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Hurricanes can interrupt communication, exacerbate attrition, and disrupt participant engagement in research. We used text messaging and disaster preparedness protocols to re-establish communication, re-engage participants, and ensure retention in a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) self-test study.
Participants were given HIV home test kits to test themselves and/or their non-monogamous sexual partners before intercourse. A daily text message-based short message service computer-assisted self-interview (SMS-CASI) tool reminded them to report 3 variables: (1) anal sex without a condom, (2) knowledge of partners’ testing history, and (3) proof of partners’ testing history. A disaster preparedness protocol was put in place for hurricanes in Puerto Rico. We analyzed 6315 messages from participants (N = 12) active at the time of Hurricanes Irma and Maria. Disaster preparedness narratives were assessed.
All participants were able to communicate sexual behavior and HIV testing via SMS-CASI within 30 days following María. Some participants (n = 5, 42%) also communicated questions. Re-engagement within 30 days after the hurricane was 100% (second week/89%, third week/100%). Participant re-engagement ranged from 0–16 days (average = 6.4 days). Retention was 100%.
Daily SMS-CASI and disaster preparedness protocols helped participant engagement and communication after 2 hurricanes. SMS-CASI responses indicated high participant re-engagement, retention, and well-being.
Disturbed sleep and activity are prominent features of bipolar disorder type I (BP-I). However, the relationship of sleep and activity characteristics to brain structure and behavior in euthymic BP-I patients and their non-BP-I relatives is unknown. Additionally, underlying genetic relationships between these traits have not been investigated.
Relationships between sleep and activity phenotypes, assessed using actigraphy, with structural neuroimaging (brain) and cognitive and temperament (behavior) phenotypes were investigated in 558 euthymic individuals from multi-generational pedigrees including at least one member with BP-I. Genetic correlations between actigraphy-brain and actigraphy-behavior associations were assessed, and bivariate linkage analysis was conducted for trait pairs with evidence of shared genetic influences.
More physical activity and longer awake time were significantly associated with increased brain volumes and cortical thickness, better performance on neurocognitive measures of long-term memory and executive function, and less extreme scores on measures of temperament (impulsivity, cyclothymia). These associations did not differ between BP-I patients and their non-BP-I relatives. For nine activity-brain or activity-behavior pairs there was evidence for shared genetic influence (genetic correlations); of these pairs, a suggestive bivariate quantitative trait locus on chromosome 7 for wake duration and verbal working memory was identified.
Our findings indicate that increased physical activity and more adequate sleep are associated with increased brain size, better cognitive function and more stable temperament in BP-I patients and their non-BP-I relatives. Additionally, we found evidence for pleiotropy of several actigraphy-behavior and actigraphy-brain phenotypes, suggesting a shared genetic basis for these traits.
Describe and validate the CHROME (CHemical Restraints avOidance MEthodology) criteria.
Observational prospective longitudinal study.
Single nursing home in Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain.
288 residents; mean age: 81.6 (SD 10.6). 77.4% had dementia.
Multicomponent training and consultancy program to eliminate physical and chemical restraints and promote overall quality care. Clinicians were trained in stringent diagnostic criteria of neuropsychiatric syndromes and adequate psychotropic prescription.
Psychotropic prescription (primary study target), neuropsychiatric syndromes, physical restraints, falls, and emergency room visits were semi-annually collected from December 2015 to December 2017. Results are presented for all residents and for those who had dementia and participated in the five study waves (completer analysis, n=107).
For the study completers, atypical neuroleptic prescription dropped from 42.7% to 18.7%, long half-life benzodiazepines dropped from 25.2% to 6.5%, and hypnotic medications from 47.7% to 12.1% (p<0.0005). Any kind of fall evolved from 67.3 to 32.7 (number of falls by 100 residents per year). Physicians’ diagnostic confidence increased, while the frequency of diagnoses of neuropsychiatric syndromes decreased (p<0.0005).
