Uncontrolled kochia plants that regrow after small-grain harvest can produce substantial numbers of seeds. An average of 4,100 seeds per plant were produced between harvest (late July to mid August) and the first killing frost (late September) at three locations in Montana. Field experiments were conducted to determine the optimal timing of postharvest herbicide applications to prevent kochia from producing viable seeds. Herbicide treatments were applied at three timings from late August to mid September. The most effective treatments were glyphosate (631 g/ha) and paraquat (701 g/ha) applied at the second application timing (late August to early September). These treatments reduced kochia seed production by 92% or greater at each site. Kochia regrowth by this time had sufficient leaf area for herbicide absorption, but few viable seed had been produced. Herbicide treatments at the first and third application timings were generally less effective and more variable in reducing kochia seed production. Sulfentrazone (157 g/ha) and 2,4-D (561 g/ha) were not as effective at reducing seed production as other herbicide treatments.
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