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A broad spectrum of internal gravity waves coexist with the geostrophic balanced flow in the world's oceans. Satellite altimeter data sets, in situ observations and global scale ocean model outputs collected over the past one decade reveal significant variability in the balance-to-wave energy ratio in the world's oceans. Notably, wave-dominant regions of the world's oceans are characterized by the internal gravity wave spectrum overtaking the geostrophic balanced flow's spectrum at mesoscales. Inspired by these recent data sets, in this paper we explore turbulent interactions between a broad spectrum of internal gravity waves and the geostrophic balanced flow in different balance-to-wave energy regimes. Our results based on numerical integration of the non-hydrostatic Boussinesq equations reveal that the balanced flow remains unaffected by waves as long as wave energy is not significantly higher than balanced energy. Even in parameter regimes where wave and balanced energies are comparable, balanced flow undergoes an inverse energy flux with energy accumulating in large domain-scale coherent vortices. In contrast, we find that wave-dominant regimes are composed of two-way wave–balance energy exchanges and a forward flux of geostrophic energy. The geostrophic balanced flow in such regimes is composed of fine-scale structures that get dissipated at small scales and show no sign of coherent vortex formation. Our findings reveal that sufficiently high energy waves can reverse the direction of the geostrophic energy flux – from inverse to forward – enhancing geostrophic energy dissipation. Given that the balance-to-wave energy ratio is highly variable in the global ocean, the forward flux and associated small-scale dissipation of balanced energy could play an important role in high wave energy regions of the world's oceans. The prominent mechanisms suggested for dissipating balanced energy in the world's oceans require balanced flow to encounter different forms of boundaries. In contrast, the wave-induced dissipation of balanced energy described in this paper is an attractive mechanism that could dissipate balanced energy in the interior parts of the oceans and away from all forms of boundaries.
Dopaminergic imaging is an established biomarker for dementia with Lewy bodies, but its diagnostic accuracy at the mild cognitive impairment (MCI) stage remains uncertain.
To provide robust prospective evidence of the diagnostic accuracy of dopaminergic imaging at the MCI stage to either support or refute its inclusion as a biomarker for the diagnosis of MCI with Lewy bodies.
We conducted a prospective diagnostic accuracy study of baseline dopaminergic imaging with [123I]N-ω-fluoropropyl-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)nortropane single-photon emission computerised tomography (123I-FP-CIT SPECT) in 144 patients with MCI. Images were rated as normal or abnormal by a panel of experts with access to striatal binding ratio results. Follow-up consensus diagnosis based on the presence of core features of Lewy body disease was used as the reference standard.
At latest assessment (mean 2 years) 61 patients had probable MCI with Lewy bodies, 26 possible MCI with Lewy bodies and 57 MCI due to Alzheimer's disease. The sensitivity of baseline FP-CIT visual rating for probable MCI with Lewy bodies was 66% (95% CI 52–77%), specificity 88% (76–95%) and accuracy 76% (68–84%), with positive likelihood ratio 5.3.
It is over five times as likely for an abnormal scan to be found in probable MCI with Lewy bodies than MCI due to Alzheimer's disease. Dopaminergic imaging appears to be useful at the MCI stage in cases where Lewy body disease is suspected clinically.
Wind generated near-inertial waves are ubiquitous in the upper ocean. An improved understanding of near-inertial wave dynamics following their excitation in the ocean and their subsequent interaction with mesoscale geostrophic balanced flows is key to decoding oceanic energy flow pathways. In this regard, multiple oceanic data sets accumulated over the past few decades reveal that the relative strength of near-inertial waves and geostrophic balanced eddy fields is highly variable, both geographically and seasonally. Inspired by these observations, we investigate turbulent interactions and energy exchanges between near-inertial waves and balanced flows using freely evolving numerical simulations of the non-hydrostatic Boussinesq equations. We find accelerated vertical propagation and dissipation of the waves in regimes where balanced and wave fields have comparable strengths. In such regimes we also find that near-inertial waves directly extract energy from balanced flows, with
being the amount of balanced energy loss. In contrast, we find that near-inertial waves transfer energy to balanced flows in regimes where balance-to-wave energy ratio is small, with the gain in balanced energy being dependent on the relative strength of waves. Furthermore, these regimes are characterized by relatively weaker vertical propagation and dissipation of the near-inertial wave field. One of the key outcomes of this study is the demonstration of the lack of a unique direction for near-inertial wave-balanced flow energy transfers. Depending on the balance-to-wave energy ratio, near-inertial waves can act as an energy sink or energy source for the geostrophic balanced flow.
