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Environment can impact the wear behavior of metals and alloys substantially. The tribological properties of Al0.6CoCrFeNi high-entropy alloys (HEAs) were investigated in ambient air, deionized water, simulated acid rain, and simulated seawater conditions at frequencies of 2–5 Hz. The as-cast alloy was composed of simple face-centered cubic and body-centered cubic phases. The wear rate of the as-cast HEA in the ambient air condition was significantly higher than that in the liquid environment. The wear resistance in seawater was superior to that in ambient air, deionized water, and acid rain. Both the friction coefficient and wear rate in seawater were the lowest due to the formation of oxidation film, lubrication, and corrosion action in solution. The dominant wear mechanism in the ambient air condition and deionized water was abrasive wear, delamination wear, and oxidative wear. By contrast, the wear mechanism in acid rain and seawater was mainly corrosion wear, adhesive wear, abrasive wear, and oxidative wear.
The authors developed a practical and clinically useful model to predict the risk of psychosis that utilizes clinical characteristics empirically demonstrated to be strong predictors of conversion to psychosis in clinical high-risk (CHR) individuals. The model is based upon the Structured Interview for Psychosis Risk Syndromes (SIPS) and accompanying clinical interview, and yields scores indicating one's risk of conversion.
Baseline data, including demographic and clinical characteristics measured by the SIPS, were obtained on 199 CHR individuals seeking evaluation in the early detection and intervention for mental disorders program at the New York State Psychiatric Institute at Columbia University Medical Center. Each patient was followed for up to 2 years or until they developed a syndromal DSM-4 disorder. A LASSO logistic fitting procedure was used to construct a model for conversion specifically to a psychotic disorder.
At 2 years, 64 patients (32.2%) converted to a psychotic disorder. The top five variables with relatively large standardized effect sizes included SIPS subscales of visual perceptual abnormalities, dysphoric mood, unusual thought content, disorganized communication, and violent ideation. The concordance index (c-index) was 0.73, indicating a moderately strong ability to discriminate between converters and non-converters.
The prediction model performed well in classifying converters and non-converters and revealed SIPS measures that are relatively strong predictors of conversion, comparable with the risk calculator published by NAPLS (c-index = 0.71), but requiring only a structured clinical interview. Future work will seek to externally validate the model and enhance its performance with the incorporation of relevant biomarkers.
Despite decades of trials, the prognosis for diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPG) remains dismal. DIPG is inoperable and standard treatment is radiation alone, as the addition of chemotherapeutic agents, such as temozolomide, have not improved survival. In addition to inherent chemoresistance, treatment of DIPG is impeded by an intact blood-brain barrier (BBB). VAL-083 is a structurally unique bi-functional DNA-targeting agent that readily crosses the BBB. VAL-083 forms interstrand DNA crosslinks at N7-guanine, resulting in DNA double-strand breaks (DSB), S/G2-phase cell-cycle arrest, and ultimately cancer cell death. We have previously demonstrated that VAL-083 is able to overcome temozolomide-resistance in vitro and in vivo, and that its cytotoxicity is independent of the DNA-repair enzyme O6-methylguanine DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT). MGMT is almost universally expressed in DIPG and its expression is strongly correlated with temozolomide-resistance. VAL-083’s distinct mechanism-of-action suggests the potential for combination with inhibitors of DNA DSB repair or S/G2 cell-cycle progression (e.g. Wee1 inhibitor AZD1775). Here, we investigated the effects of VAL-083 in combination with radiation, AZD1775 or irinotecan (topoisomerase inhibitor) in three DIPG cell-lines: SF10693 (H3.1), SF8628 (H3.3) and NEM157 (H3.3). VAL-083 showed activity at low uM-concentration in all three cell-lines. In addition, VAL-083 showed synergy with AZD1775 in all three cell-lines. Combined with its ability to cross the BBB, accumulate in brain tumor tissue and overcome MGMT-related chemoresistance, these results suggest VAL-083 as a potentially attractive treatment option for DIPG as single agent or in combination with AZD1775. Combination studies with radiation are ongoing and will be presented at the meeting.
