex dizygotic twins in birth size and later development. The CODATwins project demonstrates the feasibility and value of international collaboration to address gene-by-exposure interactions that require large sample sizes and address the effects of different exposures across time, geographical regions and socioeconomic status.
In this paper, the hardness and Young’s moduli along the diffusion paths in fcc Ni–X (X = Rh, Ta, W, Re, Os, and Ir) binary diffusion couples were measured by using the nanoindentation technique. Hardness increases gradually from the pure Ni to the fcc Ni–X alloys, except for the Ni–Os system. While the Young’ moduli in fcc Ni–X alloys scatter much larger and do not show noticeable variation with the addition of element X. After that, the CALPHAD models for description of the composition-dependent hardness and Young’s modulus were proposed, and an in-house code was developed. Based on the present experimental data, the CALPHAD-type descriptions for hardness and Young’s modulus in fcc Ni–X (X = Rh, Ta, W, Re, Os, and Ir) systems were obtained. The model-predicted hardness and Young’s moduli of composition dependence agree with the experimental data in general. It is anticipated that the presently obtained CALPHAD-type hardness and Young’s modulus descriptions, together with the previous thermodynamic and atomic mobility databases, can be used for the future alloy design of novel Ni-based superalloys.
A field study to optimize the nitrogen (N) top-dressing mode of panicle fertilization and improve rice yields was conducted in mid-eastern China. Japonica cultivar Yunongjing-6 was grown and panicle N fertilizer was applied at the beginning of the inverted fourth leaf stage using three different modes: manual broadcast application (BA) on the soil surface as a control treatment, deep application during ditching at a depth of 15 cm (DD) and manual BA on the soil surface during deep ditching (BAD). The activity of soil enzymes, including invertase, urease, phosphatase and catalase, was increased significantly at the jointing, booting and grain-filling stages with the DD and BAD treatments compared with the traditional BA mode. The DD and BAD treatments also increased basal internode and neck-panicle internode bleeding intensity. The DD treatment gave the highest crop yield, increasing the yield by 0.63 and 0.31 t/hm2 in 2011 and 2012, respectively, compared with BA. The results suggest that ditching during panicle N fertilizer application after sun-drying of the fields increases rice yields, most likely by improving the activity of soil enzymes and enhancing the physiological activity of roots and grain weight.
Direct determination of barrier height (ΦBH) value between Ir and single crystal (001) hydrogen-terminated diamond with lightly boron doped has been performed using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy technique. 70 nm Ir islands were formed on hydrogen-terminated diamond surface using anodic aluminum oxide. The ΦBH value for Ir/hydrogen-terminated diamond was −0.43 ± 0.14 eV, indicating that Ir was a suitable metal for ohmic contact with hydrogen-terminated diamond. The band diagram of Ir/hydrogen-terminated diamond was obtained. The experimental ΦBH was compared with the theoretical ΦBH in this work.
The Florida Department of Health in Miami-Dade County (DOH-Miami-Dade) investigated 106 reported carbon monoxide (CO) exposures over a 9-day timeframe after Hurricane Irma. This report evaluates risk factors for CO poisoning and the importance of heightened surveillance following natural disasters.
Data on CO poisoning cases from September 9 to 18, 2017 were extracted from Merlin, the Florida Department of Health Surveillance System. Medical records were obtained and follow-up interviews were conducted to collect data on the confirmed CO poisoning cases. Data were analyzed using SAS v9.4.
Ninety-one of the 106 people exposed to CO met the case definition for CO poisoning: 64 confirmed, 7 probable, and 20 suspect cases. Eighty-eight percent of the affected individuals were evaluated in emergency departments and 11.7% received hyperbaric oxygen treatment. The most frequently reported symptoms included headache (53.3%), dizziness (50.7%), and nausea (46.7%). Three patients expired due to their exposure to CO.
Post Hurricane Irma, the DOH-Miami-Dade investigated numerous cases for CO exposure. By understanding who is most likely to be impacted by CO and the impact of generators’ location on people’s health, education efforts can be tailored to the population most at risk and further CO exposures and related mortalities following natural disasters can be reduced. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2019;13:94–96)
N-doped ordered mesoporous carbon (N-OMC) has been one of the most promising choices as the electrode for supercapacitors due to its large surface area and uniform mesoporous structure. However, there is still a big challenge to prepare N-OMC using a relatively simple method. Here, a straightforward preparation of N-OMC was reported in which the precursor zeoliticimidazolate framework was in situ grown in the SBA-15 template by a fast, solvent-free, and atom economic solid–solid grinding strategy. After pyrolysis and removing of the template, the N-OMC was obtained with ordered mesoporous structure, rich oxygen and nitrogen, and a large specific surface area of 1004 m2/g. As the electrode material for supercapacitors, N-OMC displayed an excellent specific capacitance of 228 F/g at 0.2 A/g and superb charge/discharge cycling stability, which is promising for high-performance energy storage. This solid–solid grinding strategy may offer a low-cost and scalable method to produce high-performance N-OMC for the electrode from the zeoliticimidazolate framework.