Recently published diagnostic criteria for mild cognitive impairment with Lewy bodies (MCI-LB) include five neuropsychiatric supportive features (non-visual hallucinations, systematised delusions, apathy, anxiety and depression). We have previously demonstrated that the presence of two or more of these symptoms differentiates MCI-LB from MCI due to Alzheimer's disease (MCI-AD) with a likelihood ratio >4. The aim of this study was to replicate the findings in an independent cohort.
Participants ⩾60 years old with MCI were recruited. Each participant had a detailed clinical, cognitive and imaging assessment including FP-CIT SPECT and cardiac MIBG. The presence of neuropsychiatric supportive symptoms was determined using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI). Participants were classified as MCI-AD, possible MCI-LB and probable MCI-LB based on current diagnostic criteria. Participants with possible MCI-LB were excluded from further analysis.
Probable MCI-LB (n = 28) had higher NPI total and distress scores than MCI-AD (n = 30). In total, 59% of MCI-LB had two or more neuropsychiatric supportive symptoms compared with 9% of MCI-AD (likelihood ratio 6.5, p < 0.001). MCI-LB participants also had a significantly greater delayed recall and a lower Trails A:Trails B ratio than MCI-AD.
MCI-LB is associated with significantly greater neuropsychiatric symptoms than MCI-AD. The presence of two or more neuropsychiatric supportive symptoms as defined by MCI-LB diagnostic criteria is highly specific and moderately sensitive for a diagnosis of MCI-LB. The cognitive profile of MCI-LB differs from MCI-AD, with greater executive and lesser memory impairment, but these differences are not sufficient to differentiate MCI-LB from MCI-AD.
Following up on earlier work which demonstrated an improved numerical stellarator coil design optimization performance by the use of stochastic optimization (Lobsien et al., Nucl. Fusion, vol. 58 (10), 2018, 106013), it is demonstrated here that significant further improvements can be made – lower field errors and improved robustness – for a Wendelstein 7-X test case. This is done by increasing the sample size and applying fully three-dimensional perturbations, but most importantly, by changing the design sequence in which the optimization targets are applied: optimization for field error is conducted first, with coil shape penalties only added to the objective function at a later step in the design process. A robust, feasible coil configuration with a local maximum field error of 3.66 % and an average field error of 0.95 % is achieved here, as compared to a maximum local field error of 6.08 % and average field error of 1.56 % found in our earlier work. These new results are compared to those found without stochastic optimization using the FOCUS and ONSET suites. The relationship between local minima in the optimization space and coil shape penalties is also discussed.
In 2018, the Alliance for Open Media (AOMedia) finalized its first video compression format AV1, which is jointly developed by the industry consortium of leading video technology companies. The main goal of AV1 is to provide an open source and royalty-free video coding format that substantially outperforms state-of-the-art codecs available on the market in compression efficiency while remaining practical decoding complexity as well as being optimized for hardware feasibility and scalability on modern devices. To give detailed insights into how the targeted performance and feasibility is realized, this paper provides a technical overview of key coding techniques in AV1. Besides, the coding performance gains are validated by video compression tests performed with the libaom AV1 encoder against the libvpx VP9 encoder. Preliminary comparison with two leading HEVC encoders, x265 and HM, and the reference software of VVC is also conducted on AOM's common test set and an open 4k set.
Recent evidence from both oceanic observations and global-scale ocean model simulations indicate the existence of regions where low-mode internal tidal energy dominates over that of the geostrophic balanced flow. Inspired by these findings, we examine the effect of the first vertical mode inertia–gravity waves on the dynamics of balanced flow using an idealized model obtained by truncating the hydrostatic Boussinesq equations on to the barotropic and the first baroclinic mode. On investigating the wave–balance turbulence phenomenology using freely evolving numerical simulations, we find that the waves continuously transfer energy to the balanced flow in regimes where the balanced-to-wave energy ratio is small, thereby generating small-scale features in the balanced fields. We examine the detailed energy transfer pathways in wave-dominated flows and thereby develop a generalized small Rossby number geophysical turbulence phenomenology, with the two-mode (barotropic and one baroclinic mode) quasi-geostrophic turbulence phenomenology being a subset of it. The present work therefore shows that inertia–gravity waves would form an integral part of the geophysical turbulence phenomenology in regions where balanced flow is weaker than gravity waves.
Childhood maltreatment (CM) plays an important role in the development of major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of this study was to examine whether CM severity and type are associated with MDD-related brain alterations, and how they interact with sex and age.
Within the ENIGMA-MDD network, severity and subtypes of CM using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire were assessed and structural magnetic resonance imaging data from patients with MDD and healthy controls were analyzed in a mega-analysis comprising a total of 3872 participants aged between 13 and 89 years. Cortical thickness and surface area were extracted at each site using FreeSurfer.