Perinatal exposure to nutrients and dietary components may affect the risk for coeliac disease (CD). We investigated the association between maternal use of vitamin D, n-3 fatty acids (FA) and Fe supplements during pregnancy and risk for CD autoimmunity (CDA) and CD in the offspring. Children at increased genetic risk were prospectively followed from birth in The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study. CDA was defined as having persistently positive tissue transglutaminase autoantibodies (tTGA). Diagnosis of CD was either biopsy-confirmed or considered likely if having persistently elevated levels of tTGA>100 AU. Of 6627 enrolled children, 1136 developed CDA at a median 3·1 years of age (range 0·9–10) and 409 developed CD at a median 3·9 years of age (range 1·2–11). Use of supplements containing vitamin D, n-3 FA and Fe was recalled by 66, 17 and 94 % of mothers, respectively, at 3–4 months postpartum. The mean cumulative intake over the entire pregnancy was 2014 μg vitamin D (sd 2045 μg), 111 g n-3 FA (sd 303 g) and 8806 mg Fe (sd 7017 mg). After adjusting for country, child’s human leucocyte antigen genotype, sex, family history of CD, any breast-feeding duration and household crowding, Cox’s proportional hazard ratios did not suggest a statistically significant association between the intake of vitamin D, n-3 FA or Fe, and risk for CDA or CD. Dietary supplementation during pregnancy may help boost nutrient intake, but it is not likely to modify the risk for the disease in the offspring.
We analyzed birth order differences in means and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins from infancy to old age. The data were derived from the international CODATwins database. The total number of height and BMI measures from 0.5 to 79.5 years of age was 397,466. As expected, first-born twins had greater birth weight than second-born twins. With respect to height, first-born twins were slightly taller than second-born twins in childhood. After adjusting the results for birth weight, the birth order differences decreased and were no longer statistically significant. First-born twins had greater BMI than the second-born twins over childhood and adolescence. After adjusting the results for birth weight, birth order was still associated with BMI until 12 years of age. No interaction effect between birth order and zygosity was found. Only limited evidence was found that birth order influenced variances of height or BMI. The results were similar among boys and girls and also in MZ and DZ twins. Overall, the differences in height and BMI between first- and second-born twins were modest even in early childhood, while adjustment for birth weight reduced the birth order differences but did not remove them for BMI.
A trend toward greater body size in dizygotic (DZ) than in monozygotic (MZ) twins has been suggested by some but not all studies, and this difference may also vary by age. We analyzed zygosity differences in mean values and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) among male and female twins from infancy to old age. Data were derived from an international database of 54 twin cohorts participating in the COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins), and included 842,951 height and BMI measurements from twins aged 1 to 102 years. The results showed that DZ twins were consistently taller than MZ twins, with differences of up to 2.0 cm in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.9 cm in adulthood. Similarly, a greater mean BMI of up to 0.3 kg/m2 in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.2 kg/m2 in adulthood was observed in DZ twins, although the pattern was less consistent. DZ twins presented up to 1.7% greater height and 1.9% greater BMI than MZ twins; these percentage differences were largest in middle and late childhood and decreased with age in both sexes. The variance of height was similar in MZ and DZ twins at most ages. In contrast, the variance of BMI was significantly higher in DZ than in MZ twins, particularly in childhood. In conclusion, DZ twins were generally taller and had greater BMI than MZ twins, but the differences decreased with age in both sexes.
Non-compliance with food record submission can induce bias in nutritional epidemiological analysis and make it difficult to draw inference from study findings. We examined the impact of demographic, lifestyle and psychosocial factors on such non-compliance during the first 3 years of participation in a multidisciplinary prospective paediatric study.
The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study collects a 3 d food record quarterly during the first year of life and semi-annually thereafter. High compliance with food record completion was defined as the participating families submitting one or more days of food record at every scheduled clinic visit.
Three centres in the USA (Colorado, Georgia/Florida and Washington) and three in Europe (Finland, Germany and Sweden).
Families who finished the first 3 years of TEDDY participation (n 8096).
