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Exotic annual grasses such as medusahead [Taeniatherum caput-medusae (L.) Nevski] and downy brome (Bromus tectorum L.) dominate millions of hectares of grasslands in the western United States. Applying picloram, aminopyralid, and other growth regulator herbicides at late growth stages reduces seed production of most exotic annual grasses. In this study, we applied aminopyralid to T. caput-medusae to determine how reducing seed production in the current growing season influenced cover in the subsequent growing season. At eight annual grassland sites, we applied aminopyralid at 55, 123, and 245 g ae ha−1 in spring just before T. caput-medusae heading. The two higher rates were also applied pre-emergence (PRE) in fall to allow comparisons with this previously tested timing. When applied in spring during the roughly 10-d period between the flag leaf and inflorescence first becoming visible, just 55 g ae ha−1 of aminopyralid greatly limited seed production and subsequently reduced T. caput-medusae cover to nearly zero. Fall aminopyralid applications were less effective against T. caput-medusae, even at a rate of 245 g ae ha−1. The growing season of application, fall treatments, but not spring treatments, sometimes reduced cover of desirable winter annual forage grasses. The growing season after application, both spring and fall treatments tended to increase forage grasses, though spring treatments generally caused larger increases. Compared with other herbicide treatment options, preheading aminopyralid treatments are a relatively inexpensive, effective approach for controlling T. caput-medusae and increasing forage production.
The History, Electrocardiogram (ECG), Age, Risk Factors, and Troponin (HEART) score is a decision aid designed to risk stratify emergency department (ED) patients with acute chest pain. It has been validated for ED use, but it has yet to be evaluated in a prehospital setting.
A prehospital modified HEART score can predict major adverse cardiac events (MACE) among undifferentiated chest pain patients transported to the ED.
A retrospective cohort study of patients with chest pain transported by two county-based Emergency Medical Service (EMS) agencies to a tertiary care center was conducted. Adults without ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) were included. Inter-facility transfers and those without a prehospital 12-lead ECG or an ED troponin measurement were excluded. Modified HEART scores were calculated by study investigators using a standardized data collection tool for each patient. All MACE (death, myocardial infarction [MI], or coronary revascularization) were determined by record review at 30 days. The sensitivity and negative predictive values (NPVs) for MACE at 30 days were calculated.
Over the study period, 794 patients met inclusion criteria. A MACE at 30 days was present in 10.7% (85/794) of patients with 12 deaths (1.5%), 66 MIs (8.3%), and 12 coronary revascularizations without MI (1.5%). The modified HEART score identified 33.2% (264/794) of patients as low risk. Among low-risk patients, 1.9% (5/264) had MACE (two MIs and three revascularizations without MI). The sensitivity and NPV for 30-day MACE was 94.1% (95% CI, 86.8-98.1) and 98.1% (95% CI, 95.6-99.4), respectively.
Prehospital modified HEART scores have a high NPV for MACE at 30 days. A study in which prehospital providers prospectively apply this decision aid is warranted.
This paper presents our experience of managing children with a tracheostomy in a multidisciplinary team clinic consisting of an ENT consultant, paediatric respiratory consultant, a nurse specialist, and speech and language therapist.
A retrospective case note review was conducted of all children seen in the multidisciplinary team tracheostomy clinic (at a tertiary paediatric hospital) between February 2009 and September 2014.
Ninety-seven patients were examined. The most common indications for tracheostomy were: lower airway and respiratory problems (66 per cent), upper airway obstruction (64 per cent), and neurodevelopmental problems (60.8 per cent).
Children with a tracheostomy are a diverse group of patients. The most common indications for paediatric tracheostomy have changed from infective causes to airway obstruction and anomalies, long-term ventilation requirement, and underlying neuromuscular or respiratory problems. Our unified approach empowers the carers and patient, as a home management plan, long-term plan and goals are generated at the end of each appointment.
Organic agricultural systems increase the complexity of weed management, leading organic farmers to cite weeds as one of the greatest barriers to organic production. Integrated Weed Management (IWM) systems have been developed to address the ecological implications of weeds and weed management in cropping systems, but adoption is minimal. Organic agriculture offers a favorable context for application of IWM, as both approaches are motivated by concern for environmental quality and agricultural sustainability. However, adoption of IWM on organic farms is poorly understood due to limited data on weed management practices used, absence of an IWM adoption metric, and insufficient consideration given to the unique farming contexts within which weed management decisions are made. Therefore, this study aimed to (1) characterize organic weed management systems; (2) identify motivations for, and barriers to, selection of weed management practices; and (3) generate guiding principles for effective targeting of weed management outreach. We surveyed Midwestern organic growers to determine how specified psychosocial, demographic, and farm structure factors influence selection of weed management practices. Cluster analysis of the data detected three disparate, yet scaled, approaches to organic weed management. Clusters were distinguished by perspective regarding weeds and the number of weed management practices used. Categorization of individual farms within the identified approaches was influenced by primary farm products as well as farmer education, years farming, and information-seeking behavior. The proposed conceptual model allows weed management educators to target outreach for enhanced compatibility of farming contexts and weed management technologies.
