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In social interactions, people frequently encounter gain (i.e., all outcomes are gains from the status-quo) or loss (all outcomes are losses from the status-quo) social dilemmas, where their personal interests conflict with social interests. We ask whether there are any behavioral differences in social interactions when it comes to gains and losses. Using the Prisoner’s Dilemma games, in three studies we observed that participants were less cooperative in the loss domain than in the gain domain. This effect was robust, not moderated by payoff amount (Study 1), cooperation index (Study 1), domain comparison (Studies 1 and 2), and personal loss aversion (Study 3). Social motive and belief explained this effect: compared to the gain domain, participants in the loss domain aroused more pro-self motive and less prosocial motive, and showed stronger beliefs that their partner would defect, which led them to cooperate less. These findings suggest that gain and loss domains affect individual motivation and belief, subsequently affecting strategic choices in social dilemmas.
Path planning is a key research issue in the field of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) applications. In practical applications, multi-objective path planning is usually required for multi-UAVs, so this paper proposes the improved balanced artificial bee colony (IB-ABC) algorithm to optimize multi-objective path planning. The algorithm adopts the ABC algorithm that emphasizes the global search capability, which is based on iterative feedback information. It uses single-element points, multi-element points, and iteration constraints to optimize the strategies of employed bees, follower bees, and scout bees, respectively. In terms of time and priority, simulation experiments prove that the IB-ABC algorithm can balance local and global search capabilities, accelerate the speed of convergence, and realize multi-UAV path planning in complex mountain environments.
Drawing from the ancient Chinese text The Zhuangzi, the sinologist François Jullien suggests that to nourish one’s life is to nourish life’s vital potential by keeping it open to renewal. Inspired by the anthropocosmic vision of environment improvisation developed by the Chinese musician Li Jianhong, this article begins to explore the philosophical and aesthetic principles that connect electroacoustic improvisation to life nourishment through discussions of electroacoustic improvising practices from China but not limited to China. This article proposes that an understanding of electroacoustic improvisation on the spiritual and existential level offers a refreshed conceptualisation of creativity, environment and improvisation at large.
In strong-field physics experiments with ultraintense lasers, a single-shot cross-correlator (SSCC) is essential for fast optimization of the pulse contrast and meaningful comparison with theory for each pulse shot. To simultaneously characterize an ultrashort pulse and its long pedestal, the SSCC device must have both a high resolution and a large temporal window. However, the resolution and window in all kinds of single-shot measurement contradict each other in principle. Here we propose and demonstrate a novel SSCC device with two separate measurement channels: channel-1 for the large-window pedestal measurement has a moderate resolution but a large window, while channel-2 for the ultrashort pulse measurement has a small window but a high resolution; this allows the accurate characterization of the pulse contrast in a single shot. A two-channel SSCC device with a 200-fs resolution and 114-ps window has been developed and tested for its application in ultraintense lasers at 800 nm.
This study is design to explore the association between dietary betaine intake and risk of all-cause and cardiovascular death in patients with CAD. In this cohort study, 1292 patients with CAD were followed-up for a median of 9.2 years. Baseline dietary betaine intake was collected using a paper-based semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and assessed according to the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Database and the data of betaine in common foods. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to analyze the association between dietary betaine intake and risks of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. During the follow-up periods, 259 deaths recorded in 1292 participants, of which 167 died of cardiovascular diseases. Patients in the highest tertile of dietary betaine intake had a lower risk of all-cause (P=0.007) and cardiovascular death (P<0.001) than those in the lowest tertile after adjusting for age and sex, traditional cardiovascular risk factors and other potential confounders. After further adjusting for plasma methionine metabolites and vitamins, HRs across tertiles of dietary betaine intake were 1.00, 0.84 and 0.72 for all-cause mortality (P for trend=0.124), and 1.00, 0.77 and 0.55 for cardiovascular mortality (P for trend=0.021). Higher dietary betaine intake was associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular death after fully adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors, other potential confounders and plasma methionine metabolites and vitamins. However, the association between dietary betaine intake and risk of all-cause mortality was not statistically significant after further adjusting for plasma methionine metabolites and vitamins.