High compliance was associated with having a single child, older maternal age, higher maternal education and father responding to study questionnaires. Families showing poor compliance were more likely to be living far from the study centres, from ethnic minority groups, living in a crowded household and not attending clinic visits regularly. Postpartum depression, maternal smoking behaviour and mother working outside the home were also independently associated with poor compliance.
These findings identified specific groups for targeted strategies to encourage completion of food records, thereby reducing potential bias in multidisciplinary collaborative research.
For over 100 years, the genetics of human anthropometric traits has attracted scientific interest. In particular, height and body mass index (BMI, calculated as kg/m2) have been under intensive genetic research. However, it is still largely unknown whether and how heritability estimates vary between human populations. Opportunities to address this question have increased recently because of the establishment of many new twin cohorts and the increasing accumulation of data in established twin cohorts. We started a new research project to analyze systematically (1) the variation of heritability estimates of height, BMI and their trajectories over the life course between birth cohorts, ethnicities and countries, and (2) to study the effects of birth-related factors, education and smoking on these anthropometric traits and whether these effects vary between twin cohorts. We identified 67 twin projects, including both monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins, using various sources. We asked for individual level data on height and weight including repeated measurements, birth related traits, background variables, education and smoking. By the end of 2014, 48 projects participated. Together, we have 893,458 height and weight measures (52% females) from 434,723 twin individuals, including 201,192 complete twin pairs (40% monozygotic, 40% same-sex dizygotic and 20% opposite-sex dizygotic) representing 22 countries. This project demonstrates that large-scale international twin studies are feasible and can promote the use of existing data for novel research purposes.
The problem of a suspension droplet falling under gravity was examined for polydisperse droplets composed of a mixture of particles with different densities and sizes. The study was conducted using both simulations based on oseenlet particle interactions and laboratory experiments. The hydrodynamic interactions of the particles within the suspension droplet allow a polydisperse collection of particles to fall as a coherent droplet, even for cases where the difference in particle terminal velocity would cause them to separate quickly from each other in the absence of hydrodynamic interactions. However, a gradual segregation phenomenon is observed in which particles with lower terminal velocity preferentially leave the suspension droplet by entering into the droplet tail, whereas particles with higher terminal velocity remain for longer periods of time within the droplet. When computations and experiments are performed for bidisperse mixtures, a point is eventually reached where all of the lighter/smaller particles are ejected into the droplet tail and the droplet continues to fall with only the heavier/larger particles.
From the view of tissue engineering, the deficiency in porosity has impeded further application of bacterial cellulose (BC) as a super biomaterial. In this study, we used a combination method consisting of acetic acid treatment and freeze-drying operation to improve the porous profile of BC, as well as a simple and fast method to measure the thickness, density, and porosity of BC. Results have shown a significant improvement in the porosity of the inner structure of BC treated with acetic acid and freeze-drying. Microscopic observation by scanning electron microscopy exhibited explicit evidences that more orderly porous layer-by-layer structures and more pores were formed along the cross section of modified BC as compared with the control. The enhancement of mechanical properties and crystallinity of modified BC was also demonstrated due to the improvement of material porosity in the particular extent from 50.3 to 76.43%. Cell culture of human fibroblast cells exhibited good cell viability on modified BC, suggesting that a better porous profile of BC on the surface and cross section helps facilitate cells to attach, as well as potentially promotes cells to grow in. These significant results may open the possibility of producing BC nanomaterials for tissue engineering with desirable properties.