Here we present the first results from the Siding Spring Southern Seyfert Spectroscopic Snapshot Survey (S7) which aims to investigate the physics of ∼140 radio-detected southern active Galaxies with z<0.02 through Integral Field Spectroscopy using the Wide Field Spectrograph (WiFeS). This instrument provides data cubes of the central 38×25 arc sec. of the target galaxies in the waveband 340–710nm with the unusually high resolution of R=7000 in the red (530–710nm), and R=3000 in the blue (340–560nm). These data provide the morphology, kinematics and the excitation structure of the extended narrow-line region, probe relationships with the black hole characteristics and the host galaxy, measures host galaxy abundance gradients and the determination of nuclear abundances from the HII regions. From photoionisation modelling, we may determine the shape of the ionising spectrum of the AGN, discover whether AGN metallicities differ from nuclear abundances determined from HII regions, and probe grain destruction in the vicinity of the AGN. Here we present some preliminary results and modelling of both Seyfert galaxies observed as part of the survey.
In this paper, we demonstrate deposition methods and conditions that allow the control of the electrical properties of doped ZnTe grown by RF magnetron sputtering using both nitrogen and copper as dopants. The carrier density of the films was characterized using a van der Pauw Hall effect measurement method. We demonstrate how the concentration of nitrogen in the plasma during the growth of the film impacts the conductivity of the ZnTe films. Films with hole concentrations in excess of 1018 cm-3 and a high degree of crystallinity were successfully grown. Similarly, we demonstrate that the hole concentration in the Cu-doped ZnTe can be varied by varying the amount of copper introduced in the films. We also observe that annealing the copper doped ZnTe films increases the carrier density, whereas annealing the nitrogen doped ZnTe films causes a decrease in carrier concentration and conductivity.
There are many biological macro-molecules such as nucleic acids, lipids, carbohydrates and proteins. While each of them plays a vital (and interesting) part in life but there is something special about the proteins. Proteins are the key link between the processes of information and replication that take place on a genetic level and the infrastructure of living features. Understanding the properties of proteins is the key to understanding the spark of the life. In this paper we describe our study of various electrical properties of protein when performing measurements at the nanoscale. To achieve this goal we designed and fabricated a nanoelectronic probe. This nano structure consists of four thin film layers. There are two conductive layers and an insulative layer in between. There is also a protective oxide layer as the top most layer. This layer is to prevent the exposure of conductive electrodes to the solution. Underneath the bottom electrode, there is another oxide layer, which can be a thermally grown oxide. This layer insulates the first electrode from the substrate. In this study, while we use non-specific detection of streptavidin protein as a proof of concept, we emphasize that the findings of this study can be extended to specific detection of target proteins, where in this case a specific probe molecule would also be immobilized on the sensor surface.
To detect an outbreak-related source of Legionella, control the outbreak, and prevent additional Legionella infections from occurring.
Design and Setting.
Epidemiologic investigation of an acute outbreak of hospital-associated Legionnaires disease among outpatients and visitors to a Wisconsin hospital.
Patients with laboratory-confirmed Legionnaires disease who resided in southeastern Wisconsin and had illness onsets during February and March 2010.
Patients with Legionnaires disease were interviewed using a hypothesis-generating questionnaire. On-site investigation included sampling of water and other potential environmental sources for Legionella testing. Case-finding measures included extensive notification of individuals potentially exposed at the hospital and alerts to area healthcare and laboratory personnel.
Laboratory-confirmed Legionnaires disease was diagnosed in 8 patients, all of whom were present at the same hospital during the 10 days prior to their illness onsets. Six patients had known exposure to a water wall-type decorative fountain near the main hospital entrance. Although the decorative fountain underwent routine cleaning and maintenance, high counts of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 were isolated from cultures of a foam material found above the fountain trough.
This outbreak of Legionnaires disease was associated with exposure to a decorative fountain located in a hospital public area. Routine cleaning and maintenance of fountains does not eliminate the risk of bacterial contamination. Our findings highlight the need to evaluate the safety of water fountains installed in any area of a healthcare facility.
Here we present the development of an array of electrical nano-biosensors in a microfluidic channel, called Nanoneedle biosensors. Then we present the proof of concept study for protein detection. A Nanoneedle biosensor is a real-time, label-free, direct electrical detection platform, which is capable of high sensitivity detection, measuring the change in ionic current and impedance modulation, due to the presence or reaction of biomolecules such as proteins or nucleic acids. We show that the sensors which have been fabricated and characterized for the protein detection. We have functionalized Nanoneedle biosensors with receptors specific to a target protein using physical adsorption for immobilization. We have used biotinylated bovine serum albumin as the receptor and sterptavidin as the target analyte. The detection of streptavidin binding to the receptor protein is also presented.