This study aimed to analyze the clinical effects of microdissection testicular sperm extraction (micro-TESE) surgery combined with an intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) regimen in the treatment of non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) patients with different etiologies. In total, 128 NOA patients participated in this study, in which they received infertility treatment by micro-TESE surgery combined with an ICSI regimen, and all patients were divided into three groups [the Klinefelter syndrome (KS), the idiopathic and the secondary NOA groups]. In addition, the sperm retrieval rate (SRR), fertilization rate, embryo development status and clinical treatment effects were analyzed. Among the 128 NOA patients, the SRR of KS NOA patients was 48.65%, those of idiopathic and the secondary patients were 33.82% and 73.91%, respectively. Regardless of etiologies, there was no correlation with age, hormone value or testicular volume. Further analysis showed that the SRR of the KS group was positively related with testosterone (T) values, and the SRR of the secondary group had a positive relationship with follicle-stimulating hormone or luteinizing hormone values. In the subsequent clinical treatment, the retrieved sperm was subjected to ICSI and achieved good treatment effects, especially in the secondary group, and the implantation rate (55.56%) and clinical pregnancy rate (68.42%) were both higher than those of the idiopathic group (28.75% and 40.00%) and KS group (22.05% and 30.77%). Micro-TESE surgery combined with ICSI insemination is the most effective treatment regimen for NOA patients. The SRR of NOA patients with different etiologies are related to certain specific factors, and micro-TESE surgery seems to be the ideal and only way to have biological children.
Robots with human-like appearances and structures are usually well accepted in the human–robot interaction. However, compared with human-like appearances and structures, the human-like motion plays a much more critical role in improving the efficiency and safety of the human–robot interaction. This paper develops a human-like motion planner based on human arm motion patterns (HAMPs) to fulfill the human–robot object handover tasks. First, a handover task is divided into two sub-tasks, that is, pick-up and delivery, and HAMPs are extracted for these two sub-tasks separately. The resulting HAMPs are analyzed, and a method is proposed to select HAMPs that can represent the characteristics of the human arm motion. Then the factors affecting the duration of the movement primitives are analyzed, and the relationship between the duration of the movement primitives and these factors is determined. Based on the selected HAMP and the computed duration of the movement primitives, a human-like motion planning framework is developed to generate the human-like motion for the robotic arms. Finally, this motion planner is verified by the human–robot handover experiments using a KUKA IIWA robot. It shows that the resulting trajectories can correctly reflect the relative relationship between the joints in the human arm motion and are very close to the recorded human arm trajectories. Furthermore, the proposed motion planning method is compared with the motion planning method based on minimum total potential energy. The results show that the proposed method can generate more human-like motion.
The relationship of a diet low in fibre with mortality has not been evaluated. This study aims to assess the burden of non-communicable chronic diseases (NCD) attributable to a diet low in fibre globally from 1990 to 2019.
All data were from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study 2019, in which the mortality, disability-adjusted life-years (DALY) and years lived with disability (YLD) were estimated with Bayesian geospatial regression using data at global, regional and country level acquired from an extensively systematic review.
All data sourced from the GBD Study 2019.
All age groups for both sexes.
The age-standardised mortality rates (ASMR) declined in most GBD regions; however, in Southern sub-Saharan Africa, the ASMR increased from 4·07 (95 % uncertainty interval (UI) (2·08, 6·34)) to 4·60 (95 % UI (2·59, 6·90)), and in Central sub-Saharan Africa, the ASMR increased from 7·46 (95 % UI (3·64, 11·90)) to 9·34 (95 % UI (4·69, 15·25)). Uptrends were observed in the age-standardised YLD rates attributable to a diet low in fibre in a number of GBD regions. The burden caused by diabetes mellitus increased in Central Asia, Southern sub-Saharan Africa and Eastern Europe.
The burdens of disease attributable to a diet low in fibre in Southern sub-Saharan Africa and Central sub-Saharan Africa and the age-standardised YLD rates in a number of GBD regions increased from 1990 to 2019. Therefore, greater efforts are needed to reduce the disease burden caused by a diet low in fibre.
Somatic cell nuclear transfer (NT) is associated with aberrant changes in epigenetic reprogramming that impede the development of embryos, particularly during zygotic genome activation. Here, we characterized epigenetic patterns of H3K4me3, H3K9me3, and H3K27me3 in mouse NT embryos up to the second cell cycle (i.e. four-celled stage) during zygotic genome activation. In vivo fertilized and parthenogenetically activated (PA) embryos served as controls. In fertilized embryos, maternal and paternal pronuclei exhibited asymmetric H3K4me3, H3K9me3, and H3K27me3 modifications, with the paternal pronucleus showing delayed epigenetic modifications. Higher levels of H3K4me3 and H3K9me3 were observed in NT and PA embryos than in fertilized embryos. However, NT embryos exhibited a lower level of H3K27me3 than PA and fertilized embryos from pronuclear stage 3 to the four-celled stage. Our finding that NT embryos exhibited aberrant H3K4me3, H3K9me3, and H3K27me3 modifications in comparison with fertilized embryos during early zygotic genome activation help to unravel the epigenetic mechanisms of methylation changes in early NT reprogramming and provide an insight into the role of histone H3 in the regulation of cell plasticity during natural reproduction and somatic cell NT.