The present study compared executive dysfunction among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) after traumatic brain injury (TBI), also called secondary ADHD (S-ADHD), pre-injury ADHD and children with TBI only (i.e., no ADHD). Youth aged 6–16 years admitted for TBI to five trauma centers were enrolled (n=177) and evaluated with a semi-structured psychiatric interview scheduled on three occasions (within 2 weeks of TBI, i.e., baseline assessment for pre-injury status; 6-months and 12-months post-TBI). This permitted the determination of 6- and 12-month post-injury classifications of membership in three mutually exclusive groups (S-ADHD; pre-injury ADHD; TBI-only). Several executive control measures were administered. Unremitted S-ADHD was present in 17/141 (12%) children at the 6-month assessment, and in 14/125 (11%) children at 12-months post-injury. The study found that children with S-ADHD exhibited deficient working memory, attention, and psychomotor speed as compared to children with pre-injury ADHD. Furthermore, the children with S-ADHD and the children with TBI-only were impaired compared to the children with pre-injury ADHD with regard to planning. No group differences related to response inhibition emerged. Age, but not injury severity, gender, or adaptive functioning was related to executive function outcome. Neuropsychological sequelae distinguish among children who develop S-ADHD following TBI and those with TBI only. Moreover, there appears to be a different pattern of executive control performance in those who develop S-ADHD than in children with pre-injury ADHD suggesting that differences exist in the underlying neural mechanisms that define each disorder, underscoring the need to identify targeted treatment interventions. (JINS, 2014, 20, 971–981)
Solutions to the technical challenge of bonding and joining bulk metallic glasses have long been sought after due to the exceptional property sets displayed by this class of engineering materials. Here, we demonstrate the ability to deposit a compositionally and functionally graded hybrid coupling layer using sol–gel processing methods to promote adhesion at the metallic glass–epoxy interface. In this study, we fine-tune the molecular composition by varying the sol Zr:Si ratio, altering film properties that consequently influence crack path selection at the interface. When optimized, up to 3-fold improvements in the adhesive/cohesive properties of these structural bond lines can be attained, with the highest GC values correlating with cohesive cracking through the hybrid. We also demonstrate the ability of these hybrid structures to significantly reduce the influence of moisture-assisted degradation as evidenced by reductions in crack growth rates of over two orders of magnitude and increased threshold limits.
We report on our systematic study of light trapping effects using Ag/ZnO BRs for nc-Si:H solar cells. The texture of Ag and ZnO was optimized to achieve enhancement in photocurrent. The light trapping effect on photocurrent enhancement in solar cells was carefully investigated. Comparing to single-junction solar cells deposited on flat stainless steel substrates, the gain in Jsc by using Ag/ZnO BRs is 57% for nc-Si:H solar cells. This gain in Jsc is much higher than what has been achieved by advanced light trapping approaches using photonic structures or plasmonic light trapping reported in the literature. We achieved a Jsc of 29-30 mA/cm2 in a nc-Si:H single-junction solar cell with an intrinsic layer thickness of ∼2.5 μm. We compared the quantum efficiency of single-junction cells to the classical limit of fully randomized scattering and found that there is a 6-7 mA/cm2 difference between the measured Jsc and the classical limit, in which 3-4 mA/cm2 is in the long wavelength region. However, by taking into consideration the losses from reflection of the top contact, absorption in the doped layers, and imperfect reflection in the BRs, the difference disappears. This implies we have reached the practical limit if the scattering from randomly textured substrates is the only mechanism of light trapping. Therefore, we believe future research for improving photocurrent should be directed toward reducing (i) reflection loss by the top contact, the absorption in ZnO and at the Ag/ZnO interface, and (ii) p layer absorption.
We report the results of using n-type hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon oxide alloy (nc-SiOx:H) in hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si:H) and amorphous silicon germanium alloy (a-SiGe:H) single-junction solar cells. We used VHF glow discharge to deposit nc-SiOx:H layers on various substrates for material characterizations. We also used VHF glow discharge to deposit the intrinsic layer in nc-Si:H solar cells. RF glow discharge was used for the deposition of the doped layers and the intrinsic layer in a-SiGe:H solar cells. Various substrates such as stainless steel (SS), Ag coated SS, and ZnO/Ag coated SS were used for different cell structures. We found that by using nc-SiOx:H to replace the ZnO and the a-Si:H n-layer in nc-Si:H solar cells, the cell structure is greatly simplified, while the cell performances remain nearly identical to those made using the conventional n-i-p structure on standard ZnO/Ag BR’s. Solar cells with nc-SiOx:H as the n layer directly deposited on textured Ag show similar quantum efficiency (QE) as the n-i-p cells on ZnO/Ag BRs. In both cases, QE is higher than that in the n-i-p cells made directly on Ag coated SS. This effect is probably caused by the shift of surface plasmon-polariton resonance frequency due to the difference in index of refraction of ZnO, nc-SiOx:H, and Si.