This paper presents a novel asymmetric coplanar waveguide-fed quad-band hybrid antenna for wireless applications. The proposed hybrid antenna combines a conventional monopole antenna and a zeroth-order resonator antenna to perform a dual-mode operation. The first mode is generated by a slotted monopole antenna, supporting the two higher resonances at about 3.5 and 5.8 GHz. The second mode is supported by loading a composite right-/left-handed transmission line unit cell near the slotted monopole, contributing to the two lower resonances at about 1.6 and 2.5 GHz. It is printed on an FR4 substrate with the overall dimensions of 40 mm × 24 mm × 1.6 mm. Experimental results demonstrate that it can cover the global positioning system (1.57–1.59 GHz), wireless local area network (2.4–2.485, 5.15–5.35, and 5.725–5.825 GHz), and worldwide interoperability for microwave access (2.5–2.69, 3.3–3.7, and 5.25–5.85 GHz) applications with monopole-like radiation patterns and acceptable gains.
The lichen family Ophioparmaceae contains three genera: Boreoplaca, Hypocenomyce and Ophioparma. The genus Hypocenomyce is reported here for the first time for China, being represented by the species Hypocenomyce scalaris which is distributed in south-western China. For the genus Ophioparma, one new species is described in this paper, namely Ophioparma pruinosa Li S. Wang & Y. Y. Zhang sp. nov., which is characterized by a pruinose thallus and the presence of usnic acid. Ophioparma araucariae is also reported as new for the Chinese lichen biota. Previous reports of O. lapponica in China are recognized as misidentifications of O. ventosa. Descriptions, keys and phylograms are provided for these species.
Whether monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins differ from each other in a variety of phenotypes is important for genetic twin modeling and for inferences made from twin studies in general. We analyzed whether there were differences in individual, maternal and paternal education between MZ and DZ twins in a large pooled dataset. Information was gathered on individual education for 218,362 adult twins from 27 twin cohorts (53% females; 39% MZ twins), and on maternal and paternal education for 147,315 and 143,056 twins respectively, from 28 twin cohorts (52% females; 38% MZ twins). Together, we had information on individual or parental education from 42 twin cohorts representing 19 countries. The original education classifications were transformed to education years and analyzed using linear regression models. Overall, MZ males had 0.26 (95% CI [0.21, 0.31]) years and MZ females 0.17 (95% CI [0.12, 0.21]) years longer education than DZ twins. The zygosity difference became smaller in more recent birth cohorts for both males and females. Parental education was somewhat longer for fathers of DZ twins in cohorts born in 1990–1999 (0.16 years, 95% CI [0.08, 0.25]) and 2000 or later (0.11 years, 95% CI [0.00, 0.22]), compared with fathers of MZ twins. The results show that the years of both individual and parental education are largely similar in MZ and DZ twins. We suggest that the socio-economic differences between MZ and DZ twins are so small that inferences based upon genetic modeling of twin data are not affected.
Kawasaki disease, which is characterised by systemic vasculitides accompanied by acute fever, is regularly treated by intravenous immunoglobulin to avoid lesion formation in the coronary artery; however, the mechanism of intravenous immunoglobulin therapy is unclear. Hence, we aimed to analyse the global expression profile of serum exosomal proteins before and after administering intravenous immunoglobulin.
Two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry analysis was used to identify the differentially expressed proteome of serum exosomes in patients with Kawasaki disease before and after intravenous immunoglobulin therapy.
Our analysis revealed 69 differential protein spots in the Kawasaki disease group with changes larger than 1.5-fold and 59 differential ones in patients after intravenous immunoglobulin therapy compared with the control group. Gene ontology analysis revealed that the acute-phase response disappeared, the functions of the complement system and innate immune response were enhanced, and the antibacterial humoral response pathway of corticosteroids and cardioprotection emerged after administration of intravenous immunoglobulin. Further, we showed that complement C3 and apolipoprotein A-IV levels increased before and decreased after intravenous immunoglobulin therapy and that the insulin-like growth factor-binding protein complex acid labile subunit displayed reverse alteration before and after intravenous immunoglobulin therapy. These observations might be potential indicators of intravenous immunoglobulin function.
Our results show the differential proteomic profile of serum exosomes of patients with Kawasaki disease before and after intravenous immunoglobulin therapy, such as complement C3, apolipoprotein A-IV, and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein complex acid labile subunit. These results may be useful in the identification of markers for monitoring intravenous immunoglobulin therapy in patients with Kawasaki disease.
Some risk factors of stroke may play a role in white matter hyperintensity (WMH). Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a recognised risk factor of stroke, but it is controversial whether MetS is also associated with WMH. We examined the association of MetS with the prevalence of WMH in acute stroke patients. We conducted a cross-sectional study in 246 acute ischemia stroke patients. The patients with acute stroke were clinically evaluated, including waistline circumference, blood pressure, glycaemia, serum triglyceride and high density lipoprotein cholesterol level. The degree of WMH was assessed by Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequence of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. MetS was diagnosed using the criteria by the National Cholesterol Education Adult Treatment Panel III. MetS was the independent variable evaluated in Binary regression analyses. It is found that old age (>60 years old), MetS and smoking were significantly associated with WMH in univariate analysis (p < .05). Spearman rank correlation showed that old age and MetS are related to WMH (r = 0.18, p = .005 and r = 0.18, p = .004, respectively). Hypertension is weakly but not significantly associated with WMH in correlation analysis (r = 0.11, p = .08). In multiple regression analysis, age and MetS remained independently associated with WMH (OR = 7.6, 95% CI 0.2–0.7 and OR = 11.7, 95% CI 0.1–0.5). Hypertension and hyperglycaemia tend to be associated but not significantly with WMH (p = .07, p = .08). Other MetS components such as large waist circumference and dyslipidaemia showed no association with WMH. After adjustment for age, WMH is significantly associated with MetS in stroke patients. Hypertension and hyperglycaemia tend to associated but not significantly with WMH in stroke patients.