The codling moth Cydia pomonella is a major pest of global significance impacting pome fruits and walnuts. It threatens the apple industry in the Loess Plateau and Bohai Bay in China. Sterile insect technique (SIT) could overcome the limitations set by environmentally compatible area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) approaches such as mating disruption and attract-kill that are difficult to suppress in a high-density pest population, as well as the development of insecticide resistance. In this study, we investigated the effects of X-ray irradiation (183, 366, 549 Gy) on the fecundity and fertility of a laboratory strain of C. pomonella, using a newly developed irradiator, to evaluate the possibility of X-rays as a replacement for Cobalt60 (60Co-γ) and the expanded future role of this approach in codling moth control. Results show that the 8th-day is the optimal age for irradiation of male pupae. The fecundity decreased significantly as the dosage of radiation increased. The mating ratio and mating number were not influenced. However, treated females were sub-sterile at a radiation dose of 183 Gy (20.93%), and were almost 100% sterile at a radiation dose of 366 Gy or higher. Although exposure to a radiation dose of 366 Gy resulted in a significant reduction in the mating competitiveness of male moths, our radiation biology results suggest that this new generation of X-ray irradiator has potential applications in SIT programs for future codling moth control.
Brachiopods suffered high levels of extinction during the Permian–Triassic crisis, and their diversity failed to return to Permian levels. In the aftermath of the Permian-Triassic mass extinction, brachiopods were extremely rare worldwide, especially in the southern hemisphere. Here, we report a new Early Triassic brachiopod fauna from the Selong section in southern Tibet, China. A new genus and three new species have been identified: Selongthyris plana Wang and Chen n. gen. n. sp., Piarorhynchella selongensis Wang and Chen n. sp., and Schwagerispira cheni Wang and Chen n. sp., which are typical. The ontogenies and internal structures of these three new species are described in detail. This brachiopod fauna corresponds to the Neospathodus pakistanensis and Neospathodus waageni conodont biozones and Kashmirites and Anasibirites ammonoid biozones, indicating a late Dienerian to late Smithian age. The post-extinction recovery of brachiopods in the Himalayas may have begun by the early Smithian of the Early Triassic. In addition, these species did not persist into the Spathian substage, suggesting that the newly evolved brachiopods in the southern Tethys were severely affected by the late Smithian extinction event.
Due to the lack of research between the inner layers in the structure of colonic mucous and the metabolism of fatty acid in the constipation model, we aim to determine the changes in the mucous phenotype of the colonic glycocalyx and the microbial community structure following treatment with Rhubarb extract in our research. The constipation and treatment models are generated using adult male C57BL/6N mice. We perform light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to detect a Muc2-rich inner mucus layer attached to mice colon under different conditions. In addition, 16S rDNA sequencing is performed to examine the intestinal flora. According to TEM images, we demonstrate that Rhubarb can promote mucin secretion and find direct evidence of dendritic structure-linked mucus structures with its assembly into a lamellar network in a pore size distribution in the isolated colon section. Moreover, the diversity of intestinal flora has noticeable changes in constipated mice. The present study characterizes a dendritic structure and persistent cross-links have significant changes accompanied by the alteration of intestinal flora in feces in models of constipation and pretreatment with Rhubarb extract.
In the past 10–15 years, the government of China has made various efforts in tackling excessive antibiotics use. Yet, little is known about their effects at rural primary care settings. This study aimed to determine the impact of government policies and the COVID-19 pandemic on antibiotic prescribing practices at such settings utilizing data from separate studies carried out pre- and during the pandemic, in 2016 and 2021 in Anhui province, China, using identical sampling and survey approaches. Data on antibiotics prescribed, diagnosis, socio-demographic, etc., were obtained through non-participative observation and a structured exit survey. Data analysis comprised mainly descriptive comparisons of 1153 and 762 patients with respiratory infections recruited in 2016 and 2021, respectively. The overall antibiotics prescription rate decreased from 89.6% in 2016 to 69.1% in 2021, and the proportion of prescriptions for two or more classes of antibiotics was estimated as 35.9% in 2016 and 11.0% in 2021. There was a statistically significant decrease in the number of days from symptom onset to clinic visits between the year groups. In conclusion, measures to constrain excessive prescription of antibiotics have led to some improvements at the rural primary care level, and the COVID-19 pandemic has had varying effects on antibiotic use.
Optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification is inevitably subject to high-order spatial chirp, particularly under the condition of saturated amplification and a Gaussian pump; this corresponds to an irreversible spatiotemporal distortion and consequently degrades the maximum attainable focused intensity. In this paper, we reveal that such spatial chirp distortion can be significantly mitigated in quasi-parametric chirped-pulse amplification (QPCPA) with idler absorption. Simulation results show that the quality of focused intensity in saturated QPCPA is nearly ideal, with a spatiotemporal Strehl ratio higher than 0.98. As the seed bandwidth increases, the idler absorption spectrum may not be uniform, but the Strehl ratio in QPCPA can be still high enough due to stronger idler absorption.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Despite the large body of evidence concerning the effects of dietary interventions on blood pressure, trials have often reported poor adherence to sodium restriction. We implemented the Sodium Watcher Program-Hypertension (SWPH) program using digital self-monitoring. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of the SWPH program. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: The SWPH is a pilot two-arm, 2-month randomized controlled trial that enrolls adults with hypertension. The intervention group received personalized feedback on dietary sodium intake and BP and the control group participants received usual care for hypertension. Both groups participated in digital self-monitoring of daily diet and BP over 8 weeks. The primary outcomes were adherence to dietary sodium intake as captured by 24-hour urinary sodium excretion and BP at baseline and at the 2-month follow-up. Feasibility assessment included adherence to dietary sodium intake monitoring and in-home BP monitoring measured by the percentage of days that participant logged their food intake and in-home BP. The preliminary effect on the outcome variables was tested by using a repeated-measures analysis of variance. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: In this feasibility study, we included data from 12 participants (n=9 SWPH, n=3 control) who completed all phases of the study. The patients median age was 56.5 years and 70% were female. The mean baseline BP was 142.7/87.5 mmHg. The mean 24-hour urine sodium of 4853.0 mg (SD=1639.9 mg) with 80% having 24-hour urine sodium >2300 mg at baseline. SWPH group had lower systolic (baseline 142.4 mmHg vs follow-up 124.1 mmHg, p<0.001), diastolic (baseline 87.1 mmHg vs follow-up 77.5 mmHg, p<0.05) BP, and 24-hour urine sodium (baseline 3790.4 mg vs 2609.7 mg, p<0.05) compared with control group. Compared with the control group, the SWPH group had significantly more eligible days of digital food log usage (control 80.0% vs intervention 98.2%, p<0.01) and in-home BP monitor usage (control 77.6% vs intervention 94.6%, p<0.01). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Millions of Americans remain in need of effective interventions to manage their hypertension. Innovative and accessible strategies to sustain a low sodium diet intervention are needed for the majority of individuals not following the low sodium diet. By leveraging digital self-monitoring, a low sodium diet program was feasible and in reducing BP.
Subthreshold depression (sD) negatively impacts well-being and psychosocial function and is more prevalent compared with major depressive disorder (MDD). However, as adults with sD are less likely to seek face-to-face intervention, internet-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (ICBT) may overcome barriers of accessibility to psychotherapy. Although several trials explored the efficacy of ICBT for sD, the results remain inconsistent. This study evaluated whether ICBT is effective in reducing depressive symptoms among Chinese adults with sD.
A randomized controlled trial was performed. The participants were randomly assigned to 5 weeks of ICBT, group-based face-to-face cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), or a waiting list (WL). Assessments were conducted at baseline, post-intervention and at a 6-month follow-up. The primary outcome measured depressive symptoms using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Outcomes were analyzed using a mixed-effects model to assess the effects of ICBT.
ICBT participants reported greater reductions on all the outcomes compared to the WL group at post-intervention. The ICBT group showed larger improvement on the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) at post-intervention (d = 0.12) and at follow-up (d = 0.10), and with CES-D at post-intervention (d = 0.06), compared to the CBT group.
ICBT is effective in reducing depressive symptoms among Chinese adults with sD, and improvements in outcomes were sustained at a 6-month follow-up. Considering the low rates of face-to-face psychotherapy, our findings highlight the considerable potential and implications for the Chinese government to promote the use of ICBT for sD in China.