Implementing the CHROME criteria reduced the prescription of the most dangerous medications in institutionalized people with dementia. Two independent audits found no physical or chemical restraint and confirmed prescription quality of psychotropic drugs. Adequate diagnosis and independent audits appear to be the keys to help and motivate professionals to optimize and reduce the use of psychotropic medication. The CHROME criteria unify, in a single compendium, neuropsychiatric diagnostic criteria, prescription guidelines, independent audit methodology, and minimum legal standards. These criteria can be easily adapted to other countries.
First-degree relatives of patients with psychotic disorder have higher levels of polygenic risk (PRS) for schizophrenia and higher levels of intermediate phenotypes.
We conducted, using two different samples for discovery (n = 336 controls and 649 siblings of patients with psychotic disorder) and replication (n = 1208 controls and 1106 siblings), an analysis of association between PRS on the one hand and psychopathological and cognitive intermediate phenotypes of schizophrenia on the other in a sample at average genetic risk (healthy controls) and a sample at higher than average risk (healthy siblings of patients). Two subthreshold psychosis phenotypes, as well as a standardised measure of cognitive ability, based on a short version of the WAIS-III short form, were used. In addition, a measure of jumping to conclusion bias (replication sample only) was tested for association with PRS.
In both discovery and replication sample, evidence for an association between PRS and subthreshold psychosis phenotypes was observed in the relatives of patients, whereas in the controls no association was observed. Jumping to conclusion bias was similarly only associated with PRS in the sibling group. Cognitive ability was weakly negatively and non-significantly associated with PRS in both the sibling and the control group.
The degree of endophenotypic expression of schizophrenia polygenic risk depends on having a sibling with psychotic disorder, suggestive of underlying gene–environment interaction. Cognitive biases may better index genetic risk of disorder than traditional measures of neurocognition, which instead may reflect the population distribution of cognitive ability impacting the prognosis of psychotic disorder.
To explore whether the improvement in self-awareness induced by a structured intervention programme in patients suffering a brain injury is associated with an enhancement in their functional outcomes.
This study uses a pre- and post-test control group design with a sample of 56 patients with acquired brain injury randomly assigned to an experimental and a control group. Pre- and post-intervention measurements were self-awareness (using a previously developed scale) and functional outcome (using the Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale).
Patients who received the intervention programme showed a greater improvement in their self-awareness level and functional outcome than patients in the control group. Additionally, the correlation analyses between improvements at both measures showed a relation between improvement in self-awareness and improvement in functional outcome, especially when the pre-treatment self-awareness level was considered.
Implementing an intervention programme in self-awareness, in the context of a global rehabilitation process of patients with acquired brain injury, is useful for improving their self-awareness level and the functionality in their daily activities.
To develop a new predictive equation for fat mass percentage (%FM) based on anthropometric measurements and to assess its ability to discriminate between obese and non-obese individuals.
Adults (n 275; 181 women) aged 20–63 years with BMI between 17·4 and 42·4 kg/m2.
Thirty-seven per cent of our sample was obese using %FM measured by air-displacement plethysmography (BOD POD®; Life Measurement Instruments). The fat mass was computed from the difference between weight and fat-free mass (FFM). FFM was estimated using an equation obtained previously in the study from weight, height and sex of the individuals. The %FM estimated from the obtained FFM showed a sensitivity of 90·3 (95 % CI 86·8, 93·8) % and a specificity of 58·0 (95 % CI 52·1, 63·8) % in the diagnosis of obesity. Ninety-three per cent of participants with obesity and 65 % of participants without obesity were correctly classified.
The anthropometry-based equation obtained in the present study could be used as a screening tool in clinical and epidemiological studies not only to estimate the %FM, but also to discriminate the obese condition in populations with similar characteristics to the participant sample.