CM severity was associated with reduced cortical thickness in the banks of the superior temporal sulcus and supramarginal gyrus as well as with reduced surface area of the middle temporal lobe. Participants reporting both childhood neglect and abuse had a lower cortical thickness in the inferior parietal lobe, middle temporal lobe, and precuneus compared to participants not exposed to CM. In males only, regardless of diagnosis, CM severity was associated with higher cortical thickness of the rostral anterior cingulate cortex. Finally, a significant interaction between CM and age in predicting thickness was seen across several prefrontal, temporal, and temporo-parietal regions.
Severity and type of CM may impact cortical thickness and surface area. Importantly, CM may influence age-dependent brain maturation, particularly in regions related to the default mode network, perception, and theory of mind.
Lateral memristors consisting of planar Ag electrodes (with sub-micrometer separation) supported on thin films of amorphous zinc-tin-oxide have been characterized. After an initial filament-forming process, each device exhibited volatile, resistive switching. In the low resistance state, the transport mechanism and conductance depended on prior activity and on the imposed current limit, mimicking biologic synaptic plasticity. Microscopic observations performed on each device revealed nanoscale filaments between the electrodes. These filaments were subject to Rayleigh instability and exhibited relaxation times determined by their effective radii. The relaxation times and on:off resistance ratios suggest suitability for threshold switching selector devices.
Dopaminergic imaging has high diagnostic accuracy for dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) at the dementia stage. We report the first investigation of dopaminergic imaging at the prodromal stage.
We recruited 75 patients over 60 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), 33 with probable MCI with Lewy body disease (MCI-LB), 15 with possible MCI-LB and 27 with MCI with Alzheimer's disease. All underwent detailed clinical, neurological and neuropsychological assessments and FP-CIT [123I-N-fluoropropyl-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)] dopaminergic imaging. FP-CIT scans were blindly rated by a consensus panel and classified as normal or abnormal.
The sensitivity of visually rated FP-CIT imaging to detect combined possible or probable MCI-LB was 54.2% [95% confidence interval (CI) 39.2–68.6], with a specificity of 89.0% (95% CI 70.8–97.6) and a likelihood ratio for MCI-LB of 4.9, indicating that FP-CIT may be a clinically important test in MCI where any characteristic symptoms of Lewy body (LB) disease are present. The sensitivity in probable MCI-LB was 61.0% (95% CI 42.5–77.4) and in possible MCI-LB was 40.0% (95% CI 16.4–67.7).
Dopaminergic imaging had high specificity at the pre-dementia stage and gave a clinically important increase in diagnostic confidence and so should be considered in all patients with MCI who have any of the diagnostic symptoms of DLB. As expected, the sensitivity was lower in MCI-LB than in established DLB, although over 50% still had an abnormal scan. Accurate diagnosis of LB disease is important to enable early optimal treatment for LB symptoms.
Theoretical and numerical computations of the wave-induced mean flow in rotating shallow water with uniform potential vorticity are presented, with an eye towards applications in small-scale oceanography where potential-vorticity anomalies are often weak compared to the waves. The asymptotic computations are based on small-amplitude expansions and time averaging over the fast wave scale to define the mean flow. Importantly, we do not assume that the mean flow is balanced, i.e. we compute the full mean-flow response at leading order. Particular attention is paid to the concept of modified diagnostic relations, which link the leading-order Lagrangian-mean velocity field to certain wave properties known from the linear solution. Both steady and unsteady wave fields are considered, with specific examples that include propagating wavepackets and monochromatic standing waves. Very good agreement between the theoretical predictions and direct numerical simulations of the nonlinear system is demonstrated. In particular, we extend previous studies by considering the impact of unsteady wave fields on the mean flow, and by considering the total kinetic energy of the mean flow as a function of the rotation rate. Notably, monochromatic standing waves provide an explicit counterexample to the often observed tendency of the mean flow to decrease monotonically with the background rotation rate.
The accurate clinical characterisation of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is becoming increasingly important. The aim of this study was to compare the neuropsychiatric symptoms and cognitive profile of MCI with Lewy bodies (MCI-LB) with Alzheimer's disease MCI (MCI-AD).
Participants were ⩾60 years old with MCI. Each had a thorough clinical and neuropsychological assessment and 2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)-N-(3-fluoropropyl)-nortropane single photon emission computed tomography FP-CIT SPECT). MCI-LB was diagnosed if two or more diagnostic features of dementia with Lewy bodies were present (visual hallucinations, cognitive fluctuations, motor parkinsonism, rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder or positive FP-CIT SPECT). A Lewy body Neuropsychiatric Supportive Symptom Count (LBNSSC) was calculated based on the presence or absence of the supportive neuropsychiatric symptoms defined by the 2017 DLB diagnostic criteria: non-visual hallucinations, delusions, anxiety, depression and apathy.
