To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Psychotic disorders are highly heritable, yet the evidence is less clear for subclinical psychosis expression, such as psychotic experiences (PEs). We examined if PEs in parents were associated with PEs in offspring.
As part of the Danish general population Lolland-Falster Health Study, families with youths aged 11–17 years were included. Both children and parents reported PEs according to the Psychotic Like Experiences Questionnaire, counting only ‘definite’ PEs. Parents additionally reported depressive symptoms, anxiety, and mental wellbeing. The associations between parental and child PEs were estimated using generalized estimating equations with an exchangeable correlation structure to account for the clustering of observations within families, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics.
Altogether, 984 youths (mean age 14.3 years [s.d. 2.0]), 700 mothers, and 496 fathers from 766 households completed PEs-questionnaires. Offspring of parents with PEs were at an increased risk of reporting PEs themselves (mothers: adjusted risk ratio (aRR) 2.42, 95% CI 1.73–3.38; fathers: aRR 2.25, 95% CI 1.42–3.59). Other maternal problems (depression, anxiety, and poor mental well-being), but not paternal problems, were also associated with offspring PEs. In multivariate models adjusting for parental problems, PEs, but not other parental problems, were robustly associated with offspring PEs (mothers: aRR 2.25, 95% CI 1.60–3.19; fathers: aRR 2.44, 95% CI 1.50–3.96).
The current findings add novel evidence suggesting that specific psychosis vulnerability in families is expressed at the lower end of the psychosis continuum, underlining the importance of assessing youths’ needs based on psychosis vulnerability broadly within the family systems.
The current studies investigated how a manipulation in joint outcome influenced individuals’ responses to pro-equality/individualistic decision makers. In Study 1 (N = 175), we examined the impact of whether equal distribution led to maximum joint outcome or not on individuals’ evaluations of, and reactions to, partners choosing either equal or individualistic distributions. In Study 2 (N = 164), we further examined the moderating roles of individual differences in general social value orientation (SVO) and preferences for joint outcome (vs. equality). Important findings include: a) individuals evaluated a pro-equality partner as less warm when equal distribution did not afford maximum joint outcome than when it did; b) individuals, especially those who scored high on preferences for joint outcome (relative to equality), were less likely to chose equal distribution when equality did not maximize joint outcome than when it did; and c) individuals who preferred joint outcome to equality evaluated individualistic partners as warmer when equal distribution did not yield maximum joint outcome than when it did. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.
Hyperinsulinaemia and insulin resistance have been proposed to be associated with mortality risk, and diet can modulate insulin response. However, whether dietary patterns with high insulinaemic potential are associated with mortality remains unknown. We prospectively examined the associations between hyperinsulinaemic diets and the risk of total and cause-specific mortality in a large nationally representative population. Dietary factors were assessed by 24-h recalls. Two empirical dietary indices for hyperinsulinaemia (EDIH) and insulin resistance (EDIR) were developed to identify food groups most predictive of biomarkers for hyperinsulinaemia (C-peptide and insulin) and insulin resistance (homoeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance), respectively. Deaths from date of the first dietary interview until 31 December 2015 were identified by the National Death Index. Multivariable hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI were calculated using Cox regression models. During a median follow-up of 7·8 years, 4904 deaths were documented among 40 074 participants. For EDIH, the multivariable-adjusted HR (comparing extreme quintiles) were 1·20 (95 % CI 1·09, 1·32, P-trend<0·001) for overall mortality and 1·41 (95 % CI 1·15, 1·74, P-trend = 0·002) for CVD mortality. Similar associations were observed for EDIR with HR of 1·18 (95 % CI 1·07, 1·29, P-trend < 0·001) for total and 1·35 (95 % CI 1·09, 1·67, P-trend = 0·005) for CVD mortality. After further adjustments for BMI and diabetes, these positive associations were somewhat attenuated. Our findings suggested that diets with higher insulinaemic potential are associated with increased risk of overall and CVD-specific mortality.
Inflammation is a central mechanism in metabolic disorders associated with morbidity and mortality and dietary factors can modulate inflammation. We aimed to prospectively investigate the association between an empirically developed, food-based dietary inflammatory pattern (EDIP) score and the risk of overall and cause-specific mortality, using data from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 1999 to 2014. EDIP score was derived by entering thirty-nine predefined commonly consumed food groups into the reduced rank regression models followed by stepwise linear regression, which was most predictive of two plasma inflammation biomarkers including C-reactive protein and leucocyte count among 25 500 US adults. This score was further validated in a testing set of 9466 adults. Deaths from baseline until 31 December 2015 were identified through record linkage to the National Death Index. During a median follow-up of 7·8 years among 40 074 participants, we documented 4904 deaths. Compared with participants in the lowest quintile of EDIP score, those in the highest quintile had a higher risk of overall death (hazard ratio (HR) = 1·19, 95 % CI 1·08, 1·32, Ptrend = 0·002), and deaths from cancer (HR = 1·41, 95 % CI 1·14, 1·74, Ptrend = 0·017) and CVD (HR = 1·22, 95 % CI 0·98, 1·53, Ptrend = 0·211). When stratified by age, the association of EDIP with overall mortality was stronger among individuals under 65 years of age (Pinteraction = 0·001). Diets with a higher inflammatory potential were associated with increased risk of overall and cancer-specific mortality. Interventions to reduce the adverse effect of pro-inflammatory diets may potentially promote health and longevity.