Organic farming is believed by many to be an environmentally friendly production system that promotes the use of local forage while strongly limiting the input of chemicals, including allopathic treatments. As organic dairy farming has grown, farmers have realised that many available conventional breeds of cow are not well adapted to the new situations and that more ‘robust’ cows, able to function well in the constraining organic environment, are needed to yield acceptable longevity and productivity. In this review paper, the current breed diversity in organic dairy farming is analysed with the aim of identifying the types of cow that would best fulfil organic breeding goals. Unlike the conventional sector, organic dairy farming is very heterogeneous and no single type of cow can adapt well to all scenarios. There are advantages and disadvantages to the use of existing breeds (rustic Holstein-Friesian, other rustic breeds and crosses), and strong genotype × environment interactions demand different strategies for very diverse situations. Organic dairy farms producing milk for systems that recompense milk volume would benefit from using higher milk yielding cows, and rustic Holstein-Friesian cows may be the best option in such cases. Although most Holstein-Friesian cows are currently selected for use in conventional systems, this situation could be reversed by the implementation of an organic merit index that includes organic breeding goals. Farms producing milk either for systems that recompense milk solids or for transformation into dairy products would benefit from using breeds other than Holstein-Friesian or their crosses. Organic farmers who focus on rural tourism, farm schools or other businesses in which marketing strategies must be taken into account could benefit from using local breeds (when possible) or other rustic breeds that are highly valued by consumers.
The apparatus of Vogelgnathus simplicatus (Rhodes, Austin, and Druce, 1969) is reconstructed from discrete elements from a sample of limited diversity from the Limerick Province (Ireland). The apparatus is typical of the order Ozarkodinida and the P1 element was previously placed within Gnathodus. Here we assign it to Vogelgnathus by applying a multielemental concept rather than using P1 element morphology. The holotype and paratypes are re-illustrated and the species distribution revised based on published data. Vogelgnathus simplicatus ranges from the late Tournaisian to the early Viséan (Mississippian, Carboniferous), with common occurrences relating to the growth of Waulsortian bank complexes in a high-stand sea-level along the southern and western margins of the Laurussian landmass (Belgium, the British Isles, the Republic of Ireland, and USA). Vogelgnathus simplicatus appears to represent the rootstock from which deep-water and shallow-water Viséan species of Vogelgnathus evolved in the Mississippian.
It is not clear whether relaxation therapies are more or less effective than cognitive and behavioural therapies in the treatment of anxiety. The aims of the present study were to examine the effects of relaxation techniques compared to cognitive and behavioural therapies in reducing anxiety symptoms, and whether they have comparable efficacy across disorders.
We conducted a meta-analysis of 50 studies (2801 patients) comparing relaxation training with cognitive and behavioural treatments of anxiety.
The overall effect size (ES) across all anxiety outcomes, with only one combined ES in each study, was g = −0.27 [95% confidence interval (CI) = −0.41 to −0.13], favouring cognitive and behavioural therapies (number needed to treat = 6.61). However, no significant difference between relaxation and cognitive and behavioural therapies was found for generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder and specific phobias (considering social anxiety and specific phobias separately). Heterogeneity was moderate (I2 = 52; 95% CI = 33–65). The ES was significantly associated with age (p < 0.001), hours of cognitive and/or behavioural therapy (p = 0.015), quality of intervention (p = 0.007), relaxation treatment format (p < 0.001) and type of disorder (p = 0.008), explaining an 82% of variance.
Relaxation seems to be less effective than cognitive and behavioural therapies in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder, and obsessive–compulsive disorder and it might also be less effective at 1-year follow-up for panic, but there is no evidence that it is less effective for other anxiety disorders.
Here we describe a new terrestrial mammal from the Eocene of Seymour Island (Isla Marambio) represented by a lower left third molar and assigned to a new species of Sparnotheriodontidae, an ungulate family with a broad palaeobiogeographical distribution in South America. The specimen was found in the Cucullaea I allomember of the La Meseta Formation, in a new mammalian locality (IAA 2/16). Notiolofos regueroi sp. nov. shares a brachyodont, lophoselenodont and bicrescentic molar pattern with N. arquinotiensis, recorded for a stratigraphic sequence of 17.5 Ma in Antarctica. The criteria for the species differentiation are the absence of mesial and labial cingulids, the larger paraconid, the wider talonid basin, the accentuated distal projection of the hypoconulid, the centroconid development and the smaller size. Together with the astrapotherian Antarctodon sobrali, they represent the medium to large terrestrial mammals of the early Eocene Antarctic landscape that was mostly dominated by closed forests of Nothofagus. Dental wear facets and differences in their body mass are inferred and discussed as possible evidence of niche differentiation. Additionally, the presence of land mammals with Patagonian affinities in the Eocene of Antarctica reinforces the Cretaceous–Palaeocene presence of the Weddellian Isthmus, a functional land corridor between Antarctica and South America.