MCI-LB (n = 41) had a higher LBNSSC than MCI-AD (n = 24; 1.8 ± 1.1 v. 0.7 ± 0.9, p = 0.001). 67% of MCI-LB had two or more of those symptoms, compared with 16% of MCI-AD (Likelihood ratio = 4.2, p < 0.001). MCI-LB subjects scored lower on tests of attention, visuospatial function and verbal fluency. However, cognitive test scores alone did not accurately differentiate MCI-LB from MCI-AD.
MCI-LB is associated with neuropsychiatric symptoms and a cognitive profile similar to established DLB. This supports the concept of identifying MCI-LB based on the presence of core diagnostic features of DLB and abnormal FP-CIT SPECT imaging. The presence of supportive neuropsychiatric clinical features identified in the 2017 DLB diagnostic criteria was helpful in differentiating between MCI-LB and MCI-AD.
A new amplitude equation is derived for high-frequency acoustic waves propagating through an incompressible vortical flow using multi-time-scale asymptotic analysis. The reduced model is derived without an explicit spatial-scale separation ansatz between the wave and vortical fields. As a consequence, the model is seen to capture very well the features of the wave field in the regime where the spatial scales of the wave and vortical fields are comparable, a regime for which an optimal reduced model does not seem to be available.
We investigate theoretically and numerically the modulation of near-inertial waves by a larger-amplitude geostrophically balanced mean flow. Because the excited wave is initially trapped in the mixed layer, it projects onto a broad spectrum of vertical modes, each mode
being characterized by a Burger number,
, proportional to the square of the vertical scale of the mode. Using numerical simulations of the hydrostatic Boussinesq equations linearized about a prescribed balanced background flow, we show that the evolution of the wave field depends strongly on the spectrum of
relative to the Rossby number of the balanced flow,
, with smaller relative
leading to smaller horizontal scales in the wave field, faster accumulation of wave amplitude in anticyclones and faster propagation of wave energy into the deep ocean. This varied behaviour of the wave may be understood by considering the dynamics in each mode separately; projecting the linearized hydrostatic Boussinesq equations onto modes yields a set of linear shallow water equations, with
playing the role of the reduced gravity. The wave modes fall into two asymptotic regimes, defined by the scalings
for low modes and
for high modes. An amplitude equation derived for the former regime shows that vertical propagation is weak for low modes. The high-mode regime is the basis of the Young & Ben Jelloul (J. Mar. Res., vol. 55, 1997, pp. 735–766) theory. This theory is here extended to
, from which amplitude equations for the subregimes
are derived. The accuracy of each approximation is demonstrated by comparing numerical solutions of the respective amplitude equation to simulations of the linearized shallow water equations in the same regime. We emphasize that since inertial wave energy and shear are distributed across vertical modes, their overall modulation is due to the collective behaviour of the wave field in each regime. A unified treatment of these regimes is a novel feature of this work.
Stonehenge is a site that continues to yield surprises. Excavation in 2009 added a new and unexpected feature: a smaller, dismantled stone circle on the banks of the River Avon, connected to Stonehenge itself by the Avenue. This new structure has been labelled ‘Bluestonehenge’ from the evidence that it once held a circle of bluestones that were later removed to Stonehenge. Investigation of the Avenue closer to Stonehenge revealed deep periglacial fissures within it. Their alignment on Stonehenge's solstitial axis (midwinter sunset–midsummer sunrise) raises questions about the early origins of this ritual landscape.
In this paper we investigate the possibility of fast waves affecting the evolution of slow balanced dynamics in the regime
$Ro\sim Fr\ll 1$
of a rotating shallow water system, where
are the Rossby and Froude numbers respectively. The problem is set up as an initial value problem with unbalanced initial data. The method of multiple time scale asymptotic analysis is used to derive an evolution equation for the slow dynamics that holds for
being the inertial frequency. This slow evolution equation is affected by the fast waves and thus does not form a closed system. Furthermore, it is shown that energy and enstrophy exchange can take place between the slow and fast dynamics. As a consequence, the quasi-geostrophic ideology of describing the slow dynamics of the balanced flow without any information on the fast modes breaks down. Further analysis is carried out in a doubly periodic domain for a few geostrophic and wave modes. A simple set of slowly evolving amplitude equations is then derived using resonant wave interaction theory to demonstrate that significant wave-balanced flow interactions can take place in the long-time limit. In this reduced system consisting of two geostrophic modes and two wave modes, the presence of waves considerably affects the interactions between the geostrophic modes, the waves acting as a catalyst in promoting energetic interactions among geostrophic modes.