In this study, we have spectroscopically investigated the plasma generated by a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser operating at its fundamental wavelength of 1064 nm focused on magnesium (Mg) and titanium (Ti) target samples in the air under atmospheric pressure. We employed circular cavities of radii (2.5, 3.0, and 3.5 mm) and a square cavity to investigate the cavity confinement effect on the spectral emission intensities of the plasmas. We observed that the circular cavity of radius 2.5 mm had the maximum signal enhancement, and this can be attributed to the compression of the plasma and reheating by the reflected shock waves. The maximum enhancement factor of the Mg I-518.4 nm line was reached at approximately 3.8, 3.4, and 2.8 with a circular cavity of radius 2.5, 3.0, and 3.5 mm, respectively, at a delay time of 350 ns and a laser energy of 350 mJ. By applying varying external magnetic fields (0.47, 0.62, 0.91, and 1.23 T) across the generated plasma, the plasma parameters such as electron temperature and number density have been investigated. From our results, we observed that the radius of the cavity had a tremendous effect on the enhancement of the emission signal intensities. We also found that the increase in the electron temperature and the number density can be attributed to the increase in the applied magnetic field and the laser energy. From our calculations, the value of β, which was less than 1 for all the cases, confirms that there was a plasma confinement at the presence of the magnetic field.
We consider a resource allocation model to analyze investment strategies for financial services firms in order to minimize their operational risk losses. A firm has to decide how much to invest in human resources and in infrastructure (information technology). The operational risk losses are a function of the activity level of the firm, of the amounts invested in personnel and in infrastructure, and of interaction effects between the amounts invested in personnel and infrastructure. We first consider a deterministic setting and show certain monotonicity properties of the optimal investments assuming general loss functions that are convex. We find that because of the interaction effects “economies of scale" may not hold in our setting, in contrast to a typical manufacturing environment. We then consider a general polynomial loss function in a stochastic setting with the number of transactions at the firm being a random variable. We characterize the asymptotic behaviors of the optimal investments in both heavy and light trading environments. We show that when the market is very liquid, that is, it is subject to heavy transaction volumes, it is optimal for a financial firm that is highly risk sensitive to use a balanced investment strategy. Both a heavier right tail of the distribution of transaction volume and a firm's risk sensitivity necessitate larger investments; in a heavy trading environment these two factors reinforce one another. However, in a light trading environment with the transaction volume having a heavy left tail the investment will be independent of the firm's sensitivity to risk.
Psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and major depressive disorder
(MDD) are likely to be caused by multiple susceptibility genes, each with
small effects in increasing the risk of illness. Identifying DNA variants
associated with schizophrenia and MDD is a crucial step in understanding
the pathophysiology of these disorders.
To investigate whether the SP4 gene plays a significant
role in schizophrenia or MDD in the Han Chinese population.
We focused on nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) harbouring the
SP4 gene and carried out case–control studies in 1235
patients with schizophrenia, 1045 patients with MDD and 1235 healthy
controls recruited from the Han Chinese population.
We found that rs40245 was significantly associated with schizophrenia in
both allele and genotype distributions (Pallele = 0.0005, Pallele = 0.004 after Bonferroni correction; Pgenotype = 0.0023, Pgenotype = 0.0184 after Bonferroni correction). The rs6461563
SNP was significantly associated with schizophrenia in the allele
distributions (Pallele = 0.0033, Pallele = 0.0264 after Bonferroni correction).
Our results suggest that common risk factors in the SP4
gene are associated with schizophrenia, although not with MDD, in the Han
Patch antennas with a meandering slot and different distributions of grounded metallic vias are presented in this paper. The meandering slot is adopted to stimulate dual-band operation, while the number and position of the grounded metallic vias are suggested to achieve different radiation performances. The characteristics are analyzed in detail where we find that the existence of the vias also improves the impedance matching. Four samples are designed, where dual-band with both linear polarization, dual-band with circular- and linear-polarization, and single band with linear polarization are obtained, respectively. The samples are finally fabricated and the measurement results agree well with the simulation results.
We report progress in growing non-polar a-plane III-nitride films and heterostructures over a-plane 4H-SiC. a-plane SiC is more closely lattice-matched to a-plane GaN than is r-plane sapphire. Consequently, better structural quality a-plane nitride films may result over a-plane SiC substrates. By migration enhanced metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MEMOCVD), an atomically smooth (1120)AlN layer with RMS roughness of 0.3nm was obtained. From the results of XRD, the structural defects in the AlN layer on SiC substrates were strongly reduced compared to those grown on r-plane sapphire. Also by applying our selective area lateral epitaxy (SALE) growth procedure, we achieved high structural and optical quality a-plane GaN films on 4H-SiC with RMS roughness only 0.4nm. Therefore, non-polar III-nitride films and heterostructures on SiC substrates are promising building blocks for realizing high performance polarization-free devices.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.