The accurate description of the growth or dissolution dynamics of a soluble gas bubble in a super- or undersaturated solution requires taking into account a number of physical effects that contribute to the instantaneous mass transfer rate. One of these effects is the so-called history effect. It refers to the contribution of the local concentration boundary layer around the bubble that has developed from past mass transfer events between the bubble and liquid surroundings. In Part 1 of this work (Peñas-López et al., J. Fluid Mech., vol. 800, 2016b, pp. 180–212), a theoretical treatment of this effect was given for a spherical, isolated bubble. Here, Part 2 provides an experimental and numerical study of the history effect regarding a spherical bubble attached to a horizontal flat plate and in the presence of gravity. The simulation technique developed in this paper is based on a streamfunction–vorticity formulation that may be applied to other flows where bubbles or drops exchange mass in the presence of a gravity field. Using this numerical tool, simulations are performed for the same conditions used in the experiments, in which the bubble is exposed to subsequent growth and dissolution stages, using stepwise variations in the ambient pressure. Besides proving the relevance of the history effect, the simulations highlight the importance that boundary-induced advection has to accurately describe bubble growth and shrinkage, i.e. the bubble radius evolution. In addition, natural convection has a significant influence that shows up in the velocity field even at short times, although given the supersaturation conditions studied here, the bubble evolution is expected to be mainly diffusive.
Despite how important it is to assess executive functioning in persons with Intellectual Disability (ID), instruments adapted and validated for this population are scarce. This study’s primary goal was to find evidence for the validity of the ID version of the Tower of London (TOLDXtm) test in persons with mild (IDMi) and moderate (IDMo) levels of ID with Down Syndrome (DS). A multicenter study was carried out. Subjects (n = 63, ≥ 39 years old) had DS with mild (n = 39) or moderate ID (n = 24) with no minor neurocognitive disorder or Alzheimer’s disease. Assessment protocol: TOLDXtm for ID, Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test Second Edition (K-BIT II), Cambridge Examination for Mental Disorders of Older People with Down’s Syndrome and Others with Intellectual Disabilities (CAMDEX-DS), Weigl’s Color-Form Sorting Test (WCFST), Barcelona Test for Intellectual Disability (BT-ID), and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF-P). The internal consistency (IDMi and IDMo), factor structure of the different subscales, and relationship between TOLDXtm subscales and other cognitive measures (BT-ID, WCFST, and BRIEF-P) were analyzed. A normative data table with ID population quartiles is provided. TOLDXtm for ID showed a robust one factor structure and coherentassociations with other, related neuropsychological instruments. Significant differences between IDMi and IDMo on movement-related variables like Correct (Corr; p = .002) and Moves (Mov; p = .042) were observed, along with good internal consistency values, Corr (α = .75), Mov (α = .52). Regarding internal consistency, no between-groups differences were observed (all p-value > 0.05). The TOLDXtm for ID is thus an instrument, supported by good validity evidence, to evaluate problem-solving and planning in ID. It distinguishes between individuals with mild and moderate ID, and is highly associated with other measures of executive functioning.