For individual cultures, findings on regulating embryo density by changing the microdrop volume are contradictory. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between embryo density and the developmental outcome of day 3 embryos after adjusting covariates. In total, 1196 embryos from 206 couples who had undergone in vitro fertilization treatment were analyzed retrospectively. Three embryo densities were used routinely, i.e. one embryo in a drop (30 μl/embryo), two embryos in a drop (15 μl/embryo) and three embryos in a drop (10 μl/embryo). Embryo quality on day 3 was evaluated, both the cell number of day 3 embryos and the proportion of successful implantations served as endpoints. Maternal age, paternal age, antral follicles and level of anti-Müllerian hormone, type of infertility, controlled ovarian stimulation protocol, length of stimulation, number of retrieved oocytes, number of zygotes (two pronuclei) and insemination type were covariates and adjusted. After adjusting fully for all covariates, the cell number of day 3 embryos was significantly increased by 0.40 (95% CI 0.00, 0.79; P = 0.048) and 0.78 (95% CI 0.02, 1.54; P = 0.044) in the 15 μl/embryo and 10 μl/embryo group separately, compared with the 30 μl/embryo group. The proportions of implanted embryos were 42.1%, 48.7% and 0.0% in the 30 μl/embryo, 15 μl/embryo and 10 μl/embryo groups respectively. There was no statistical significance (P = 0.22) between the 30 μl/embryo group and the 15 μl/embryo group. After adjusting for confounders that were significant in univariate analysis, embryo density was still not associated with day 3 embryo implantation potential (P > 0.05). In a 30-μl microdrop, culturing embryos with an embryo density of both 15 and 10 μl/embryo increased the cell number of day 3 embryos, which did not benefit embryo implanting potential, compared with individual culture of 30 μl/embryo.
Vaginitis is a prevalent gynecologic disease that threatens millions of women’s health. Although microscopic examination of vaginal discharge is an effective method to identify vaginal infections, manual analysis of microscopic leucorrhea images is extremely time-consuming and labor-intensive. To automate the detection and identification of visible components in microscopic leucorrhea images for early-stage diagnosis of vaginitis, we propose a novel end-to-end deep learning-based cells detection framework using attention-based detection with transformers (DETR) architecture. The transfer learning was applied to speed up the network convergence while maintaining the lowest annotation cost. To address the issue of detection performance degradation caused by class imbalance, the weighted sampler with on-the-fly data augmentation module was integrated into the detection pipeline. Additionally, the multi-head attention mechanism and the bipartite matching loss system of the DETR model perform well in identifying partially overlapping cells in real-time. With our proposed method, the pipeline achieved a mean average precision (mAP) of 86.00% and the average precision (AP) of epithelium, leukocyte, pyocyte, mildew, and erythrocyte was 96.76, 83.50, 74.20, 89.66, and 88.80%, respectively. The average test time for a microscopic leucorrhea image is approximately 72.3 ms. Currently, this cell detection method represents state-of-the-art performance.
This study examined the influences of coated folic acid (CFA) and coated riboflavin (CRF) on bull performance, nutrients digestion and ruminal fermentation. Forty-eight Angus bulls based on a randomised block and 2 × 2 factorial design were assigned to four treatments. The CFA of 0 or 6 mg of folic acid/kg DM was supplemented in diets with CRF 0 or 60 mg riboflavin (RF)/kg DM. Supplementation of CRF in diets with CFA had greater increase in daily weight gain and feed efficiency than in diets without CFA. Supplementation with CFA or CRF enhanced digestibility of DM, organic matter, crude protein, neutral-detergent fibre and non-fibre carbohydrate. Ruminal pH and ammonia N content decreased and total volatile fatty acids concentration and acetate to propionate ratio elevated for CFA or CRF addition. Supplement of CFA or CRF increased the activities of fibrolytic enzymes and the numbers of total bacteria, protozoa, fungi, dominant fibrolytic bacteria and Prevotella ruminicola. The activities of α-amylase, protease and pectinase and the numbers of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens and Ruminobacter amylophilus were increased by CFA but were unaffected by CRF. Blood concentration of folate elevated and homocysteine decreased for CFA addition. The CRF supplementation elevated blood concentrations of folate and RF. These findings suggested that CFA or CRF inclusion had facilitating effects on performance and ruminal fermentation, and combined addition of CFA and CRF had greater increase in performance than CFA or CRF addition alone in bulls.