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First-degree relatives of patients with psychotic disorder have higher levels of polygenic risk (PRS) for schizophrenia and higher levels of intermediate phenotypes.
We conducted, using two different samples for discovery (n = 336 controls and 649 siblings of patients with psychotic disorder) and replication (n = 1208 controls and 1106 siblings), an analysis of association between PRS on the one hand and psychopathological and cognitive intermediate phenotypes of schizophrenia on the other in a sample at average genetic risk (healthy controls) and a sample at higher than average risk (healthy siblings of patients). Two subthreshold psychosis phenotypes, as well as a standardised measure of cognitive ability, based on a short version of the WAIS-III short form, were used. In addition, a measure of jumping to conclusion bias (replication sample only) was tested for association with PRS.
In both discovery and replication sample, evidence for an association between PRS and subthreshold psychosis phenotypes was observed in the relatives of patients, whereas in the controls no association was observed. Jumping to conclusion bias was similarly only associated with PRS in the sibling group. Cognitive ability was weakly negatively and non-significantly associated with PRS in both the sibling and the control group.
The degree of endophenotypic expression of schizophrenia polygenic risk depends on having a sibling with psychotic disorder, suggestive of underlying gene–environment interaction. Cognitive biases may better index genetic risk of disorder than traditional measures of neurocognition, which instead may reflect the population distribution of cognitive ability impacting the prognosis of psychotic disorder.
The Emerald project's focus is on how to strengthen mental health systems in six low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) (Ethiopia, India, Nepal, Nigeria, South Africa and Uganda). This was done by generating evidence and capacity to enhance health system performance in delivering mental healthcare.
A common problem in scaling-up interventions and strengthening mental health programmes in LMICs is how to transfer research evidence, such as the data collected in the Emerald project, into practice.
To describe how core elements of Emerald were implemented and aligned with the ultimate goal of strengthening mental health systems, as well as their short-term impact on practices, policies and programmes in the six partner countries.
We focused on the involvement of policy planners, managers, patients and carers.
Over 5 years of collaboration, the Emerald consortium has provided evidence and tools for the improvement of mental healthcare in the six LMICs involved in the project. We found that the knowledge transfer efforts had an impact on mental health service delivery and policy planning at the sites and countries involved in the project.
This approach may be valid beyond the mental health context, and may be effective for any initiative that aims at implementing evidence-based health policies for health system strengthening.
How brain damage after stroke is related to specific clinical manifestation and recovery is incompletely understood. We studied cognitive reserve (CR) in stroke patients by two types of measurements: (i) objectively verifiable static proxies (i.e., education, occupational attainment), and (ii) subjective, dynamic proxies based on patient testimony in response to a questionnaire. We hypothesized that one or both of these types of CR measurements might correlate positively with patient cognitive performance during the post-acute and chronic phases of recovery.
Thirty-four stroke patients underwent neuropsychological assessment at 2, 6 and 24 months after stroke onset. In chronic stage at 24+ months, self-rating assessments of cognitive performance in daily life and social integration were obtained. CR before and after stroke was estimated using static proxies and dynamic proxies were obtained using the Cognitive Reserve Scale (CRS-Pre-stroke, CRS-Post-stroke).
CRS-Pre-stroke and CRS-Post-stroke showed significant mean differences. Dynamic proxies showed positive correlation with self-assessment of attention, metacognition, and functional ability in chronic stage. In contrast, significant correlations between static proxies and cognitive recovery were not found.
Dynamic proxies of CR were positively correlated with patients’ perception of their functional abilities in daily life. To best guide cognitive prognosis and treatment, we propose that dynamic proxies of CR should be included in neuropsychological assessments of patients with brain damage.
This is a retrospective cohort study based on data from five nursing homes which aims to appraise how physical and cognitive characteristics of nursing home residents were associated with the use of restraints, and to provide information on their prevalence in Spain. The goal was to assess, in a visual way, the possible interactions between the nursing homes residents’ characteristics and their association with the use of restraints. Motivation, risk factors, characteristics of the residents analysed by validated rating systems that assess mobility, level of dependence, cognitive condition and nutritional status, and their association with the use of restraints, were described by means of linear and non-linear multivariate approaches in the form of self-organised maps. Findings showed that the prevalence of restraints was high when compared to other developed countries. The visual analysis reinforced the knowledge that a greater impairment was associated with the use of restraints and vice versa. However, the residents’ characteristics were not always associated with the use of restraints. Subjective factors seem to play a relevant role in decision-making, so it is important to assess risk factors continuously and determine the actual need for the use of restraints from an individual perspective by basing the criteria on specific objectives, and on consistent, reproducible and reliable methods. Initiatives to minimise these subjective factors should be promoted. Likewise, a clear definition of physical restraints should be offered at each centre. In addition, effective legislation that clearly states the need, alternatives and motivation for the use of restraints is needed.
Collagen microstructure is closely related to the mechanical properties of tissues and affects cell migration through the extracellular matrix. To study these structures, three-dimensional (3D) in vitro collagen-based gels are often used, attempting to mimic the natural environment of cells. Some key parameters of the microstructure of these gels are fiber orientation, fiber length, or pore size, which define the mechanical properties of the network and therefore condition cell behavior. In the present study, an automated tool to reconstruct 3D collagen networks is used to extract the aforementioned parameters of gels of different collagen concentration and determine how their microstructure is affected by the presence of cells. Two different experiments are presented to test the functionality of the method: first, collagen gels are embedded within a microfluidic device and collagen fibers are imaged by using confocal fluorescence microscopy; second, collagen gels are directly polymerized in a cell culture dish and collagen fibers are imaged by confocal reflection microscopy. Finally, we investigate and compare the collagen microstructure far from and in the vicinities of MDA-MB 23 cells, finding that cell activity during migration was able to strongly modify the orientation of the collagen fibers and the porosity-related values.
Ceramic–metal composites are an important group of materials that have gained interest recently because of their peculiar properties. There have been numerous studies on the reinforcement of alumina through the incorporation of various ductile metals in it. However, these studies have been limited to determining the effect of the addition of metals on the mechanical properties of ceramics, without determining the effect of these metal additions on other physical properties of the resulting composite. In this way, in agreement with the obtained results, we have that because of the conductive nature of metals, there is a considerable decrease in the electrical resistivity of alumina, mainly when copper is added to it. However, in terms of optical performance, alumina matrix composites showed significant changes in absorbance in the visible spectra. The addition of iron, titanium, and yttrium enhanced the absorbance of alumina, whereas manganese addition significantly decreased the optical absorption.
This study analyzes the relationship between the two intrapersonal perfectionism dimensions (i.e., Self-Oriented Perfectionism-Critical, SOP-C, and Self-Oriented Perfectionism-Strivings, SOP-S) and the components of aggressive behavior (cognitive, emotional and motor) in a sample of 804 (48.3% females) Spanish students between the ages of 8 and 11 (M = 9.57; DE = 1.12). The Spanish versions of the SOP-C and SOP-S subscales of the Child/Adolescent Perfectionism Scale and the Aggression Questionnaire were used. Students with high SOP-C scored significantly higher (p < .001) than their peers with low SOP-C on all components of aggressive behavior. The magnitude of these differences (Cohen’s d index) ranged from .40 to .59. In contrast, non-significant statistical differences were found between students with high and low SOP-S. Moreover, logistic regression analysis revealed that SOP-C significantly and positively predicted high Hostility, Anger and Physical and Verbal Aggression, whereas none of these components were significantly predicted by SOP-S (95% CI). Results are discussed, taking into account the debate on the conceptualization and nature of intrapersonal perfectionism.
Silene ciliata (Caryophyllaceae) is a key species to test evolutionary hypotheses in a global warming context. The recent advances in Next Generation Sequencing technologies can help in providing clues about climate-mediated local adaptation. In the present study, we analysed the full transcriptome of six individuals of S. ciliata from Central Spain, by aligning it with the transcriptome of S. latifolia. We aimed (a) to identify Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in the transcriptome of the species, (b) to describe the biological function of the polymorphic genes expressed and (c) to identify loci that may be involved in local adaptation processes at optimal and marginal populations of the species. We identified a total of 147,118 SNPs distributed throughout 12,688 sequences. The number of polymorphic sequences annotated was 8023. One hundred thirty sequences containing polymorphisms strongly associated with optimal and marginal conditions were selected. Gene ontology searches were successful for 118, and many of these were related to responses to stress (n = 19) and abiotic stimulus (n = 16). Genomic data generated provide a starting point for further research on the identification of candidate genes related to local adaptation and other processes in the species.
Earlier activities on health technology assessment (HTA) started in Spain around 1984, with the creation of a National Advisory Board on HTA, and the development of national and regional HTA organizations in the early 1990s. In 2012, the Spanish Health Ministry established the Spanish Network for Health Technology Assessment of the National Health System (RedETS); funded at national level and including all public HTA organizations at national and regional levels. RedETSis focused on the assessment of nondrug health technologies to inform the revision (approval and funding or disinvestment) of the Benefit Portfolio of the Spanish NHS. In parallel with European Network for Health Technology Assessment (EUnetHTA), RedETS has been setting-up and sharing common procedures and methodological guidelines to ensure effective cooperation and mutual recognition of the scientific and technical production in HTA. The output of RedETS is fifty to sixty annual reports, including the production of full HTA reports, Clinical Practice Guidelines, methodological guidance reports, relative effectiveness assessments, tools to support shared decision making between patients and healthcare professionals, and monitoring studies. The HTA assessments requested by the Regional Health Authorities are the biggest component of the annual RedETS working plan. These assessment needs are identified according to a yearly process and prioritized by a Commission composed of representatives from all Spanish regions with the aid of the PRITEC tool. The objectives of this study are to report and update the normative and organizational state of HTA in Spain; describing noteworthy advances witnessed over the past 10 years, as well as discussing existing challenges.
The predominantly carbonate nature of the mountains near the coast of Málaga and Marbella (Costa del Sol, southern Spain) and the presence of springs have favored the formation of travertine buildups during the Quaternary. The geomorphic characteristics of the slopes and the location of the springs have determined the development of three types of travertine growths: (1) spring travertines, located preferentially on the south mountainside, where the slope is steepest; (2) pool-dam-cascade travertines, which form along the north and east edges, far from the carbonate relief and with a gentler slope; and (3) river-valley travertines, formed in the courses of the springs of any sector. Field observations combined with new amino acid racemization (AAR) dating of Helicidae gastropods show that most of the travertine formations are polyphasic and that their development was interrupted by stages of erosion and incision. Five stages of travertine development are evident, most of which are related to warm, moist episodes corresponding to marine oxygen isotope stages (MIS) 7, 5, 3, and 1, although local travertine growth also occurred during MIS 6 and during the transition from MIS 3 to 2.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The Title V Cooperative Project of the UPR-MSC and UCC has demonstrated that educational interventions in CTR are very effective in fulfilling the objective of promoting awareness, stimulate interest and increase the knowledge, skills and opportunities, to US, GS and F (participants) in CTR. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: The training sessions (TS) offered through the Title V initiative have become an engine for the involvement in CTR for participants from higher education institutions island-wide. TS consisted of cycles –level 1 and 2–: Research Education Towards Opportunities (RETO,I,II) and Mentorship Offering Training Opportunities for Research (MOTOR,I,II), ending in the formation of the Clinical and Translational Mentoring Teams (CTMT)s, in which participants, paired by their research interests, were mentored by a well-established CT researchers in their research project, to be developed in the Intensive Development and Experiences in Advancement of Research and Increased Opportunities (IDEARIO). RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Up to date, 4 TS-level 1 and 2 TS-level 2 were offered. Eighty (80) participants completed level 1, distributed: 42 (52.5%) US in RETO, 21 (26.25%) GS and 17 (21.25%) F in MOTOR and 17 participants completed level 2, distributed: 4 (23.52%) US in RETO, 6 (25.29%) GS and 7 (41.17%) F in MOTOR. From which, 15, with 8 CT researchers, formed 5 CTMTs in different research areas – cardio, neuro, liver, renal, Zika–. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: US, GS and F were integrated in the active process throughout educational levels for their development in CTR.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The Title V Cooperative Project between the University of Puerto Rico- Medical Sciences Campus (UPR-MSC) and Universidad Central del Caribe (UCC) has trained US, GS and F (participants) of HSPs to engage them in CTR. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: First stage of the training sessions (TS) dealt with the theory of CTR. After TS and responding to their research interests, as answered in a questionnaire, the participants formed a CTMT, under the mentorship of a well-established CT researcher. This, as a prelude to their hands-on experiences in Intensive Development and Experiences in Advancement of Research and Increased Opportunities (IDEARIO), for which a research proposal is needed. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Five (5) CTMTs were formed in different research areas – cardio, neuro, liver, renal, Zika–, as submitted in their research concept papers.Eight (8) CT researchers are currently mentoring 2 US, 7 GS and 6 F of HSPs through the CTMTs. They have submitted a research proposal, as a bridge between the theory in the TS and the practice in IDEARIO. Five (5) proposals were received and 2 of them approved, while the other 3 are in the evaluation process. We will present the composition, research topics, development of research and the feedback of participants in IDEARIO and CTMTs. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: The CTMTs and their respective proposals are effective strategies for the mentoring of US, GS and F in CTR.
After the recent detection, by both morphology and DNA barcodes, of the larval stages of an unknown species of pea crab (Pinnotheres sp.) in European waters, adults of this crab are herein reported and described as a new species. The current known geographic distribution of the species comprises the Gulf of Cádiz in the eastern Atlantic and the adjacent Mediterranean waters of the south of the Iberian Peninsula (Alboran Sea), where this crab is well-established inside the anomiid bivalve Anomia ephippium. In the Gulf of Cádiz, the species displayed a relatively high prevalence: on average, 55.6–77.7%, in A. ephippium samples. The dominant demographic categories of the new species were soft females (61.8–77.0%) with fewer males (17.7–21.10%). Most of the host bivalves carried only one crab; in bivalves harbouring two crabs, heterosexual pairs were collected more frequently than expected by chance, which suggests that they could be mated pairs. A strong correlation between host size and soft female size was found (r = 0.73, P < 0.01) indicating that space availability within hosts seems to be relevant in determining the size of the sedentary phase of the new crab species.
The aim of the study was to determine the main factors (sociodemographic, anthropometric, lifestyle and health status) associated with high Na excretion in a representative population of Chile.
Na excretion (g/d), a valid marker of Na intake, was determined by urine analysis and Tanaka’s formulas. Blood pressure was measured by trained staff and derived from the mean of three readings recorded after 15 min rest. The associations of Na excretion with blood pressure and the primary correlates of high Na excretion were determined using logistic regression.
Chileans aged ≥15 years.
Participants (n 2913) from the Chilean National Health Survey 2009–2010.
Individuals aged 25 years or over, those who were obese and those who had hypertension, diabetes or metabolic syndrome were more likely to have higher Na excretion. The odds for hypertension increased by 10·2 % per 0·4 g/d increment in Na excretion (OR=1·10; 95 % CI 1·06, 1·14; P < 0·0001). These findings were independent of major confounding factors.
Age, sex, adiposity, sitting behaviours and existing co-morbidities such as diabetes were associated with higher Na excretion levels in the Chilean population. These findings could help policy makers to implement public health strategies tailored towards individuals who are more likely to consume high levels of dietary salt.
Three sizes of beads 1, 2 and 3 mm of chitosan and poly (vinyl alcohol) were generated and crosslinked with ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether. The modification was carried out using a glass reactor, in which the beads were exposed to the glow discharge plasma (GDP). The adsorption experiments were carried out in triplicate at 30 °C, 200 rpm, 72 h at different pH values in the range between 2 and 7. The concentrations of the dye in the supernatants were determined by UV-vis spectrophotometry. The 1 mm beads with and without modification, as well as those adsorbed and without adsorbing were characterized by FTIR and SEM. A higher and constant adsorption capacity was observed using modified beads (814, 857 and 1509 mg/g for the 3, 2 and 1 mm beads, respectively). For unmodified beads the adsorption capacity decreased when the initial pH value was increased. This makes the beads modified by GDP a robust material with respect to pH variation and a good candidate to be used in the removal of synthetic dyes.
Healthy lifestyle habits are the cornerstone in the management of familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH). Nevertheless, dietary studies on FH-affected populations are scarce. The present study analyses dietary habits, adherence to a Mediterranean diet pattern and physical activity in an adult population with FH and compares them with their non-affected relatives.
Data came from SAFEHEART, a nationwide study in Spain.
Individuals (n 3714) aged ≥18 years with a genetic diagnosis of FH (n2736) and their non-affected relatives (n 978). Food consumption was evaluated using a validated FFQ.
Total energy intake was lower in FH patients v. non-affected relatives (P<0·005). Percentage of energy from fats was also lower in the FH population (35 % in men, 36 % in women) v. those non-affected (38 % in both sexes, P<0·005), due to the lower consumption of saturated fats (12·1 % in FH patients, 13·2 % in non-affected, P<0·005). Consumption of sugars was lower in FH patients v. non-affected relatives (P<0·05). Consumption of vegetables, fish and skimmed milk was higher in the FH population (P<0·005). Patients with FH showed greater adherence to a Mediterranean diet pattern v. non-affected relatives (P<0·005). Active smoking was lower and moderate physical activity was higher in people with FH, especially women (P<0·005).
Adult patients with FH report healthier lifestyles than their non-affected family members. They eat a healthier diet, perform more physical activity and smoke less. However, this patient group’s consumption of saturated fats and sugars still exceeds guidelines.
In this work, the degradation of methyl orange (MO) was analyzed by direct light with visible radiation (λ > 450 nm) of a dye solution in the presence of silicon nanowires (SiNWs) or silicon nanowires with copper nanoparticles (SiNWs-CuNPs). The SiNWs were synthesized by metal assisted etching from monocrystalline silicon wafers in aqueous HF / AgNO3 solution, and the CuNPs were deposited on the SiNWs via electroless. Discoloration with visible irradiation of aqueous methyl orange solution (C14H14N3NaOS) in the presence of SiNWs showed an efficiency of 71% after 120 min of illumination. The deposition of copper nanoparticles on the nanowires improves the efficiency of the photocatalytic reaction achieving 89% discoloration after 120 min exposure to visible light. The MO photocatalytic degradation with visible radiation in aqueous solution shows to be efficient in discoloration reaching up to 92% in a time of 150 min in the presence of SiNWs-CuNPs.
Hippuritids, particularly those with multiple-folds, are one of the most characteristic components in uppermost Cretaceous rudist-bearing strata of the Caribbean Province. The hippuritid rudist fauna of the Chiapas Central Depression includes the following taxa: Vaccinites vermunti Mac Gillavry, 1937 and Barrettia cf. B. ruseae Chubb, 1967 from the early Campanian Suchiapa Formation; B. monilifera Woodward, 1862, B. gigas Chubb, 1955, and Parastroma trechmanni Chubb, 1967 from the mid Campanian Suchiapa Formation; and Praebarrettia sparcilirata (Whitfield, 1897) from the early Maastrichtian Ocozocoautla Formation. These six species are described herein in detail. New observations on the outer shell layer structure of the right valve and the pore-canal system of the left valve led to amending the diagnoses of the g|enera Barrettia Woodward, 1862, Parastroma Douvillé, 1926, and Praebarrettia Trechmann, 1924. Also, the revision of Chiapas’ and other American species of multiple-fold hippuritids led to proposed changes in their generic adscription.
Composites from carbon nanotubes and polymers have been synthesized and studied. The composites were obtained joining carbon nanotubes with polymethyl methacrylate, nylon-6 and polystyrene. The materials were observed through scanning electron microscopy to evaluate the carbon nanotubes dispersion in the polymeric matrices. FTIR and Raman spectroscopies were used to analyze the interactions among functionalized and non-functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes and polymers, demonstrating affinity and peculiar spectra behaviors for each composite with different carbon nanotubes loads.