Psychosis has been associated with committing violent crimes. However, it has been reported that the association is mediated by toxin consumption, personality disorders, and positive symptoms. This study will examine the relationship between different psychological disorders and sociodemographic variables, and violent crime perpetration in a sample of 472 men serving prison terms in Andalusia, Spain. A correlation-based, retrospective study was conducted and data were analyzed through logistic regression. The sample is representative of the Andalusian prison population, with a 95% level of confidence and .02% precision. Inmates were sampled and diagnosed by expert clinicians using the SCID-I and the IPDE-II. We computed bivariate correlations between the aforementioned variables and perpetration of violent crimes (murder, homicide, attempted murder, and injury) to later apply logistic regression and find adjusted odds ratios. We confirmed the association between diagnosis of functional psychoses and violent crime, with a significant adjusted odds ratio in the last model (OR = 3.71; p = .010). Other significant variables that acted like risk factors include suicide attempts (OR = 2.04; p = .046), having received care at a mental health facility in the year before imprisonment (OR = 3.83; p = .008), and more strongly than the psychosis diagnosis, low level of education (OR = 10.32; p = .029). Toxin consumption and personality disorders were not significant in the final model.
Habitat selection of endangered species in peripheral populations must be considered when designing effective conservation plans, as these populations tend to occupy atypical habitats where species-environment relationships are not well understood. We examined patterns of habitat use in peripheral populations of the endangered Dupont’s Lark Chersophilus duplonti using a multi-scale approach and assessed the spatiotemporal transferability of these models to test for their generality. Our results show that at microhabitat (circles of 50-m diameter used by the species versus random points) and macrohabitat (occupied/unoccupied squares of 1 ha) scales the species selected flat and non-forested areas, but at the microhabitat scale the cover of small shrubs was also important. Models developed at patch scale (occupied /unoccupied sites) identified only site size as an important predictor of species occurrence. Habitat models transferred successfully among sites and years, which suggests that these models and our recommendations may be extrapolated over a larger geographic area. A multi-scale approach was used for identifying conservation requirements at different spatial scales. At the patch scale our models confirm it is a priority to maintain or enlarge the extent of habitat patches to ensure the viability of the studied metapopulation. At the macrohabitat scale our results suggest that reducing tree density in low slope areas would be the most effective management action. At the microhabitat scale, encouraging the presence of small and medium-sized shrubs, by clearing certain scrubs (e.g. large brooms Genista spp. and rosemary Rosmarinus officinalis) or promoting traditional low-level extensive grazing, should increase the availability of high-quality habitats for the species, and thus the number of potential territories within a patch. These recommendations largely coincide with the ones given for core populations at specific scales elsewhere.
The term ‘history effect’ refers to the contribution of any past mass transfer events between a gas bubble and its liquid surroundings towards the current diffusion-driven growth or dissolution dynamics of that same bubble. The history effect arises from the (non-instantaneous) development of the dissolved gas concentration boundary layer in the liquid in response to changes in the concentration at the bubble interface caused, for instance, by variations of the ambient pressure in time. Essentially, the history effect amounts to the acknowledgement that at any given time the mass flux across the bubble is conditioned by the preceding time history of the concentration at the bubble boundary. Considering the canonical problem of an isolated spherical bubble at rest, we show that the contribution of the history effect in the current interfacial concentration gradient is fully contained within a memory integral of the interface concentration. Retaining this integral term, we formulate a governing differential equation for the bubble dynamics, analogous to the well-known Epstein–Plesset solution. Our equation does not make use of the quasi-static radius approximation. An analytical solution is presented for the case of multiple step-like jumps in pressure. The nature and relevance of the history effect is then assessed through illustrative examples. Finally, we investigate the role of the history effect in rectified diffusion for a bubble that pulsates under harmonic pressure forcing in the non-inertial, isothermal regime.
Legume consumption plays a pivotal role in the prevention and treatment of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). This systematic review aimed to highlight the beneficial effects of legume interventions for the prevention and/or improvement of parameters related to the MetS and the implicated metabolic pathways so far reported. The methodology involved a search in four electronic databases (Medline, Web of Science, Scopus, Cochrane Library) from January 2007 to December 2014, considering as descriptors ‘Metabolic Syndrome’ and ‘Fabaceae’ and adequately adjusting the equation in each one of them. In total, forty-one studies were finally included. The majority of the studies described a regulating effect on glucose and lipid metabolism due to legume administration, whereas effects on blood pressure and renal parameters are not fully described. Regarding the metabolic pathways involved, they include the up-regulation of genes related to β-oxidation and acetyl-CoA degradation and the down-regulation of glycolytic and lipogenesis genes, as well as those associated with the acetyl-CoA synthesis. The ameliorating effects of legume consumption on the alterations associated with the MetS are clearly reported and coincide with changes in the expression of protein and genes involved in lipid and glucose metabolism. More research needs to be conducted including more legume species that are highly consumed as part of a healthy dietary pattern.
We have developed a new technique using a novel approach to analyze unresolved stellar populations of spatially-resolved galaxies based on large sky multi-filter surveys. We have successfully applied this technique to 42 early-type galaxies in the ALHAMBRA survey. In agreement with some previous work, we find the gradients of early-type galaxies to be on average slightly positive in age and negative in metallicity at large radii (R > Reff). These mildly negative metallicity gradients support a merging scenario. The positive/flat age gradients could support a more uniformly distributed star formation or even secondary burst triggered by mergers.
The aim of this study was to identify the differences between the main macro and micronutrients including proteins, fat, minerals and vitamins in cow and goat dehydrated fermented milks. Fermented goat milk had higher protein and lower ash content. All amino acids (except for Ala), were higher in fermented goat milk than in fermented cow milk. Except for the values of C11:0, C13:0, C16:0, C18:0, C20:5, C22:5 and the total quantity of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, all the other fatty acid studied were significantly different in both fermented milks. Ca, Mg, Zn, Fe, Cu and Se were higher in fermented goat milk. Fermented goat milk had lower amounts of folic acid, vitamin E and C, and higher values of vitamin A, D3, B6 and B12. The current study demonstrates the better nutritional characteristics of fermented goat milk, suggesting a potential role of this dairy product as a high nutritional value food.
The combat fields of modern wars, including the struggle against global terrorism, are localized in diverse, harsh regions: tropical, desert, artic, marine, with varied weather conditions, which adversely affect the corrosion performance of the equipment and facilities involved.
For the sake of brevity, three groups of military mobile and fixed equipment and structures are dealt with: armored ground wheeled vehicles; naval aluminum vessels, and buildings and facilities for providing dwellings, weapons storage and services to the armed forces. They are usually made from carbon steel, aluminum alloys and reinforced concrete, because of their useful properties: high strength, easy availability and low cost. However, due to their limited corrosion resistance they should be protected by coatings (including military coatings), but primarily paint; cathodic protection and corrosion inhibitors.
All these systems suffer from several types of localized corrosion and degradation: galvanic, pitting, intergranular, dealloying, cavitation, erosion, stress cracking, UV effects in plastics and organic coatings. The military assets require the implementation of corrosion control methods and techniques through all their stages: design, construction, installation and operation. Typical cases of corrosion will be presented based on the authors experience and knowledge.
Commercial aluminum alloys corresponding to Al-Cu-Si family are commonly used in casting and molding process because their high castability. The main characteristics of these alloys are the excellent weight/strength relation in conjunction with wear and corrosion resistance. Additionally, the mechanical properties of these alloys could be enhanced by heat treatment.
In Al A319 alloys, Cu and Mg are the main responsible to increase the mechanical properties after T6 heat treatment due to the precipitation of Al2Cu and Mg2Si and Al2CuMg phase . Combined effects of Ni and Cu improve strength and hardness at relatively elevated temperature , Due to the low solubility of Ni in Al (0.04%), it has been reported the formation of FeAl9FeNi-type intermetallic, which is not totally dissolved with the typical solution treatments used in aluminum alloys . Hayajneh et al., found that increasing amounts of intermetallic compounds Al3Ni, Al3(CuNi)2 and Al7Cu4Ni in Al-Cu alloy, the hardness increase .
The effect of Ni addition and solution treatment time on the microstructure and hardness of the Al A319 alloy are studied by Vickers microhardness (VHN), Rockwell B hardness (HRB), X Ray Diffraction (XRD), Optical Microscopy (OM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM).